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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140875, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595340

ABSTRACT

Importance: Longitudinal research on specific forms of electronic screen use and mental health symptoms in children and youth during COVID-19 is minimal. Understanding the association may help develop policies and interventions targeting specific screen activities to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth. Objective: To determine whether specific forms of screen use (television [TV] or digital media, video games, electronic learning, and video-chatting time) were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, irritability, hyperactivity, and inattention in children and youth during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in children and youth aged 2 to 18 years in Ontario, Canada, between May 2020 and April 2021 across 4 cohorts of children or youth: 2 community cohorts and 2 clinically referred cohorts. Parents were asked to complete repeated questionnaires about their children's health behaviors and mental health symptoms during COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The exposure variables were children's daily TV or digital media time, video game time, electronic-learning time, and video-chatting time. The mental health outcomes were parent-reported symptoms of child depression, anxiety, conduct problems and irritability, and hyperactivity/inattention using validated standardized tools. Results: This study included 2026 children with 6648 observations. In younger children (mean [SD] age, 5.9 [2.5] years; 275 male participants [51.7%]), higher TV or digital media time was associated with higher levels of conduct problems (age 2-4 years: ß, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.10-0.35]; P < .001; age ≥4 years: ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.11]; P = .007) and hyperactivity/inattention (ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.006-0.14]; P = .04). In older children and youth (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [3.3] years; 844 male participants [56.5%]), higher levels of TV or digital media time were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and inattention; higher levels of video game time were associated with higher levels of depression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. Higher levels of electronic learning time were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher levels of screen use were associated poor mental health of children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest that policy intervention as well as evidence-informed social supports are needed to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Screen Time , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Child , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 245-246, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595092
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 51-58, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593811

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the association of daily screen time and quality of sleep with the prevalence of dry eye among college-going women. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, comparative questionnaire-based study of 547 college-going women in northern India. A 10-item Mini Sleep Questionnaire was used to check the quality of sleep, and the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) scale was used to examine the prevalence of dry eye among college-going women. Results: Multinomial logistic regression showed a significant association between dry eye with daily screen time spent (P < 0.05) and the quality of sleep (P < 0.05) among college-going girls. Using Latent Class Analysis, two latent classes were selected based on the Bayesian Information Criteria. It was found that the majority population falls in class two and was having Severe Sleep-Wake difficulty. It was seen that the participants in class two belonged to the age bracket of 18-21 years, were from stream Humanities, education of father and mother equal to graduation, father working only, belonging to the nuclear family, having one sibling, hailing from the urban locality, spending more than 6 h daily on-screen, a majority of them using mobile phones, not using eye lubricants, and reported an increase in screen time during COVID-19. Conclusion: Dry eye and sleep quality are essential global health issues, and coupled with increased screen time, may pose a challenge in the present era. Preventive strategies need to be incorporated in school and college curriculums to promote physical, social, and psychological well-being and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dry Eye Syndromes , Adolescent , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 785679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581104

