Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 155
Filter
1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 684-700, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20240059

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a percepção sobre a massa corporal, comportamentos relacionados à saúde, e a saúde mental de escolares adolescentes durante o período de retorno às atividades escolares presenciais com o período anterior à pandemia de COVID-19. O estudo foi realizado com 425 escolares (16,96±1,39 anos; 60,2% do sexo feminino) selecionados aleatoriamente de escolas das redes pública e privada de Pelotas/RS. Para a coleta dos dados foi utilizado um questionário de autopreenchimento contendo perguntas retrospectivas e atuais sobre as variáveis analisadas. Os resultados indicaram que a percepção sobre a massa corporal, o nível de atividade física, o tempo de sono, e a saúde mental (apenas para as meninas) estão piores (p<0,05) no momento atual quando comparados ao período anterior à pandemia. Por outro lado, hábitos alimentares e tempo de tela recreativo apresentaram melhores resultados (p<0,05) no momento atual do que no período anterior à pandemia. Estes resultados mostram um complexo panorama em relação à saúde de adolescentes no período de retomada das atividades presencias, tornando o retorno às atividades escolares presenciais um desafio para os próprios adolescentes, seus familiares, para professores, e para as escolas.


The aim of this study was to compare the perception of body mass, health- related behaviors and mental health of adolescent schoolchildren during the period of return to face to face school activities with the period before COVID-19 pandemic. The study was carried out with 425 students (16.96±1.39 years; 60.2% female) randomly selected from public and private schools in Pelotas/RS. For data collection, a self-completion questionnaire was used, containing retrospective and current questions about analyzed outcomes. The results indicated that the perception of body mass, level of physical activity, sleep time, and mental health (only for girls) are worse (p<0.05) at present when compared to the period before the pandemic. On the other hand, eating habits and recreational screen time showed better results (p<0.05) at present than in the period before the pandemic. These results show a complex panorama concerning the health of adolescents in the period of resumption of face to face activities, making this return a challenge for the adolescents themselves, their families, teachers and for schools.


El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la percepción de masa corporal, comportamientos relacionados a la salud y salud mental de escolares adolescentes durante el período de retorno a las actividades escolares presenciales con el período anterior a la pandemia de COVID-19. El estudio fue realizado con 425 alumnos (16,96±1,39 años; 60,2% del sexo femenino) seleccionados aleatoriamente de escuelas públicas y privadas de Pelotas/RS. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizó un cuestionario auto-completado, conteniendo preguntas retrospectivas y actuales sobre los resultados analizados. Los resultados indicaron que la percepción de la masa corporal, el nivel de actividad física, el tiempo de sueño y la salud mental (sólo para las niñas) son peores (p<0,05) en la actualidad en comparación con el período anterior a la pandemia. Por otro lado, los hábitos alimentarios y el tiempo de pantalla recreativo mostraron mejores resultados (p<0,05) en la actualidad que en el periodo anterior a la pandemia. Estos resultados muestran un panorama complejo en relación a la salud de los adolescentes en el período de reanudación de las actividades presenciales, haciendo de este retorno un desafío para los propios adolescentes, sus familias, profesores y para las escuelas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Schools , Students , Adolescent Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Sleep , Exercise/psychology , Body Mass Index , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Behavior , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Screen Time , Sleep Duration
2.
J Prev (2022) ; 44(3): 291-307, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237511

