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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1363-1371, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778680

ABSTRACT

The 2020 U.S. Census data show a rapidly diversifying U.S. population. We sought to evaluate whether clinical faculty and leadership representation at academic medical schools reflects the diversifying population over time. Using data from the Association of American Medical Colleges for the period of 1977 through 2019, we found notable progress in female representation among clinical faculty, with smaller gains among department chairs and medical school deans. Racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine are designated as such because their presence within the medical profession is disproportionate to the U.S. Census data. Even with accounting for this underrepresentation, clinical faculty and leadership positions show even starker disparities. Thoughtful policy implementation could help address this persistent underrepresentation among medical school faculty and leadership positions.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Cultural Diversity , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Leadership , Male , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(2): 206-211, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 in medical students and residents from four universities and affiliated hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A survey about contamination risk and symptoms was sent to all participants through email and WhatsApp. Prevalence was measured by the self-report of positive polymerase chain reaction or serological test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence of infection by Sars-CoV-2 was 14.9% (151/1011). The disease was more prevalent in residents and interns than in undergraduate students. Contact with an infected relative outside the hospital or with colleagues without using personal protective equipment was associated with higher contamination. Contact with patients without wearing goggles and higher weekly frequency of contact were the two factors independently associated with the infection by Coronavirus disease 2019 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, interns, and residents have a higher prevalence of Coronavirus disease 2019 than the general population, in which the last two groups are significantly at higher risk. Contacting patients at a higher weekly frequency increases the risk for infection. The use of goggles should be reinforced when contacting patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Motivation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1507-1512, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493989

ABSTRACT

The harsh realities of racial inequities related to COVID-19 and civil unrest following police killings of unarmed Black men and women in the United States in 2020 heightened awareness of racial injustices around the world. Racism is deeply embedded in academic medicine, yet the nobility of medicine and nursing has helped health care professionals distance themselves from racism. Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), like many U.S. academic medical centers, affirmed its commitment to racial equity in summer 2020. A Racial Equity Task Force was charged with identifying barriers to achieving racial equity at the medical center and medical school and recommending key actions to rectify long-standing racial inequities. The task force, composed of students, staff, and faculty, produced more than 60 recommendations, and its work brought to light critical areas that need to be addressed in academic medicine broadly. To dismantle structural racism, academic medicine must: (1) confront medicine's racist past, which has embedded racial inequities in the U.S. health care system; (2) develop and require health care professionals to possess core competencies in the health impacts of structural racism; (3) recognize race as a sociocultural and political construct, and commit to debiologizing its use; (4) invest in benefits and resources for health care workers in lower-paid roles, in which racial and ethnic minorities are often overrepresented; and (5) commit to antiracism at all levels, including changing institutional policies, starting at the executive leadership level with a vision, metrics, and accountability.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/ethics , COVID-19/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Female , Health Personnel/ethics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/ethics , United States/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253860, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295520

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of student e-learning on the development of clinical competencies. The study participants were 3rd year students (n = 43) at a private mid-sized medical school located in a South Korean suburb on a four-year medical program. Educational intervention was implemented to enhance student clinical performance. Students engaged in learning activities that intended to promote their self-directed learning abilities and clinical performances using e-learning resources. Intervention was conducted for the duration of six months during the 3rd year and its effectiveness was investigated by comparing student performances in OSCEs in a pre- and post- comparison format and also by comparing them with national scores. In addition, student perceptions of the impact of e-learning on their OSCE performances were assessed using a questionnaire, which included 36 items that elicited student perceptions of their experiences of e-learning and readiness for e-learning. Student OSCE scores improved significantly after educational intervention in all domains of clinical competencies assessed and for total scores (p < 0.001). Furthermore, students achieved higher OSCE scores than national average scores in the post-test, whereas they had performed lower than national average scores in the pre-test. Students showed neutral or slightly positive responses to the effectiveness of e-learning, and their perceptions of e-learning were not associated with their e-learning readiness scores. The study shows student OSCE performance improved significantly after educational intervention, which indicate the effectiveness of e-learning to support student learning of clinical performance. Despite significant improvements in student OSCE scores after e-learning, their perceptions of its effectiveness were neutral. Furthermore, student perceptions of e-learning were not associated with their readiness for it. Suggestions are made to help students use e-learning more effectively to enhance their clinical competencies.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113539, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269080