ABSTRACT

Background: The negative impact of isolation, confinement, and physical (in)activity due to pandemic movement restriction has been well-documented over the past year, but less is known on the impact of these policies on children's physical fitness. This study was designed to determine the effects of pandemic movement restriction policies on the 24-hour movement behavior (24-HMB) of children, and whether any alterations are reflected in worsening physical fitness outcomes determined via direct testing. Methods: A two-phase, repeated-measures study with matched controls was conducted. Phase One: N = 62 schoolchildren (N = 31 female) completed self-assessment questionnaires on 24-HMB in October 2018 (pre-pandemic) and again in April 2020, at the height of movement restrictions enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic first wave. Phase Two: physical fitness of the original N = 62 children were determined directly pre- and post-isolation using an eight-component standardized fitness test battery and compared to N = 62 control children who were matched for age, sex, school region, and fitness centile scores. Results: During lockdown (total duration: 63 days), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) decreased by ~46 min per day, screen time demonstrated a significant interaction effect, such that kids reported spending less recreational screen time on weekends during lockdown compared to no restriction, and sleep duration was consistently lower (95% CI: -104.1 to -45.5 min, p < 0.001). No interaction effect was present for direct fitness indicators, including: hand tapping (reaction time), standing broad jump, polygon backward obstacle course (coordination), sit-ups, stand-and-reach, bent-arm hang, 60-m, and 600-m run (p ≥ 0.05) although significant main effects are noted for both sexes. Conclusion: Initial changes in 24-HMB did not translate to reductions in physical fitness per se, likely due to the high initial fitness levels of the children. Further work is needed to confirm whether longer or repeated movement restrictions exacerbate initial negative 24-HMB trends, especially for children who are less fit when restrictions are initiated, prolonged, or repeated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Fitness , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sleep
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity (PA) and recreational screen time (RST) behaviors from pre-COVID-19 in 2018 to Spring 2020 during the mandatory stay-at-home order in an ethnically/racially, socioeconomically diverse sample of emerging adults. METHODS: Longitudinal data were analyzed from 218 participants (Mage = 24.6 ± 2.0 years) who completed two surveys: EAT 2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) and C-EAT in 2020 (during COVID-19). Repeated ANCOVAs and multiple linear regression models were conducted. RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous and total PA decreased (4.7 ± 0.3 to 3.5 ± 0.3 h/week [p < 0.001] and 7.9 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 0.4 h/week [p < 0.001], respectively), and RST increased from 26.5 ± 0.9 to 29.4 ± 0.8 h/week (p = 0.003). Perceived lack of neighborhood safety, ethnic/racial minoritized identities, and low socioeconomic status were significant predictors of lower PA and higher RST during COVID-19. For example, low SES was associated with 4.04 fewer hours of total PA compared to high SES (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Stay-at-home policies may have significantly influenced PA and RST levels in emerging adults with pre-existing disparities exacerbated during this mandatory period of sheltering-in-place. This suggests that the pandemic may have played a role in introducing or magnifying these disparities. Post-pandemic interventions will be needed to reverse trends in PA and RST, with a focus on improving neighborhood safety and meeting the needs of low socioeconomic and ethnic/racial minoritized groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High school education took place in the form of distance learning during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic worldwide, including Hungary. Decreased physical activity and an increase in inactive behaviours may lead to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. AIM: Our study targeted changes in physical activity (aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening) and screen time in adolescents and young adults during the pandemic. METHODS: High school students were interviewed in 66 public schools in 37 Hungarian cities (N = 2508). Survey items on physical activity and screen time were derived from the WHO Health Behaviour of School-aged Children Survey and the Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey. A 2 × 2 factorial ANCOVA was used to test the effects of gender (male vs. female) and/or age (adolescents vs. young adults) on the reported changes in physical activity and screen time before and during lockdown (covariate: BMI Z-score). RESULTS: The majority of the cohort indicated less physical activity. Aerobic and muscle-strengthening type of exercises significantly decreased, and screen time increased during distance education. Male individuals showed a higher decrease in the level of aerobic exercise, and young adults reported a higher increase in the time spent in front of the screen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Screen Time , Students , Young Adult
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerges in China, which spreads rapidly and becomes a public health emergency of international concern. Chinese government has promptly taken quarantine measures to block the transmission of the COVID-19, which may cause deleterious consequences on everyone's behaviors and psychological health. Few studies have examined the associations between behavioral and mental health in different endemic areas. This study aimed to describe screen time (ST), physical activity (PA), and depressive symptoms, as well as their associations among Chinese college students according to different epidemic areas. METHODS: The study design is cross-sectional using online survey, from 4 to 12 February 2020, 14,789 college students accomplished this online study, participants who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded, and finally this study included 11,787 college students from China. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 20.51 ± 1.88 years. 57.1% of the college students were male. In total, 25.9% of college students reported depression symptoms. ST > 4 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.48, 95%CI 0.37-0.59). COVID-19ST > 1 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.54, 95%CI 0.43-0.65), compared with COVID-19ST ≤ 0.5 h/day. Compared with PA ≥ 3 day/week, PA < 3 day/week was positively associated with depression symptoms (ß = 0.01, 95%CI 0.008-0.012). Compared with low ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36). Compared with low COVID-19ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high COVID-19ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.37, 95%CI 0.32-0.43). There were also current residence areas differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified that high ST or low PA was positively associated with depressive symptoms independently, and there was also an interactive effect between ST and PA on depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Exercise , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Universities , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488568