ABSTRACT

Screen time shows higher health risks compared to other types of sedentary behaviors. A lockdown may simultaneously increase screen time, reduce physical activity (PA), and change time perception. Our goal was to compare self-reported against objectively measured smartphone screen time (SST) in a sample of active and inactive Portuguese adults before and during a social lockdown. This study was a cross-sectional analysis with 211 Portuguese adults (57.8% males), aged 25.2 ± 8.5 years, from two cohorts, one before the social lockdown and the other during the lockdown. SST was self-reported (SR-SST) and objectively measured using a smartphone (OM-SST). PA was self-reported. Linear regressions were performed to determine the association between SR-SST and OM-SST. A Bland and Altman analysis was used to assess agreement. Independent T-tests were performed for comparisons between cohorts and paired sample T-tests for comparisons within each cohort. The cohort assessed during the lockdown showed a higher SST than the cohort assessed before the lockdown (OM-SST; p < 0.001 and SR-SST; p = 0.009). Before the lockdown, there was no difference between SR-SST and OM-SST (p = 0.100). However, during the social lockdown, although the agreement between SR-SST and OM-SST was good (ICC = 0.72), participants systematically underestimated their SST by ~ 71 min/day (p < 0.001), and this underestimation was higher in inactive participants (~ 85 min/day) than in active individuals (~ 49 min/day). The general population needs to be aware of the benefits of limiting screen time, especially during periods of societal modifications, such as a generalized lockdown. There was a tendency to underestimate SST, meaning a lack of awareness of the actual time spent in this potentially deleterious behavior. This underestimation was more pronounced during the lockdown period and for the inactive participants, thus posing a greater health risk. The findings from this investigation entail relevant information for policy makers to delineate strategies for reducing population screen time from a preventive health perspective.


Subject(s)
Screen Time , Smartphone , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise
3.
J Atten Disord ; 27(9): 973-978, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243231

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between screen time and symptom severity in children with ADHD during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: Caregivers of children with ADHD aged 7 to 16 years completed the screen time questionnaire and ADHD rating scales of the SNAP-IV-Thai version during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The correlation between screen time and ADHD scores was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 90 children, aged 11.31 ± 2.29 years, enrolled, 74.4% were male, 64.4% were in primary school, and 73% had electronic screens in their bedrooms. After adjusting with other factors, recreational screen time, both on weekdays and on weekend days, were positively correlated with ADHD scores (both inattention and hyperactive/impulsive scores). Studying screen time, on the other hand, was not associated with ADHD symptom severity. Compared to during the lockdown, studying screen time decreased after the lockdown, but recreational screen time and ADHD scores were not changed. CONCLUSION: Increasing recreational screen time was associated with worsening ADHD symptoms.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Screen Time , Communicable Disease Control , Impulsive Behavior
4.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 127, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescents have extensive use of screens and, they have common complains related to mental health. Here a systematic review was done to understand the association between screen time and adolescent's mental health. METHOD: This review was conducted in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - PRISMA. An update search was performed in January 2023 with the following keywords: "screen time," "adolescent," and "mental health" on PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. RESULTS: 50 articles were included, most have found associations between screen exposure and mental health in adolescents. The most used device by adolescents was the smartphone and the use on weekdays was associated with diminished mental well-being. Social media use was negatively associated with mental well-being and, in girls, associated at higher risk for depression. CONCLUSION: Excessive screen time in adolescents seems associated with mental health problems. Given the profusion and disparity of the results, additional studies are needed to clarify elements such as the screen content or the interaction of adolescents with different screen devices. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022302817.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Screen Time , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Smartphone , Depression , Psychological Well-Being
