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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262515, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the full re-opening of schools in England and emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant, we investigated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in students and staff who were contacts of a confirmed case in a school bubble (school groupings with limited interactions), along with their household members. METHODS: Primary and secondary school bubbles were recruited into sKIDsBUBBLE after being sent home to self-isolate following a confirmed case of COVID-19 in the bubble. Bubble participants and their household members were sent home-testing kits comprising nasal swabs for RT-PCR testing and whole genome sequencing, and oral fluid swabs for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: During November-December 2020, 14 bubbles were recruited from 7 schools, including 269 bubble contacts (248 students, 21 staff) and 823 household contacts (524 adults, 299 children). The secondary attack rate was 10.0% (6/60) in primary and 3.9% (4/102) in secondary school students, compared to 6.3% (1/16) and 0% (0/1) among staff, respectively. The incidence rate for household contacts of primary school students was 6.6% (12/183) and 3.7% (1/27) for household contacts of primary school staff. In secondary schools, this was 3.5% (11/317) and 0% (0/1), respectively. Household contacts were more likely to test positive if their bubble contact tested positive although there were new infections among household contacts of uninfected bubble contacts. INTERPRETATION: Compared to other institutional settings, the overall risk of secondary infection in school bubbles and their household contacts was low. Our findings are important for developing evidence-based infection prevention guidelines for educational settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Contact Tracing , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data
2.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(11): 1202-1209, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861753

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in child emergency department (ED) discharges and hospitalizations for primary general medical (GM) and primary psychiatric disorders; prevalence of psychiatric disorders among acute care encounters; and change in acute mental health (MH) care encounters by disorder type and, within these categories, by child sociodemographic characteristics before and after statewide COVID-19­related school closure orders. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study used the Pediatric Health Information System database to assess percent changes in ED discharges and hospitalizations (N=2,658,474 total encounters) among children ages 3­17 years in 44 U.S. children's hospitals in 2020 compared with 2019, by using matched data for 36- and 12-calendar-week intervals. Results: Decline in MH ED discharges accounted for about half of the decline in ED discharges and hospitalizations for primary GM disorders (−24.8% vs. −49.1%), and MH hospitalizations declined 3.4 times less (−8.0% vs. −26.8%) in 2020. Suicide attempt or self-injury and depressive disorders accounted for >50% of acute MH care encounters before and after the statewide school closures. The increase in both ED discharges and hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury was 5.1 percentage points (p<0.001). By fall 2020, MH hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury rose by 41.7%, with a 43.8% and 49.2% rise among adolescents and girls, respectively. Conclusions: Suicide or self-injury and depressive disorders drove acute MH care encounters in 44 U.S. children's hospitals after COVID-19­related school closures. Research is needed to identify continuing risk indicators (e.g., sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorder types, and social determinants of health) of acute child MH care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Facilities and Services Utilization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mental Health Services , Schools , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data
3.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 362-369, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Testing remains critical for identifying pediatric cases of COVID-19 and as a public health intervention to contain infections. We surveyed US parents to measure the proportion of children tested for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, preferred testing venues for children, and acceptability of school-based COVID-19 testing. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of 2074 US parents of children aged ≤12 years in March 2021. We applied survey weights to generate national estimates, and we used Rao-Scott adjusted Pearson χ2 tests to compare incidence by selected sociodemographic characteristics. We used Poisson regression models with robust SEs to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of pediatric testing. RESULTS: Among US parents, 35.9% reported their youngest child had ever been tested for COVID-19. Parents who were female versus male (aRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79), Asian versus non-Hispanic White (aRR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87), and from the Midwest versus the Northeast (aRR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91) were less likely to report testing of a child. Children who had health insurance versus no health insurance (aRR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05-1.81), were attending in-person school/daycare versus not attending (aRR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.43-1.95), and were from households with annual household income ≥$100 000 versus income <$50 000-$99 999 (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.40) were more likely to have tested for COVID-19. Half of parents (52.7%) reported the pediatrician's office as the most preferred testing venue, and 50.6% said they would allow their youngest child to be tested for COVID-19 at school/daycare if required. CONCLUSIONS: Greater efforts are needed to ensure access to COVID-19 testing for US children, including those without health insurance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Parents/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physicians' Offices/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 554, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655581