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand differences in leisure, educational/work and social screen time behaviours experienced by parents and children due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, which may inform behaviour change strategies and policy in the transition to a COVID-normal life. Participants in the "Our Life at Home" study (n = 218 parents from Australia, 43.4 ± 6.8 years, 88% female) completed a cross-sectional online survey in April/May 2020. Parents recalled their own and their child (8.7 ± 2.0 years, 42% female) or adolescents (15.0 ± 1.5 years, 50% female) participation in nine screen time behaviours in the past month (during lockdown) and retrospectively for February 2020 (pre-lockdown), providing data on 436 individuals. Screen time behaviours included leisure (computer/laptop and tablet/smartphone for leisure, TV/videos/DVDs and game consoles); education/work (computer/laptop and tablet/smartphone for work/education); and social screen time (computer/tablet/smartphone for social communication with friends, family and work (parents only)). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and effect sizes (r) compared the time spent in each behaviour pre-lockdown and during lockdown. Large differences were observed in social (parents: r = 0.41-0.57; children: r = 0.55-0.65; adolescents: r = 0.28-0.43) and education (children: r = 0.50-0.65 and adolescents: r = 0.25-0.37) behaviours. There were small or no differences in leisure time screen use. COVID-19 lockdown restrictions have impacted parent's and children's screen time, and future research and policy should consider strategies to support families to manage screen time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Screen Time , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Television
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a significant decrease in physical activity, an increase in sedentary behavior, and thus also such things as screen time or a change in health behavior patterns. The survey aimed to compare levels of physical activity, screen time, hours spent sitting and sleeping time among Polish children aged 3-5 years of age before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We identified 3000 respondents under five years of age, at Polish kindergartens. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions according to the recommendations of health behavior in school-aged children. The questionnaire was completed by the parents of these children. RESULTS: Only 30.77% of children complied with WHO criteria before the pandemic. During the pandemic, the percentage of children meeting the recommendations for physical activity decreased even more. Children spent much more time in a sitting position before the restrictions. The children slept as recommended 10-13 h a day, and the pandemic caused an increase in sleep duration of 10-18%. Most children had a limited time allowed for the use of electronic devices already before the pandemic, but during the pandemic the results negatively decreased by 71.54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate decreased physical activity and increased screen time. It is also crucial to develop recommendations for prevention management strategies of sedentary lifestyles in the youngest group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , World Health Organization
10.
J Pediatr ; 239: 59-66.e1, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in electronic screen-based media use in 3- to 7-year-old children across 6 countries as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Between April and July 2020, parents of 2516 children completed online survey measures reporting current ("now") and retrospective ("before the pandemic") screen-based media use for the purposes of entertainment, educational app use, and socializing with family and friends. Parents also reported family socioeconomic characteristics and impacts of the pandemic to their physical wellbeing (eg, whether a family member or friend had been diagnosed with COVID-19) and social disruption (eg, whether family experienced a loss of income or employment due to the pandemic). RESULTS: On average, children engaged with screens more than 50 minutes more during the pandemic than before. This was largely driven by increases in screen use for entertainment purposes (nearly 40 minutes) and for use of educational apps (over 20 minutes). There was no overall change in screen use for socializing with family and friends. Children from lower socioeconomic status households increased screen use both for entertainment and educational app use more so than did children from higher socioeconomic status households. CONCLUSIONS: The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has increased overall electronic screen-based media use. As lives become increasingly digital by necessity, further research is needed to better understand positive and negative consequences of electronic screen-based media use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Screen Time , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Time Factors
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127892, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445779

ABSTRACT

Importance: Children's physical activity and screen time are likely suboptimal during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may influence their current and future mental health. Objective: To describe the association of physical activity and screen time with mental health among US children during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 22 to November 2, 2020, among 547 parents of children aged 6 to 10 years and 535 parent-child dyads with children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) aged 11 to 17 years and matched down to 500 children per cohort using US Census-based sampling frames. Children aged 11 to 17 years self-reported physical activity, screen time, and mental health, and their parents reported other measures. Parents of children aged 6 to 10 years reported all measures. All 1000 cases were further weighted to a sampling frame corresponding to US parents with children aged 6 to 17 years using propensity scores. Exposures: Child physical activity, screen time, COVID-19 stressors, and demographics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for total difficulties and externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Results: Among the 1000 children included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 10.8 [3.5] years; 517 [52.6%] boys; 293 [31.6%] American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, or Black individuals or individuals of other race; and 233 [27.8%] Hispanic/Latino individuals), 195 (20.9%) reported at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Children reported a mean (SD) of 3.9 (2.2) d/wk with at least 60 minutes of physical activity and 4.4 (2.5) h/d of recreational screen time. COVID-19 stressors were significantly associated with higher total difficulties for both younger (ß coefficient, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9) and older (ß coefficient, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7) groups. After accounting for COVID-19 stressors, engaging in 7 d/wk (vs 0) of physical activity was associated with fewer externalizing symptoms in younger children (ß coefficient, -2.0; 95% CI, -3.4 to -0.6). For older children, engaging in 1 to 6 and 7 d/wk (vs 0) of physical activity was associated with lower total difficulties (ß coefficients, -3.5 [95% CI, -5.3 to -1.8] and -3.6 [95% CI, -5.8 to -1.4], respectively), fewer externalizing symptoms (ß coefficients, -1.5 [95% CI, -2.5 to -0.4] and -1.3 [95% CI, -2.6 to 0], respectively), and fewer internalizing symptoms (ß coefficients, -2.1 [95% CI, -3.0 to -1.1] and -2.3 [95% CI, -3.5 to -1.1], respectively). More screen time was correlated with higher total difficulties among younger (ß coefficient, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5) and older (ß coefficient, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) children. There were no significant differences by sex. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional survey study, more physical activity and less screen time were associated with better mental health for children, accounting for pandemic stressors. Children engaged in suboptimal amounts of physical activity and screen time, making this a potentially important target for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/psychology , Mental Health , Screen Time , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444281

ABSTRACT

Binge watching is becoming increasingly common and may impact energy balance and body weight. The COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions conducive to binge watching and increased stress. We investigated relationships between COVID-related stress and binge watching behaviors, and potential variation in this relationship by body weight. Adults (n = 466) completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing binge watching behaviors during and before the pandemic, COVID-related stress, and body weight. Participants reported an increase in binge watching frequency from before to during the pandemic (F1,401 = 99.970, p < 0.001), with rates of high binge watching ("3-4 times per week" to "3 or more times per day") increasing from 14.6% to 33.0%. Binge watching episode duration increased from 3.26 ± 1.89 h to 3.92 ± 2.08 h (p < 0.001). The increase in binge watching frequency was greatest in individuals with obesity and high stress (F 4,401 = 4.098, p = 0.003). Participants reporting high stress reported higher frequency of eating while binge watching, as well as higher levels of negative emotional triggers, consequences to binge watching, and lack of control over binge watching (all p < 0.001). Our results show that binge watching increased during the pandemic, with greater increases among individuals reporting higher COVID-related stress, especially those with obesity, and concomitant effects on eating, and highlight a need for interventions to minimize the obesogenic impact of binge watching during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19/psychology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/psychology , Screen Time , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 421, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growing number of adolescents who are overweight or obese (OW / OB) is a public concern. The present study was aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) (screen time (ST) and homework time (HT)) among Yazd OW/OB adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed among 510 students aged 12-16 in Yazd, Iran. The general information, PA, and SB (ST and HT) were collected by interview based on the WHO standard questionnaire. Anthropometric data were assessed by precise instruments. Daily energy intake (Energy) was obtained from a 7-day food record. Nutritionist 4 software (version I) was run to estimate the energy. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of SB > 2h/day (97.6), ST > 2h/day (70.3%), overweight or obesity (40%), abdominal obesity (36.9%), physical inactivity (29.8%) among the students. The younger age (p = 0.014), energy (p < 0.001), no access to the yard (p < 0.001), family size ≤ 2 (p = 0.023), passive transportation, (p = 0.001), the highest school days' HT (p = 0.033) and SB (p = 0.021), and the highest weekends' HT among the students were the risk factors for OW/OB. The highest PA level was associated with a lower risk of OW/OB (p < 0.001). The findings were not the same in both sexes. Compared to the normal weight students, OW / OB spent more time on school days and weekdays for ST (P <0.001), HT (P <0.001, P = 0.005) and SB (P <0.001), respectively. OW/OB students showed a higher weekends' ST (p < 0.001) and lower HT (p = 0.048) than normal-weight students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SB, ST, OW/OB, and physical inactivity were common. The school days and weekends' HT, the school days' SB and HT, age, energy, PA, and access to the yard, family size, and passive transportation were related to the greater chances of OW/OB students. Given that the expansion of online education and self-isolation in a new situation with COVID-19, it seems we will meet the worrying results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior
15.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1115-1121, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412624