5.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the changes in distinct types of screen time and explore their longitudinal association with children and adolescents' weight status. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 2228 children and adolescents (6-19 years) in Shanghai, China, before and during the pandemic. Recreational screen time (watching TV/videos, online gaming, using social media, and browsing webpages), educational screen time (online homework and online class), and BMI were measured using a self-reported questionnaire. Mixed-effects models were constructed to assess the associations between screen time and weight status. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.5% and 10.2% at baseline, respectively. Both recreational and educational screen time increased significantly over two months. While recreational screen time was found to be a risk factor for obesity, it was not the case for educational screen use. Specifically, adolescents who spent more time watching TV/videos had a higher obesity risk (OR = 1.576). No significant associations were found in children. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were prevalent among children and adolescents in China. Reducing screen-based activities is a promising strategy to prevent unhealthy weight gain in Chinese children and adolescents, while it is necessary to consider the content and distinguish between educational and recreational screen use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Screen Time , China/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
6.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 7(1)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since COVID-19 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the disease has spread rapidly across the country. To reduce the spread of infection, schools including kindergartens were closed. Prolonged home confinement can affect children's behaviour. Therefore, we investigated the change of preschoolers' total daily screen time during the COVID-19 lockdown in China. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In the parental survey, 1121 preschoolers, whose parents or grandparents completed an online survey from 1 June 2020 to 5 June 2020, were enrolled. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Total daily screen time. Multivariable modelling was performed to identify factors associated with increased screen time. RESULTS: The results showed that preschoolers' total daily screen time during lockdown(median 2.5 hours, IQR 2.5 hours) was significantly longer than it was before lockdown (median 1.5 hours, IQR 1.0 hour). Older age (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.48), higher annual household income (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34),and decrease of moderate-vigorous physical activity (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.66) were independently associated with increased screen time. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers' total daily screen time significantly increased during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Screen Time , Child , Humans , Communicable Disease Control , Parents , China
7.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 8(1): 12, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Screen time refers to the time an individual spends using electronic or digital media devices such as televisions, smart phones, tablets or computers. The purpose of this study was to conduct systematic review to analyze the relevant studies on the length and use of screen time of school-aged children, in order to provide scientific basis for designing screen time interventions and perfecting the screen use guidelines for school-aged children. METHODS: Screen time related studies were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, Clinical Trials, Controlled Trials, The WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, and Whipple Journal databases from January 1, 2016 to October 31, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature and extracted the data, and adopted a qualitative analysis method to evaluate the research status of the length and usage of screen time of school-aged students. RESULTS: Fifty-three articles were included. Sixteen articles studied screen time length in the form of continuous variables. Thirty-seven articles studied screen time in the form of grouped variables. The average screen time of schoolchildren aged 6 to 14 was 2.77 h per day, and 46.4% of them had an average screen time ≥ 2 h per day. A growth trend could be roughly seen by comparing studies in the same countries and regions before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. The average rates of school-aged children who had screen time within the range of ≥ 2 h per day, were 41.3% and 59.4% respectively before and after January 2020. The main types of screen time before January 2020 were watching TV (20 literatures), using computers (16 literature), using mobile phones/tablets (4 literatures). The mainly uses of screens before January 2020 were entertainment (15 literatures), learning (5 literatures) and socializing (3 literatures). The types and mainly uses of screen time after January 2020 remained the same as the results before January 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive screen time has become a common behavior among children and adolescents around the world. Intervention measures to control children's screen use should be explored in combination with different uses to reduce the proportion of non-essential uses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Internet , Screen Time , COVID-19/epidemiology , Smartphone
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(6): 635-637, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301881