ABSTRACT

We aim to identify those measures that effectively control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Austrian schools. Using cluster tracing data we calibrate an agent-based epidemiological model and consider situations where the B1.617.2 (delta) virus strain is dominant and parts of the population are vaccinated to quantify the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as room ventilation, reduction of class size, wearing of masks during lessons, vaccinations, and school entry testing by SARS-CoV2-antigen tests. In the data we find that 40% of all clusters involved no more than two cases, and 3% of the clusters only had more than 20 cases. The model shows that combinations of NPIs together with vaccinations are necessary to allow for a controlled opening of schools under sustained community transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. For plausible vaccination rates, primary (secondary) schools require a combination of at least two (three) of the above NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Primary Prevention/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Contact Tracing , Disease Hotspot , Humans , Masks , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Ventilation
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e233, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537268

ABSTRACT

School lockdowns have been widely used to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these lockdowns may have a significant negative impact on the lives of young people. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of closing lower secondary schools for COVID-19 incidence in 13-15-year-olds in Finland, in a situation where restrictions and recommendation of social distancing were implemented uniformly in the entire country. COVID-19 case numbers were obtained from the National Infectious Disease Registry (NIDR) of the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, in which clinical microbiology laboratories report all positive SARS-CoV-2 tests with unique identifiers in a timely manner. The NIDR is linked to population data registry, enabling calculation of incidences. We estimated the differences in trends between areas with both restaurant and lower secondary school closures and areas with only restaurant closures in different age groups by using joinpoint regression. We also estimated the differences in trends between age groups. Based on our analysis, closing lower secondary schools had no impact on COVID-19 incidence among 13-15-year-olds. No significant changes on COVID-19 incidence were observed in other age groups either.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19521, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447323

ABSTRACT

School closures have a negative impact on physical and mental well-being, and education, of children and adolescents. A surveillance programme to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection could allow schools to remain open, while protecting the vulnerable. We assessed the feasibility of a programme employing gargle samples and pool testing of individually extracted RNA using rRT-qPCR in a primary and a secondary school in Germany, based on programme logistics and acceptance. Twice a week, five participants per class were selected to provide samples, using an algorithm weighted by a risk-based priority score to increase likelihood of case detection. The positive response rate was 54.8% (550 of 1003 pupils). Logistics evaluation revealed the rate-limiting steps: completing the regular pre-test questionnaire and handing in the samples. Acceptance questionnaire responses indicated strong support for research into developing a surveillance programme and a positive evaluation of gargle tests. Participation was voluntary. As not all pupils participated, individual reminders could lead to participant identification. School-wide implementation of the programme for infection monitoring purposes would enable reminders to be given to all school pupils to address these steps, without compromising participant anonymity. Such a programme would provide a feasible means to monitor asymptomatic respiratory tract infection in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Feasibility Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1377-1378, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444556

ABSTRACT

Consistent and correct mask use is a critical strategy for preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). CDC recommends that schools require universal indoor mask use for students, staff members, and others in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) school settings (2). As U.S. schools opened for the 2021-22 school year in the midst of increasing community spread of COVID-19, some states, counties, and school districts implemented mask requirements in schools. To assess the impact of masking in schools on COVID-19 incidence among K-12 students across the United States, CDC assessed differences between county-level pediatric COVID-19 case rates in schools with and without school mask requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , United States/epidemiology
11.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 367-376, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442726

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore how returning to teaching during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic impacted teachers' stress and anxiety. Specifically, the study investigated how teachers' anxiety changed during the first month of school. Additionally, the study explored the association of teachers' stress and anxiety and predictor variables for changes in teacher anxiety while teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study included 329 elementary teachers from across the United States who completed a survey during the first week of October 2020. The results found that most teachers saw no change or an increase in anxiety during the first month. Significant predictors of increased teacher anxiety included stress and communication within the school, with virtual instruction teachers having the most increase in anxiety. In comparison, the no change in anxiety group included significant predictors of stress, virtual instruction, and communication within the school. The present study provides applicable information to schools and districts as there is limited empirical research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on teachers. Teachers are working as frontline workers during the pandemic; thus, schools and districts need to monitor teacher stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide the necessary support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , School Teachers/psychology , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Schools/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 388-397, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442724