ABSTRACT

Importance: How the COVID-19 pandemic has affected academic medicine faculty's work-life balance is unknown. Objective: To assess the association of perceived work-life conflict with academic medicine faculty intention to leave, reducing employment to part time, or declining leadership opportunities before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Settings, and Participants: An anonymous online survey of medical, graduate, and health professions school faculty was conducted at a single large, urban academic medical center between September 1 and September 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-assessed intention to leave, reducing employment to part time, or turning down leadership opportunities because of work-life conflict before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Of the 1186 of 3088 (38%) of faculty members who answered the survey, 649 (55%) were women and 682 (58%) were White individuals. Respondents were representative of the overall faculty demographic characteristics except for an overrepresentation of female faculty respondents and underrepresentation of Asian faculty respondents compared with all faculty (female faculty: 649 [55%] vs 1368 [44%]; Asian faculty: 259 [22%] vs 963 [31%]). After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, faculty were more likely to consider leaving or reducing employment to part time compared with before the pandemic (leaving: 225 [23%] vs 133 [14%]; P < .001; reduce hours: 281 [29%] vs 206 [22%]; P < .001). Women were more likely than men to reduce employment to part time before the COVID-19 pandemic (153 [28%] vs 44 [12%]; P < .001) and to consider both leaving or reducing employment to part time since the COVID-19 pandemic (leaving: 154 [28%] vs 56 [15%]; P < .001; reduce employment: 215 [40%] vs 49 [13%]; P < .001). Faculty with children were more likely to consider leaving and reducing employment since the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic (leaving: 159 [29%] vs 93 [17%]; P < .001; reduce employment: 213 [40%] vs 130 [24%]; P < .001). Women with children compared with women without children were also more likely to consider leaving since the COVID-19 pandemic than before (113 [35%] vs 39 [17%]; P < .001). Working parent faculty and women were more likely to decline leadership opportunities both before (faculty with children vs without children: 297 [32%] vs 84 [9%]; P < .001; women vs men: 206 [29%] vs 47 [13%]; P < .001) and since the COVID-19 pandemic (faculty with children vs faculty without children: 316 [34%] vs 93 [10 %]; P < .001; women vs men: 148 [28%] vs 51 [14%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, the perceived stressors associated with work-life integration were higher in women than men, were highest in women with children, and have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The association of both gender and parenting with increased perceived work-life stress may disproportionately decrease the long-term retention and promotion of junior and midcareer women faculty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Perception , Work-Life Balance/standards , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Schools, Medical/standards , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Texas , Work-Life Balance/statistics & numerical data
9.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1586-1591, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent national events, including the COVID-19 pandemic and protests of racial inequities, have drawn attention to the role of physicians in advocating for improvements in the social, economic, and political factors that affect health. Characterizing the current state of advocacy training in U.S. medical schools may help set expectations for physician advocacy and predict future curricular needs. METHOD: Using the member school directory provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors compiled a list of 154 MD-granting medical schools in the United States in 2019-2020. They used multiple search strategies to identify online course catalogues and advocacy-related curricula using variations of the terms "advocacy," "policy," "equity," and "social determinants of health." They used an iterative process to generate a preliminary coding schema and to code all course descriptions, conducting content analysis to describe the structure of courses and topics covered. RESULTS: Of 134 medical schools with any online course catalogue available, 103 (76.9%) offered at least 1 advocacy course. Required courses were typically survey courses focused on general content in health policy, population health, or public health/epidemiology, whereas elective courses were more likely to focus specifically on advocacy skills building and to feature field experiences. Of 352 advocacy-specific courses, 93 (26.4%) concentrated on a specific population (e.g., children or persons with low socioeconomic status). Few courses (n = 8) focused on racial/ethnic minorities and racial inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that while most U.S. medical schools offer at least 1 advocacy course, the majority are elective rather than required, and the structure and content of advocacy-related courses vary substantially. Given the urgency to address social, economic, and political factors affecting health and health equity, this study provides an important and timely overview of the prevalence and content of advocacy curricula at U.S. medical schools.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/standards , Patient Advocacy/education , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , American Medical Association/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Physician's Role , Politics , Prevalence , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
10.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 189-201, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections among medical school physicians and residents, mainly young medical doctors. The awareness of COVID­19 clinical manifestations can improve the early detection of mild cases, possibly reducing further transmission to colleagues and patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March-May 2020, involving medical school physicians in a teaching hospital in northern Italy, with a working population of 881 medical doctors. Data collection was performed using a structured form investigating clinical and epidemiological information. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-two medical doctors contacted the Occupational Health Service reporting acute respiratory symptoms or close contact exposure to a confirmed COVID­19 case. Among the confirmed COVID­19 cases, most were male doctors during residency, and 85% presented a mild clinical picture. Fever (70.3%) and cough (51.4%) represented the most prevalent symptoms of COVID­19. As revealed by the univariate analysis, the prevalence of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity increased with age (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.012), working in a COVID­19 ward (OR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.09-10.21, p = 0.031), presenting alteration or loss of smell/taste (OR = 10.00, 95%CI: 2.80-35.69, p < 0.001) and myalgia (OR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.00-10.26, p = 0.046), while being a resident (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.80, p = 0.030) was associated with reduced odds of being infected, compared to staff physicians. Age and loss of smell/taste were the only factors independently associated with RT-PCR positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID­19 cases showed a mild clinical syndrome, ranging from absence or paucity of symptoms to common cold or influenza-like symptoms. The findings of the present study increase the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis for the prompt identification and management of suspected COVID­19 cases, being particularly useful during resurges of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):189-201.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Young Adult
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S16-S18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112941