ABSTRACT

This cohort study compared children's recreational screen time with screen time before the COVID-19 pandemic and during 3 pandemic waves to examine whether changes in screen time were greater than those associated with age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Screen Time
9.
Acad Pediatr ; 23(3): 659-666, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in flourishing, school engagement, physical activity, and recreational screen time among school-aged children in the United States during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data come from the 2018-2020 National Survey of Children's Health for 68,203 children aged 6 to 17 years. Flourishing is always/usually curious to learn, resilient and having self-regulation. School engagement is always/usually completing homework and having interest in doing well in school. Other outcomes are daily 60+ minutes physical activity or number of such days, and daily recreational screen time or 2+ hours/day. Weighted regression models compare 2020 to 2019 and 2019 to 2018 adjusting for child/household covariates and state indicators. RESULTS: Among children age 6 to 17 years in 2020, there was a decline in flourishing (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.63, 0.75), school engagement (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64, 0.79), physically active days (0.26 days, 95% CI, 35, 0.17), and daily 60+ minutes activity (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83, 1.00), and increase in daily recreational screen time (0.29 hours; 95% CI, 0.25, 0.34) and 2+ hours/day (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.49-1.83) compared to 2019. These differences were observed across all evaluated demographic and socioeconomics subgroups. There were no significant differences between 2019 and 2018, indicating that the 2020-2019 differences were related to the pandemic rather than a continuation of prepandemic trends. CONCLUSIONS: Children's flourishing, school engagement, and physical activity declined while recreational screen time increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Monitoring these outcomes in the long-run is important to assessing needs and promoting children's learning and development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Screen Time , Exercise
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 380, 2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a huge impact on daily life, even in countries such as Sweden where the restrictions were relatively mild. This paper assesses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical activity (PA) patterns, screen time, and sleep among Swedish adolescents. The exposures explored include gender, parental education, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular fitness (CVF). METHODS: Cohort data were collected from September 26th to December 6th, 2019, and from April 12th to June 9th, 2021. Participants were 13-14 years-old (7th graders) at baseline with 585 participating at both baseline and follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up PA and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers, and sleep and screen time with questionnaires. The exposure variables (gender, parental education, anthropometrics and CVF) were collected at baseline. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) remained unchanged while light physical activity (LiPA) decreased and sedentary time increased. Sleep duration decreased and screen time increased. Girls, adolescents with overweight/obesity (BMI and percent body fat), and those with lower CVF at baseline had less favourable changes in PA patterns, sleep and screen time. CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant (α = 0.05) changes were seen in MVPA, both LiPA and sedentary time as well as sleep and screen time changed in unfavourable ways. More intense activities are often organised and seem to have withstood the pandemic, while less intense activities decreased. Some groups were more vulnerable and will need directed intervention in the post-pandemic period as well as when future pandemics hit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Screen Time , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Sweden/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Sleep
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1115789, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274557

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on the daily lives of adolescents. This study examined whether mental health outcomes had changed over the pandemic, and if such changes were related to changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep, screen time, and participation in organized sports. Materials and methods: In this longitudinal study, data were collected in autumn 2019 with follow-up measurements in spring 2021. In total, 558 schools were invited and 34 schools around Stockholm with a variation in socioeconomic background were included. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). Anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosomatic health, stress, sleep duration, screen time, and organized sports participation were self-reported in questionnaires. Linear models were applied to estimate associations between changes in mental health outcomes and exposures. Results: From the baseline sample of 1,139 participants, 585 (55% girls), mean (SD) age 14.9 (0.3) years, participated in the follow-up. Between 2019 and 2021, there was a decrease in HRQoL [mean difference -1.7 (-2.3, -1.2), p < 0.001], increase in psychosomatic health problems [mean difference 1.8 (1.3, 2.3), p < 0.001], and an increase in the number of participants with high stress [from 94 (28%) to 139 (42%), p < 0.001]. Weekly light PA and sleep duration decreased and weekly sedentary time and screen time increased unrelated to changes in mental health outcomes. An increase in sleep duration during weekdays was significantly related to both a decrease in anxiety (B = -0.71, CI: -1.36, -0.06) and an increase in HRQoL (B = 1.00, CI: 0.51, 1.49). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health appears to have been impaired in Swedish adolescents, but unrelated to changes in PA, sedentary time, screen time, or participation in organized sports. However, increased sleep duration on weekdays was related to less anxiety and better HRQoL. The results may help policy makers and other stakeholders comprehend the differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes and help guiding the planning of policy actions. Trial registration: ISRCTN15689873.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Behavior , Mental Health , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Sweden/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Sleep Duration , Screen Time , Sports , Education, Distance
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2256157, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241402