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has had multifaceted effects on students, their families, and the educators who support their learning. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes for schools was the sudden move to distance learning-an unprecedented disruption to academic, social, and emotional instruction. Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills play an important role in human development by supporting academic success and overall well-being, including skills for effectively coping with stressors such as those imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on previous work, we created the Crisis Response Educator SEL Survey (CRESS) to examine predictors of SEL implementation during the pandemic. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to predict: (a) educators' reported challenges implementing SEL during distance learning; (b) educator SEL implementation with students and use of social and emotional (SE) strategies for themselves; and (c) educator self-judgment and emotional exhaustion. Predictors included school/district guidance to support SEL, school/district support of educator SE needs, and the priority on SEL for the school and the educator. Our sample consisted of 219 educators committed to SEL who reported on their experience with SEL during distance learning toward the end of the 2019-2020 school year. Findings suggest that school/district support of educator SE needs predicts lower levels of challenge implementing SEL during distance learning and lower levels of educator burnout and self-judgment, whereas greater school/district guidance to support SEL was associated with more SEL implementation with students and more educator use of SE strategies for themselves. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Educational Personnel , Emotions , Schools , Social Learning , Teaching , Adult , Aged , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Educational Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e213, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434042

ABSTRACT

This study aims at providing estimates on the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in schools and day-care centres. We calculated secondary attack rates (SARs) using individual-level data from state-wide mandatory notification of index cases in educational institutions, followed by contact tracing and PCR-testing of high-risk contacts. From August to December 2020, every sixth of overall 784 independent index cases was associated with secondary cases in educational institutions. Monitoring of 14 594 institutional high-risk contacts (89% PCR-tested) of 441 index cases during quarantine revealed 196 secondary cases (SAR 1.34%, 0.99-1.78). SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk contacts was more likely around teacher-indexes compared to student-/child-indexes (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.17, 1.79-5.59), and in day-care centres compared to secondary schools (IRR 3.23, 1.76-5.91), mainly due to clusters around teacher-indexes in day-care containing a higher mean number of secondary cases per index case (142/113 = 1.26) than clusters around student-indexes in schools (82/474 = 0.17). In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk in educational settings was low overall, but varied strongly between setting and role of the index case, indicating the chance for targeted intervention. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in educational institutions can powerfully inform public health policy and improve educational justice during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Epidemiological Monitoring , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Mandatory Reporting , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1220-1222, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414162

ABSTRACT

In-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic concerns educators, unions, parents, students, and public health officials as they plan to create a safe and supportive learning environment for children and adolescents (1). Los Angeles County (LAC), the nation's largest county, has an estimated population of 10 million, including 1.7 million children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (2). LAC school districts moved to remote learning for some or all students in transitional kindergarten* through grade 12 (TK-12) schools during the 2020-21 school year (3). Schools that provided in-person instruction were required by LAC Health Officer orders to implement prevention measures such as symptom screening, masking, physical distancing, cohorting, and contact tracing (4). This analysis compares COVID-19 case rates in TK-12 schools among students and staff members who attended school in person with LAC case rates during September 2020-March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(9): 889-890, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406068
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348679

ABSTRACT

The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339593

ABSTRACT

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Meals , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Academic Success , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lunch , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
19.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 403-412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data-informed decision making is valued among school districts, but challenges remain for local health departments to provide data, especially during a pandemic. We describe the rapid planning and deployment of a school-based COVID-19 surveillance system in a metropolitan US county. METHODS: In 2020, we used several data sources to construct disease- and school-based indicators for COVID-19 surveillance in Franklin County, an urban county in central Ohio. We collected, processed, analyzed, and visualized data in the COVID-19 Analytics and Targeted Surveillance System for Schools (CATS). CATS included web-based applications (public and secure versions), automated alerts, and weekly reports for the general public and decision makers, including school administrators, school boards, and local health departments. RESULTS: We deployed a pilot version of CATS in less than 2 months (August-September 2020) and added 21 school districts in central Ohio (15 in Franklin County and 6 outside the county) into CATS during the subsequent months. Public-facing web-based applications provided parents and students with local information for data-informed decision making. We created an algorithm to enable local health departments to precisely identify school districts and school buildings at high risk of an outbreak and active SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school settings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Piloting a surveillance system with diverse school districts helps scale up to other districts. Leveraging past relationships and identifying emerging partner needs were critical to rapid and sustainable collaboration. Valuing diverse skill sets is key to rapid deployment of proactive and innovative public health practices during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intersectoral Collaboration , Public Health Surveillance , Schools/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Data Collection , Humans , Ohio/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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