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has not only challenged global health systems but also social, economic, and educational systems. In this short communication, our focus is on its impact on medical education in Pakistan. We discuss the structure of undergraduate medical education in Pakistan; and how it has evolved in the wake of COVID-19. We describe our role as teaching associates (TAs) at the Aga Khan University (AKU); and how it has enabled us to be a part of the transition to online medical education, with a specific focus on online examinations in medical schools.  Key Words: Medical education, Online examinations, COVID-19, Pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Pandemics , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Learning , Pakistan/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Acad Med ; 97(2): 182-187, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066428

ABSTRACT

In the face of an ongoing opioid crisis in the United States, persistent treatment gaps exist for vulnerable populations. Among the 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved medications used to treat opioid use disorder, many patients prefer buprenorphine. But physicians are currently required to register with the Drug Enforcement Administration and complete 8 hours of qualifying training before they can receive a waiver to prescribe buprenorphine to their patients. In this article, the authors summarize the evolution of buprenorphine waiver training in undergraduate medical education and outline 2 potential paths to increase buprenorphine treatment capacity going forward: the curriculum change approach and the training module approach. As part of the 2018 Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has provided funding for medical schools to adapt their curricula to meet waiver training requirements. To date, however, only one school has had its curriculum approved for this purpose. Additionally, recent political efforts have been directed at eliminating aspects of the waiver training requirement and creating a more direct path to integrating waiver qualification into undergraduate medical education (UME). Other medical schools have adopted a more pragmatic approach involving the integration of existing online, in-person, and hybrid waiver-qualifying training modules into the curricula, generally for fourth-year students. This training module approach can be more rapidly, broadly, and cost-effectively implemented than the curriculum change approach. It can also be easily integrated into the online medical curricula that schools developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately both curricular changes and support for student completion of existing training modules should be pursued in concert, but focus should not be single-mindedly on the former at the expense of the latter.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Curriculum/trends , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , United States
13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(1): 8-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938394

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic launched the use of online courses in Chinese medical schools during February 2020. To evaluate the state of gross anatomy education in China during the pandemic, a nationwide survey was conducted through convenience sampling by email or respondent invitations on social media. A total of 359 questionnaires were received from the respondents. The first response from a given school was included in the study to represent that school, thus, 77 questionnaires were used for analyses. Schools represented were from all provinces in mainland China as well as Hong Kong and Macao. The survey found that before the pandemic, 74.0% and 33.8% of the 77 schools conducted online theoretical and practical sessions, respectively, on gross anatomy, and 36 (46.8% of 77) had temporarily suspended practical sessions at the time the survey was conducted. Body donation programs were also affected with 26.0% and 27.3% of the 77 schools having suspended donation programs or saw a decreased number of donations. During the pandemic, 40.3% of the 77 schools kept or initiated the implementation of active learning, and online assessment was continued in 49.4% of the 77 medical schools. Another 26 (33.8%) schools initiated online assessment during the pandemic. A total of 359 answers were included for the analysis of the "teachers' perception of the online teaching experience." Over half (51.0%) of the 359 responded teachers were very statisfied or satisfied with the effectiveness of online teaching during the pandemic. A total of 36.2% of these respondents preferred to implement online teaching of theoretical sessions after the pandemic, and 89 (24.8%) teachers were keen to return to traditional face-to-face anatomy education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Curriculum/trends , Education, Distance/trends , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/trends , Faculty/psychology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data , Tissue and Organ Procurement/trends
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