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread lockdowns and school closures that may have affected screen time among children. Although restrictions were strongest early in the pandemic, it is unclear how screen time changed as the pandemic progressed. Objective: To evaluate change in children's screen time from before the pandemic to during the pandemic, from July 2019 through August 2021. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of screen time collected before the pandemic and during 2 pandemic periods. Children aged 4 to 12 years and their parent were enrolled in 3 pediatric cohorts across 3 states in the US participating in the Environmental Influences of Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to July 2022. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic period: prepandemic (July 2019 to March 2020), pandemic period 1 (December 2020 to April 2021), and pandemic period 2 (May 2021 to August 2021). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were total, educational (not including remote school), and recreational screen time assessed via the ECHO Child Media Use questionnaire. Linear mixed-effects models were used for screen time adjusted for child's age, number of siblings, sex, race, ethnicity, and maternal education. Results: The cohort included 228 children (prepandemic mean [SD] age, 7.0 [2.7] years; 100 female [43.9%]) with screen time measured during the prepandemic period and at least once during the pandemic period. Prepandemic mean (SD) total screen time was 4.4 (3.9) hours per day and increased 1.75 hours per day (95% CI, 1.18-2.31 hours per day) in the first pandemic period and 1.11 hours per day (95% CI, 0.49-1.72 hours per day) in the second pandemic period, in adjusted models. Prepandemic mean (SD) recreational screen time was 4.0 (3.5) hours per day and increased 0.89 hours per day (95% CI, 0.39-1.39 hours per day) in the first pandemic period and 0.70 hours per day (95% CI, 0.16-1.25 hours per day) in the second pandemic period. Prepandemic mean (SD) educational screen time was 0.5 (1.2) hours per day (median [IQR], 0.0 [0.0-0.4] hours per day) and increased 0.93 hours per day (95% CI, 0.67-1.19 hours per day) in the first pandemic period and 0.46 hours per day (95% CI, 0.18-0.74 hours per day) in the second pandemic period. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that screen time among children increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and remained elevated even after many public health precautions were lifted. The long-term association of increased screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic with children's health needs to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Screen Time
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243810

ABSTRACT

This comparative-descriptive multi-national research examined the screen time and playtime of preschool children aged 1-6 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents reported on the play and screen habits of preschool-aged children on the weekday and weekends using a questionnaire on the lifestyle habits of their children. Results indicated a significant difference in screen time and playtime on the weekday and weekend before the pandemic (screen time: 1.91 ± 2.40 vs. 2.16 ± 2.60 h; playtime: 3.55 ± 2.49 vs. 4.11 ± 2.58 h, both p < 0.05), but during the COVID-19 pandemic, only the weekday-weekend difference in screen time was significantly different (screen time: 2.87 ± 3.15 vs. 3.26 ± 3.18 h, p < 0.05; playtime: 3.25 ± 3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 2.41, p > 0.05). Before- and during-COVID-19 comparisons showed that the average daily screen time increased by 150% from 2.04 h to 3.06 h (p < 0.05), while the average play time decreased by 12.3% (3.83 to 3.36 h, p < 0.05). Based upon international guidelines for movement behaviours of young children, special attention and actions are needed to manage the excessive daily screen time and preserve the average daily playtime of Javanese preschool children. These results present useful benchmarking data for parents, teachers, and health authorities to initiate ameliorative interventions to better balance children's screen time and playtime as Indonesia emerges from the COVID-19 pandemic to a COVID-19 endemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child, Preschool , Indonesia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Screen Time , Life Style
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 65, 2023 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study compared sleep duration, screen exposure and sleep quality in school-aged children before COVID-19 to that during school closures and again when schools re-opened in fall 2020. METHODS: Cross-sectional anonymous, online survey of parents of children 5-13 years old. Questions elicited information about sleep timing and quality, screen time, and schooling at three distinct periods: before the pandemic, when schools first closed and then re-opened in the fall. RESULTS: Respondents described 101 children who were an average of 8.5 years old and 51% male. In lockdown, children slept 25 min more (95%CI 00:13-00:38) due to later wake times (75 min, 95% CI 0:57-1:34) with later bedtimes (29 min, 95%CI 0:00-0:58). When schools re-opened, sleep duration returned to pre-pandemic levels, but sleep onset and offset times remained later. Despite more sleep, sleep quality and habits (e.g. bedtime refusal) worsened during lockdown and did not normalize in fall 2020. During lockdown, screen time increased in 65% of all children, and 96% of those in private schools. When schools reopened, 78% of children in hybrid/virtual learning had more than 4 h of screen exposure daily. Less screen time was associated with twofold higher odds of better sleep (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.15-6.14). CONCLUSIONS: Although school-aged children had more total sleep when schools were closed, sleep quality and habits worsened. Upon return to school, sleep times and quality did not normalize and were linked to screen time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Female , Screen Time , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Parents
15.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023013, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2226002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing prevalence of racial and ethnic discrimination occurred when many Americans struggled to maintain healthy lifestyles. This study investigated the associations of racial and ethnic discrimination with changes in exercise and screen time during the pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We included 2,613 adults who self-identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, or Hispanic from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic study, a cross-sectional survey conducted among a nationally representative sample of United States adults between October and November 2020. We assessed self-reported racial and ethnic discrimination by measuring COVID-19-related racial and ethnic bias and examined its associations with changes in exercise and screen time using multivariable logistic regression models. We analyzed data between September 2021 and March 2022. RESULTS: COVID-19-related racial and ethnic bias was associated with decreased exercise time among non-Hispanic Asian (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.89) and Hispanic people (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.77), and with increased screen time among non-Hispanic Black people (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.85), adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, annual household income, insurance, and employment status. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic discrimination may have adversely influenced exercise and screen time changes among racial and ethnic minorities during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms through which racial and ethnic discrimination can impact lifestyles and to develop potential strategies to address racial and ethnic discrimination as a barrier to healthy lifestyles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Black or African American , Cross-Sectional Studies , Screen Time , United States/epidemiology , White , Asian , Hispanic or Latino , Racism , Exercise
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143186