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the outbreak of COVID-19, outdoor activities were limited and digital learning increased. Concerns have arisen regarding the impact of these environmental changes on the development of myopia. Objective: To investigate changes in the development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 2 groups of students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, were prospectively enrolled and monitored from grade 2 to grade 3. Comparisons between the exposure and nonexposure groups were made to evaluate any association between environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period and development of myopia. The exposure group received complete eye examinations in November and December 2019 and November and December 2020. The nonexposure group received examinations in November and December 2018 and November and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3. Results: Among the 2679 eligible students in grade 2 (mean [SD] age, 7.76 [0.32] years; 1422 [53.1%] male), 2114 (1060 in the nonexposure group and 1054 in the exposure group) were reexamined in grade 3. Compared with the period from November and December 2018 to November and December 2019, the shift of SER, AL elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3 from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 was 0.36 D greater (95% CI, 0.32-0.41; P < .001), 0.08 mm faster (95% CI, 0.06-0.10; P < .001), and 7.9% higher (95% CI, 5.1%-10.6%; P < .001), respectively. In grade 3 students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 13.3% (141 of 1060 students) in November and December 2019 to 20.8% (219 of 1054 students) in November and December 2020 (difference [95% CI], 7.5% [4.3-10.7]; P < .001); the proportion of children without myopia and with SER greater than -0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D increased from 31.1% (286 of 919 students) to 49.0% (409 of 835 students) (difference [95% CI], 17.9% [13.3-22.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, development of myopia increased during the COVID-19 outbreak period in young schoolchildren in China. Consequently, myopia prevalence and the proportion of children without myopia who were at risk of developing myopia increased. Future studies are needed to investigate long-term changes in myopia development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Myopia/epidemiology , Vision, Ocular , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recreation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390627

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 24 h movement behaviors of adolescents. This was conducted to capture their evolution from February to December 2020, as well as to explore the use of technology for physical activity purposes by adolescents as a strategy to increase their physical activity during the pandemic. Physical activity, recreational screen time, sleep duration, and sleep quality were self-reported by 2661 adolescents using an online questionnaire. Participants also indicated, in comparison with the previous winter (regular in-class learning), how their different movement behaviors changed during the following 2020 periods: (1) spring (school closures), (2) summer (school break), and (3) autumn (hybrid learning). Finally, information about the use of technology during physical activity was collected. Results show that the 24 h movement behaviors of the participants varied across the different periods, and these variations were consistent with the restrictive measures imposed by the government. It was also observed that the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep duration and quality peaked in autumn. Finally, participants' physical activity levels were associated with the use of physical activity-related tools and applications. In conclusion, the restrictive measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic worsened the situation of the 24 h movement behaviors in adolescents, which has become critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 37, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379697

