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1.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162651

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced the suspension of in-person education in schools serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) across the United States. As time passed, teachers, students, and parents struggled with remote education. With limited guidance at the federal level, physicians and school leaders across the country collaborated to develop local solutions for schools. This article describes the lessons learned from the development of 4 academic-community partnerships and collaboration among these partnerships to provide national leadership on managing COVID-19 mitigation in the K-12 environment. In addition, we describe a pathway forward for using academic-community partnerships to improve child health.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Schools , Humans
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143133

ABSTRACT

Depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) among adolescents have become a public health concern. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and measure an IMB-based health education intervention module for reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A single-blinded cluster randomised control trial (RCT) was conducted among students with abnormal DASS-21 scores. They were divided into an intervention group (three schools, 62 participants) and a control group (three schools, 57 participants). Participants in the intervention group received IMB-based health education, while participants in the control group underwent the standard care session. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, the Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis was conducted. A total of 119 students participated in this study, and no loss to follow-up was reported. Both intervention and control groups showed significantly reduced DAS scores (p < 0.005). However, the reduction of these scores was greater in the intervention group. The GLMM analysis revealed that the intervention was effective in reducing depression (ß = -2.400, t = -3.102, SE = 0.7735, p = 0.002, 95% CI = -3.921, -0.878), anxiety (ß = -2.129, t = -2.824, SE = 0.7541, p = 0.005, 95% CI = -3.612, -0.646), and stress (ß = -1.335, t = -2.457, SE = 0.536, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -2.045, -0.266) among adolescents. The IMB-based health education module was effective in reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools.


Subject(s)
Depression , Motivation , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Schools , Health Education , Anxiety/prevention & control
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20211361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140909

ABSTRACT

Since the first reported case of COVID-19 in Brazil, the public and private educational system started to close. Up to November 2020, scientific discussions about the return of schooling activities have been rarely performed by the national scientific community and police-makers. The great delay of school returning in Brazil contrasts with successful international strategies of school reopening worldwide and seems counterintuitive with the reopening of non-essential activities. Here, important issues to be considered before and during school reopening are reviewed and discussed. COVID-19 testing is essential to avoid disease spreading, but high cost of individual RT-qPCRs impairs an extensive testing strategy for school returning. To reduce costs and increase the speed of diagnosis, we tested the efficiency of a pooled-sample PCR strategy in a cohort of the educational staff in the city of Macaé/RJ, finding five asymptomatic individuals (0,66%) among the 754 people tested. Thus, a polled-sample PCR testing strategy of the educational staff might prevent infection spreading in schools at a reasonable cost. We discuss how our test strategy could be coupled with internationally recognized safety rules to allow for a safe school return and how countries from different world regions are dealing with educational activities during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Brazil/epidemiology , Schools
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140630

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we project Skills in Literacy Adjusted Mean Years of Schooling (SLAMYS) for the working age population in 45 countries and quinquennial time periods until 2050 according to various population scenarios. Moreover, we integrate the effect of school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic on these projections. Adult skills are projected using the cohort components method. They can help in assessing the potential consequences of the recent trends for the adult population, particularly the workforce, whose skills are essential for the jobs contributing to economic growth and development outlooks. Our projections are novel as they take into account both the amount of schooling and quality of education and also consider the changes in adult skills through lifetime. Projections show that the adult skills gap between countries in the Global North and countries in the Global South will likely continue to exist by 2050, even under very optimistic assumptions-but may widen or narrow depending on the demographic development trajectories specific to each country. Moreover, the loss of learning due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbates inequalities between countries. Particularly, in countries where schools have been closed for a prolonged period of time and the infrastructure for effective online schooling is lacking, the skills of cohorts who were in school during the pandemic have been severely affected. The fact that the duration of school closures has been longer in many low- and middle-income countries is a serious concern for achieving global human capital equality. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is projected to erase decades-long gains in adult skills for affected cohorts unless policies to mitigate learning loss are implemented immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Projection , Schools , Educational Status
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 301, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School-based health (SBH) programmes that are contingent on primary school teachers are options to increase access to malaria treatment among learners. However, perceptions that provision of healthcare by teachers may be detrimental to teaching activities can undermine efforts to scale up school-based malaria control. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of school-based malaria diagnosis and treatment using the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK) on teachers' time. METHODS: A time and motion study was conducted in 10 primary schools in rural Malawi. Teachers who had been trained to diagnose and treat uncomplicated malaria were continuously observed in real time during school sessions and the time they spent on all activities were recorded by independent observers before and after LTK implementation. A structured form, programmed digitally, was used for data collection. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess pre-post differences in average hours teachers spent on the following key activities: direct teaching; indirect teaching; administration; LTK and non-teaching tasks. Multivariable repeated measures mixed regression models were used to ascertain impact of LTK on average durations teachers spent on the key activities. RESULTS: Seventy-four teachers, trained to use LTK, were observed. Their mean age and years of teaching experience were 34.7 and 8.7, respectively. Overall, 739.8 h of teacher observations took place. The average time teachers spent in school before relative to after LTK was 5.8 vs. 4.8 h, p = 0.01. The cumulative percentage of time teachers spent on core teaching activities (teaching and administration) was approximately 76% and did not change substantially before and after LTK. Some 24.3% of teachers' time is spent on non-teaching activities. On average, teachers spent 2.9% of their time providing LTK services daily. Per day, each teacher spent less time on administrative (0.74 vs. 1.07 h, p = 0.02) and non-teaching activities (0.96 vs. 1.41 h, p = 0.01) during LTK compared with the period before LTK. CONCLUSION: School-based health (SBH) programmes are not detrimental to teaching activities. Teachers manage their time to ensure additional time required for SBH services is not at the expense of teaching duties. Programming and policy implications of tasking teachers with SBH does not have substantial opportunity costs. Teachers should continue delivering SBH programmes to promote learners' health.


Subject(s)
Malaria , School Teachers , Humans , Time and Motion Studies , Malawi , Schools , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/diagnosis
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(5): e276-e284, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135280

Subject(s)
Schools , Cohort Studies , Humans
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e194, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133087

ABSTRACT

Identification of geographical areas with high burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in schools using spatial analyses has become an important tool to guide targeted interventions in educational setting. In this study, we aimed to explore the spatial distribution and determinants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among students aged 3-18 years in South Korea. We analysed the nationwide epidemiological data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in schools and in the communities between January 2020 and October 2021 in South Korea. To explore the spatial distribution, the global Moran's I and Getis-Ord's G using incidence rates among the districts of aged 3-18 years and 30-59 years. Spatial regression analysis was performed to find sociodemographic predictors of the COVID-19 attack rate in schools and in the communities. The global spatial correlation estimated by Moran's I was 0.647 for the community population and 0.350 for the student population, suggesting that the students were spatially less correlated than the community-level outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. In schools, attack rate of adults aged 30-59 years in the community was associated with increased risk of transmission (P < 0.0001). Number of students per class (in kindergartens, primary schools, middle schools and high schools) did not show significant association with the school transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In South Korea, COVID-19 in students had spatial variations across the country. Statistically significant high hotspots of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among students were found in the capital area, with dense population level and high COVID-19 burden among adults aged 30-59 years. Our finding suggests that controlling community-level burden of COVID-19 can help in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection in school-aged children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD015397, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019, governments worldwide implemented a multitude of non-pharmaceutical interventions in order to control the spread of the virus. Most countries have implemented measures within the school setting in order to reopen schools or keep them open whilst aiming to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2. For informed decision-making on implementation, adaptation, or suspension of such measures, it is not only crucial to evaluate their effectiveness with regard to SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but also to assess their unintended consequences. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively identify and map the evidence on the unintended health and societal consequences of school-based measures to prevent and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to generate a descriptive overview of the range of unintended (beneficial or harmful) consequences reported as well as the study designs that were employed to assess these outcomes. This review was designed to complement an existing Cochrane Review on the effectiveness of these measures by synthesising evidence on the implications of the broader system-level implications of school measures beyond their effects on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, four non-health databases, and two COVID-19 reference collections on 26 March 2021, together with reference checking, citation searching, and Google searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included quantitative (including mathematical modelling), qualitative, and mixed-methods studies of any design that provided evidence on any unintended consequences of measures implemented in the school setting to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Studies had to report on at least one unintended consequence, whether beneficial or harmful, of one or more relevant measures, as conceptualised in a logic model.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We screened the titles/abstracts and subsequently full texts in duplicate, with any discrepancies between review authors resolved through discussion. One review author extracted data for all included studies, with a second review author reviewing the data extraction for accuracy. The evidence was summarised narratively and graphically across four prespecified intervention categories and six prespecified categories of unintended consequences; findings were described as deriving from quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method studies. MAIN RESULTS: Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 used quantitative methods (3 experimental/quasi-experimental; 5 observational; 5 modelling); four used qualitative methods; and one used mixed methods. Studies looked at effects in different population groups, mainly in children and teachers. The identified interventions were assigned to four broad categories: 14 studies assessed measures to make contacts safer; four studies looked at measures to reduce contacts; six studies assessed surveillance and response measures; and one study examined multiple measures combined. Studies addressed a wide range of unintended consequences, most of them considered harmful. Eleven studies investigated educational consequences. Seven studies reported on psychosocial outcomes. Three studies each provided information on physical health and health behaviour outcomes beyond COVID-19 and environmental consequences. Two studies reported on socio-economic consequences, and no studies reported on equity and equality consequences. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogeneous evidence base on unintended consequences of measures implemented in the school setting to prevent and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and summarised the available study data narratively and graphically. Primary research better focused on specific measures and various unintended outcomes is needed to fill knowledge gaps and give a broader picture of the diverse unintended consequences of school-based measures before a more thorough evidence synthesis is warranted. The most notable lack of evidence we found was regarding psychosocial, equity, and equality outcomes. We also found a lack of research on interventions that aim to reduce the opportunity for contacts. Additionally, study investigators should provide sufficient data on contextual factors and demographics in order to ensure analyses of such are feasible, thus assisting stakeholders in making appropriate, informed decisions for their specific circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 987366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123471

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce the transmission of COVID-19, many teachers across the globe, including teachers in China, were required to teach online. This shift to online teaching can easily result in psychological need thwarting (PNT) of teachers' psychological basic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), leaving them vulnerable to negative psychological outcomes. Resulting negative emotional state may lead to problematic internet use (PIU), which can lead to further psychological distress, forming a vicious cycle. Methods: The present study was conducted using a cross-lagged panel model (with longitudinal data) and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) (with cross-sectional data). The aims were to investigate (i) the reciprocal relationships between two specific forms of PIU [problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic gaming (PG)] and psychological distress among schoolteachers, and (ii) the influence of administrators' support on schoolteachers' PIU through a cross-level serial mediation model (PNT of online teaching was the first mediator and psychological distress was the second mediator affected by PNT of online teaching). Primary and secondary schoolteachers (N = 980; mean age = 34.76; 82.90% females) participated in two surveys (Time 1: mid-November 2021; Time 2: early-January 2022). Results: Results indicated that (i) high psychological distress at Time 1 was associated with increased levels of PSMU and PG at Time 2. Inversely, PG at Time 1 was associated with increased psychological distress at Time 2, although PSMU at Time 1 did not have a significant influence on psychological distress at Time 2; (ii) during Time 1, increased administrative support contributed to alleviating teachers' psychological needs thwarting of online teaching, thereby lowering their psychological distress which, in turn, resulted in a decrease in PG. Conclusion: PG had a stronger negative influence on teachers' psychological distress than PSMU. To relieve teachers' PG, administrative support can alleviate teachers' psychological needs thwarting of online teaching and psychological distress. Based on this finding, school managers must consider effective ways to support teachers during mandatory online teaching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Internet Use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Schools
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119258

ABSTRACT

The Sentinel Schools project was designed to monitor and evaluate the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Catalonia, gathering evidence for health and education policies to inform the development of health protocols and public health interventions to control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and to identify their determinants among students and staff during February to June in the academic year 2020-2021. We performed two complementary studies, a cross-sectional and a longitudinal component, using a questionnaire to collect nominal data and testing for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We describe the results and perform a univariate and multivariate analysis. The initial crude seroprevalence was 14.8% (95% CI: 13.1-16.5) and 22% (95% CI: 18.3-25.8) for students and staff respectively, and the active infection prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.1-2). The overall incidence for persons at risk was 2.73 per 100 person-month and 2.89 and 2.34 per 100 person-month for students and staff, respectively. Socioeconomic, self-reported knowledge, risk perceptions and contact pattern variables were positively associated with the outcome while sanitary measure compliance was negatively associated, the same significance trend was observed in multivariate analysis. In the longitudinal component, epidemiological close contact with SARS-CoV-2 infection was a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection while the highest socioeconomic status level was protective as was compliance with sanitary measures. The small number of active cases detected in these schools suggests a low transmission among children in school and the efficacy of public health measures implemented, at least in the epidemiological scenario of the study period. The major contribution of this study was to provide results and evidence that help analyze the transmission dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate the associations between sanitary protocols implemented, and measures to avoid SARS-CoV-2 spread in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Incidence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spain/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
13.
Am J Public Health ; 112(12): 1791-1799, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119227

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the rate of COVID-19 among in-person K-12 educators and the rate's association with various COVID-19 prevention policies in school districts. Methods. We linked actively working, in-person K-12 educators in Wisconsin to COVID-19 cases with onset from September 2 to November 24, 2021. A mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for pertinent person- and community-level confounders, compared the hazard rate of COVID-19 among educators working in districts with and without specific COVID-19 prevention policies. Results. In-person educators working in school districts that required masking for students and staff experienced 19% lower hazards of COVID-19 than did those in districts without any masking policy (hazard ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.92). Reduced COVID-19 hazards were consistent and remained statistically significant when educators were stratified by elementary, middle, and high school environments. Conclusions. In Wisconsin's K-12 school districts, during the fall 2021 academic semester, a policy that required both students and staff to mask was associated with significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 among in-person educators across all grade levels. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(12):1791-1799. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307095).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Wisconsin/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , School Health Services , Schools , Nutrition Policy
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241752, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118846

ABSTRACT

This cohort study compares the psychological status of Chinese adolescents at school before the COVID-19 pandemic and at home during the pandemic to assess whether school attendance was associated with negative mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116189

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence suggesting that the COVID pandemic has negatively affected the mental health and well-being of school aged children and parents, there are limited studies describing the state of family well-being. This study aimed to use the family health lens to assess the well-being of Thai families with primary school children and to identify its associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during January and March 2022, a period of school closure when onsite education was replaced by online education from time to time. The family health scale (FHS) questionnaire survey was carried out among 701 parents of Thai families with primary school children. The questionnaire comprised 10 questions regarding family belief, health, relationships, financial security, and housing environment. Independent variables included: (1) parental/household factors; (2) online learning related issues; (3) children's mental health; and (4) parents' health behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was undertaken. Results showed that half of Thai families (54.6%) reported having moderate health status. Factors that were associated with lower levels of family health, such as poor or moderate levels, included families with a child that had mental health problems (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 5.0 [95% CI = 2.6-9.5] for poor v. excellent, and AOR = 2.7 [95% CI = 1.9-4.0] for moderate v. excellent), single parents (AOR = 2.5 [95% CI = 1.2-5.2] for poor v. excellent), a higher number (≥3) of children (AOR = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.0] for moderate v. excellent), and smoking parents (AOR = 6.5 [95% CI =1.2-34.8] for poor v. excellent). During health emergencies, health policy for providing adequate assistance to single parents, especially those that have a child with mental health problems, is of utmost importance. The design of health promotion activities and interventions should be targeted not only at single families, but also families with higher numbers of children and parents who smoke at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Health , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Schools
17.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115931

ABSTRACT

Pandemic Electronic Benefits Transfer (P-EBT) benefits were intended for families of school children who lost access to free or reduced-price school meals (FRPMs) during the COVID-19 pandemic-related school closures. In high-poverty communities, all students from schools participating in the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) were automatically eligible for P-EBT benefits; in non-CEP schools, only students already participating in FRPMs-for which their parents submitted an individual application-were eligible for P-EBT benefits. Using publicly available data from 105 K-12 public schools located in 4 sizeable low-income New Jersey (NJ) cities, this study investigated the association between school CEP participation status and the reach of P-EBT benefits for eligible students. A generalized linear model with a logit link, a binomial family, and robust standard errors was used. Across all levels of FRPM eligibility based on students' household income, as expected, almost all students from CEP schools received P-EBT benefits; significantly fewer received P-EBT benefits if they attended non-CEP schools, even when they were eligible for FRPMs. Our findings show that without changes to the qualification process for CEP, large numbers of eligible children will not receive the intended health benefits of federal meals programs or similar emergency relief initiatives. Expanding CEP eligibility and simplifying the process through which schools qualify would likely improve the uptake of federal meals programs and emergency interventions, and more effectively achieve their intent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Services , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Schools , Students
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110107

ABSTRACT

Background: The Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (LQSFA) is an evidence-based social and emotional learning program for school students. It is implemented as a teacher-led extracurricular activity for children aged 10-15 years. From 2019 to 2022, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, in collaboration with Lions Clubs International Foundation, implemented the LQSFA in 41 schools in Croatia. Due to the COVID-19 lockdown measures, the intervention was adjusted into a hybrid modality (in-class and online). We evaluated the experience that the teachers had with the LQSFA in a hybrid modality. Methods: We used a focus-group discussion approach to evaluate the experience of five LQSFA teachers. Results: Three themes emerged: (1) the appreciation of evidence-based programs by the teachers, (2) the benefit of the LQSFA on the parents, and (3) the length of the online version of the questionnaire tool that was used to assess pre- and post-LQSFA experiences among students was too long. These results indicate that the LQSFA is undergoing a scaling on a national level in Croatia, even when implemented in a hybrid setting. Conclusions: Using an evidence-based program such as the LQSFA was rewarding for teachers, despite the challenges in the administrative adjustments regarding the online and in-person class teaching. LQSFA filled an important gap during COVID19-related stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Croatia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Learning , Schools
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): e763-e768, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the perceived adequacy of infection control practices (ICPs) and symptoms of anxiety among educators in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Data from 4947 educators were collected in December 2020. Modified Poisson models assessed the association between adequacy of ICPs and moderate or severe anxiety symptoms, adjusting for a range of covariates. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of respondents reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. Two-thirds (66.5%) of the sample had less than half of their ICP needs met. Respondents with less than half their ICP needs met were more than three times more likely to have moderate or severe anxiety, compared with respondents with their ICP needs met. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the importance of adequate administrative and engineering controls in schools, not only to minimize risk of infection, but also for educator's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Schools , Infection Control
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 896195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119647

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 immediately affected higher education, and the closure of campuses at the start of the pandemic in March of 2020 forced educational institutions to quickly adapt to changing circumstances. Schools of public health faced challenges not only of shifting to remote learning and work environments, but also uniquely redirecting public health research and service efforts toward COVID-19. This paper offers a case study of how the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University (GWSPH), the only school of public health in the nation's capital, initially adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a modified version of the Public Health Preparedness and Response Core Competency Model created by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we analyze how GWSPH worked in three areas-research, education, service/operations. We reviewed this initial response across four domains: model leadership; communication and management of information; planning and improving practice; and protecting worker (and student) health and safety. The adaptation of the model and the analysis of GWSPH's initial response to the pandemic can be useful to other schools of public health and health sciences in the United States and beyond, in preparing for all hazards. We hope that such analysis also informs the current concerns of schools such as return to in-person education as well as planning for future public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Public Health/education , Schools , United States , District of Columbia/epidemiology
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