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the physical, psychological, and behavioral alteration in children in the age range between 3 and 18 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of parental perception. In this study, the survey model was used as a quantitative research method. A snowball sampling method was used, and 841 mothers participated. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, related samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It was found that the physical, psychological, and behavioral negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic varied depending on the developmental stages of the children. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, an increase in children's screen time, as well as a decrease in their physical activity time, was observed during the pandemic. In addition, it was found that screen time, physical activity time, and the square meters of the house are among the significant predictors of mood, behavioral changes, and nutritional problems in children. In terms of anxiety symptoms, physical activity time and screen time were found to be significant predictors. In addition, screen time, age, and physical activity time were observed to be significant predictors of cognitive change symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Screen Time , Exercise , Turkey/epidemiology
17.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(12): 1188-1198, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103449

ABSTRACT

Importance: To limit the spread of COVID-19, numerous restrictions were imposed on youths, including school closures, isolation requirements, social distancing, and cancelation of extracurricular activities, which independently or collectively may have shifted screen time patterns. Objective: To estimate changes in the duration, content, and context of screen time of children and adolescents by comparing estimates taken before the pandemic with those taken during the pandemic and to determine when and for whom screen time has increased the most. Data Sources: Electronic databases were searched between January 1, 2020, and March 5, 2022, including MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A total of 2474 nonduplicate records were retrieved. Study Selection: Study inclusion criteria were reported changes in the duration (minutes per day) of screen time before and during the pandemic; children, adolescents, and young adults (≤18 years); longitudinal or retrospective estimates; peer reviewed; and published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis: A total of 136 articles underwent full-text review. Data were analyzed from April 6, 2022, to May 5, 2022, with a random-effects meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in daily screen time comparing estimates taken before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The meta-analysis included 46 studies (146 effect sizes; 29 017 children; 57% male; and mean [SD] age, 9 [4.1] years) revealed that, from a baseline prepandemic value of 162 min/d (2.7 h/d), during the pandemic there was an increase in screen time of 84 min/d (1.4 h/d), representing a 52% increase. Increases were particularly marked for individuals aged 12 to 18 years (k [number of sample estimates] = 26; 110 min/d) and for device type (handheld devices [k = 20; 44 min/d] and personal computers [k = 13; 46 min/d]). Moderator analyses showed that increases were possibly larger in retrospective (k = 36; 116 min/d) vs longitudinal (k = 51; 65 min/d) studies. Mean increases were observed in samples examining both recreational screen time alone (k = 54; 84 min/d) and total daily screen time combining recreational and educational use (k = 33; 68 min/d). Conclusions and Relevance: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to considerable disruptions in the lives and routines of children, adolescents, and families, which is likely associated with increased levels of screen time. Findings suggest that when interacting with children and caregivers, practitioners should place a critical focus on promoting healthy device habits, which can include moderating daily use; choosing age-appropriate programs; promoting device-free time, sleep, and physical activity; and encouraging children to use screens as a creative outlet or a means to meaningfully connect with others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Young Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Screen Time , Retrospective Studies , Exercise
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 860098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089925