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the effect of home quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia progression in children and its associated factors. Methods: Myopic children aged 7 to 12 years with regular follow-up visits every half a year from April 2019 to May 2020 were included. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at baseline and at two follow-up visits. The first follow-up visit (visit 1) was conducted before the COVID-19 home quarantine, whereas the second (visit 2) was four months after the home quarantine. Myopia progression at visits 1 and 2 were compared. Factors associated with changes in myopia progression were tested with a multiple regression analysis. Results: In total, 201 myopic children were enrolled. There was a significantly greater change in spherical equivalent at visit 2 (-0.98 ± 0.52 D) than at visit 1 (-0.39 ± 0.58 D; P < 0.001). Students were reported to have spent more time on digital devices for online learning (P < 0.001) and less time on outdoor activities (P < 0.001) at visit 2 than at visit 1. Children using television and projectors had significantly less myopic shift than those using tablets and mobile phones (P < 0.001). More time spent on digital screens (ß = 0.211, P < 0.001), but not less time on outdoor activities (ß = -0.106, P = 0.110), was associated with greater myopia progression at visit 2. Conclusions: Changes in behavior and myopic progression were found during the COVID-19 home quarantine. Myopic progression was associated with digital screen use for online learning, but not time spent on outdoor activities. The projector and television could be better choices for online learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computers/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , China/epidemiology , Computer Terminals , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 23(5)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377035

ABSTRACT

Objective: As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is the first pandemic to occur in the modern smartphone era, people universally rely on their electronic devices to stay current on the rapidly evolving circumstances. The objective of this study was to examine how daily screen time levels affect the mental health of health care workers attempting to stay up to date on the ever-changing COVID-19-related information available to them.Methods: Health care workers at an academic teaching hospital were asked to participate in a 12-question online-based survey between the dates of May 30, 2020, and June 3, 2020. The questions included their sex, age range, occupation, department, daily screen time, changes in screen time in the last 4 weeks, and mental health outcomes such as sleep, mood, anxiety, and difficulty controlling worry.Results: No association was found between age, sex, occupation, and screen time. There was a statistically significant association between the type of department and daily screen time hours (P = .012). A positive trend was noted between screen time and sleep disruption (P = .09). An increase in hours in the last 4 weeks was associated with age (P = .03). A positive trend was also noted for an increase in screen hours and sleep disruption (P = .11) and anxiety (P = .10).Conclusions: A possible explanation for our finding of screen time not being associated with mental health outcomes could be that the knowledge that information was readily available through technology provided comfort to people as the pandemic evolved and brought changes to their daily lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time
20.
Child Obes ; 17(6): 371-378, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364718

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children and families have had to adapt their daily lives. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in the weight-related behaviors of children with obesity after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Semistructured interviews (n = 51) were conducted from April to June 2020 with parents of children with obesity. Families were participants in a randomized trial testing a clinic-community pediatric obesity treatment model. During interviews, families described their experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular emphasis on children's diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Rapid qualitative analysis methods were used to identify themes around changes in children's weight-related behaviors. Results: The mean child age was 9.7 (±2.8) years and the majority of children were Black (46%) or Hispanic (39%) and from low-income families (62%). Most parent participants were mothers (88%). There were differences in the perceived physical activity level of children, with some parents attributing increases in activity or maintenance of activity level to increased outdoor time, whereas others reported a decline due to lack of outdoor time, school, and structured activities. Key dietary changes included increased snacking and more meals prepared and consumed at home. There was a shift in sleep schedules with children going to bed and waking up later and an increase in leisure-based screen time. Parents played a role in promoting activity and managing children's screen time. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique lifestyle challenges and opportunities for lifestyle modification. Clinical Trials ID: NCT03339440.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Adolescent , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Life Style , Male , Meals , North Carolina , Pandemics , Screen Time , Sleep , Snacks
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