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3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1398-1408, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections during previous coronavirus epidemics involving severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome resulted from human-to-human transmission in hemodialysis (HD) facilities. The effect of a strategy of HD with cohort isolation-separate dialysis sessions for close contacts of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-on the prevention of secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in HD units is unknown. METHODS: Our multicenter cohort study of an HD with cohort isolation strategy enrolled close contacts of patients with confirmed COVID-19, including patients on HD and health care workers in HD units. Close contacts had been identified by epidemiologic investigation and tested negative on an immediate screening test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: As of March 14, 11 patients on HD and 7 health care workers from 11 HD centers were diagnosed as having COVID-19. The immediate screening test was performed in 306 people, and among them, 302 close contacts with negative test results were enrolled. HD with cohort isolation was performed among all close contacts for a median of 14 days in seven centers. During cohort isolation, nine patients showed symptoms but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two health care workers in the HD units (0.66% of the total group) were diagnosed at the termination test for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission of COVID-19 can be controlled without closure of HD centers by implementing preemptive activities, including early detection with rapid testing, cohort isolation, collaboration between institutions, and continuous monitoring of infection. Our strategy and experience may provide helpful guidance for circumstances involving the rapid spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Program Evaluation , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Rate
5.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 28(4): 228-234, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic, referred to as COVID-19, has spread throughout the globe since its first case in China in December 2019, leaving a significant number of people infected and clinically ill. The purpose of this review is to provide the current known clinical characteristics of and management for COVID-19 as it relates to otolaryngology. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 is a highly transmissible respiratory disease with common presenting symptoms of fever, cough, and fatigue. In the absence of available vaccines or antiviral therapies, symptomatic and respiratory support is the current standard of therapy. Measures to prevent further transmission have been enacted globally including social distancing and cancellation of public events. Given elevated viral load in the upper aerodigestive tract, extra precautions in patients with otolaryngology needs have been recommended for protection of both healthcare workers and patients. SUMMARY: Otolaryngologists face unique risk from COVID-19. Maintaining appropriate preventive health measures and remaining updated on institutional clinical guidelines is paramount for both caretaker safety and patient care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Otolaryngologists/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration
12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(2): 131-138, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18396

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. SARS-CoV-2 may be originated from bats, and the patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of epidemic infection. The virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people at all ages are susceptible to this virus. The main clinical symptoms of the patients are fever and cough, accompanied with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Effective drugs have been not yet available thus far. In terms of the prevention and control strategies, vaccine development as the primary prevention should be accelerated. Regarding the secondary prevention, ongoing efforts of the infected patients and close contacts quarantine, mask wearing promotion, regular disinfection in public places should be continued. Meanwhile, rapid detection kit for serological monitoring of the virus in general population is expected so as to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment. In addition, public health education on this disease and prevention should be enhanced so as to mitigate panic and mobilize the public to jointly combat the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Leukopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS Virus , Secondary Prevention , Viral Vaccines
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