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has influenced education systems worldwide, and significantly increased screen time for college students, posing a potential risk of myopia. In China, ninety percent of college students suffer from myopia. Excessive screen time changes college students' lifestyles, imposes potential health risks, and affects opportunities for employment. It is important to identify the potential correlation between screen time use and myopia among college students. Methods: This paper conducted a nationwide experiment using Chinese college students and set a multiple-mediator SEM model to analyze the potential correlation between screen time and myopia. The two mediators were sedentary behavior and physical activity, respectively. Results: We obtained three valuable conclusions as follows: First, there was no significant direct relationship between screen time and myopia among Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Second, sedentary behavior and physical activity significantly predicted the increase/decrease of myopia among Chinese college students, respectively. Third, a serial multiple mediator that encompassed sedentary behavior and physical activity sequentially fully mediated the relationship between screen time and myopia. Conclusions: Although there was no directly significant relationship between screen time and myopia, screen time can indirectly influence the risk of suffering myopia by influencing sedentary behavior and physical activity. Our study demonstrates the need to prevent the potential influence of overuse of electronic devices on myopia in college students, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Humans , Screen Time , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Myopia/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032958

ABSTRACT

One major impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's lifestyles is the lack of exercise owing to activity restrictions. However, information regarding the way in which physical functions among children decline under these circumstances remains scarce. In this study, we compared the physical functions and life habits among children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The participants involved 40 children aged between 9-15 years (23 girls and 17 boys) who were examined medically both before and during the pandemic. The compared variables included muscle strength, static and dynamic balance functions, gait speed, body fat percentage, screen and sleep times, quality of life, and physical activity time. During the pandemic, compared to before the pandemic, children had lower levels of dynamic balance functions (p = 0.039), increased body fat percentages (p < 0.0001), longer screen time per day (p = 0.002), and shorter sleep time per day (p < 0.0001). Between the two periods, there were no significant differences in muscle strength, static balance functions, gait speed, quality of life, and physical activity time. The activity restrictions imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affect dynamic balance functions, body-fat levels, and life habits among children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Screen Time
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023663

ABSTRACT

Youth obesity has been a pandemic for decades. One of its causes is a low level of physical activity. It is necessary to know the specific situation of adolescents and the factors that influence it in order to be able to act accordingly. The first aim of the current study is to create an explanatory model to establish the relationships between light physical activity time, light physical activity energy expenditure, screen time and social support. The second aim is to propose a theoretical model specifying the relationships between moderate-vigorous physical activity time, moderate-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, screen time and social support. The study design was non-experimental (ex post facto), descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional. A total of 694 adolescents from the region of Soria (12-17 years) participated in the study. The instruments administered were the Four by One-Day Physical Activity Questionnaire, Parent Support Scale and Peer Support Scale. Two structural equation models were developed to analyse the relationships between the variables that comprised the explanatory models. The results show that social support had a negative influence on screen time in the proposed model in relation to light physical activity (r = -0.210; p ≤ 0.001) and in the proposed one regarding moderate-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.173; p ≤ 0.05). Social support was negatively related to light physical activity time (r = -0.167; p ≤ 0.05). Family support had a greater influence than did peer support. In conclusion, the models for light and moderate-vigorous physical activity are useful to describe the relationships between time, energy expenditure, screen time and social support.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Screen Time , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Risk Factors , Social Support
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL