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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00221920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1581648

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study analyzed changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors according to correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic among Brazilian adults. A national retrospective online survey was conducted with 39,693 Brazilian adults. Physical activity (weekly frequency and daily duration; cut-off point of 150 minutes/week), TV-viewing time and computer/tablet use (daily duration; cut-off point of 4 hours/day) before and during the pandemic period were reported. Sex, age group, schooling level, skin color, per capita income, country region, working status during the quarantine, and adherence to the quarantine were the correlates. Descriptive statistics were used. The prevalence of physical inactivity, high TV-viewing time and computer/tablet use increased, respectively, 26%, 266%, and 38% during the pandemic. While increases in physical inactivity and computer/tablet were more widespread, higher increases in the prevalence of high TV viewing tiem were observed among younger adults (660%), with higher schooling level (437%) and those who were at home office (331%). The prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors increased in all population sub-groups during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.


Resumo: O estudo buscou analisar mudanças na prevalência de inatividade física e comportamento sedentário de acordo com correlatos durante a pandemia da COVID-19 entre adultos brasileiros. Foi realizado um inquérito retrospectivo online, de base nacional, com 39.693 adultos brasileiros. Foram relatadas antes e durante a pandemia: atividade física (frequência semanal e duração diária; ponto de corte de 150 minutos/semana), tempo em TV e computador/tablet (duração diária; ponto de corte de 4 horas/dia). Os correlatos foram sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade, cor da pele, renda per capita, macrorregião, situação de trabalho durante o isolamento social e adesão ao isolamento. Foram utilizadas estatísticas descritivas. A prevalência de inatividade física, tempo de TV e tempo de computador/tablet aumentaram 26%, 266% e 38%, respectivamente, durante a pandemia. Os aumentos na inatividade física e no uso de computador/tablet foram mais prevalentes em geral, mas o aumento na prevalência de tempo elevado na frente da televisão foi maior entre adultos mais jovens (660%), com maior escolaridade (437%) e aqueles que trabalhavam em home office (331%). A prevalência de inatividade física e de comportamento sedentário aumentou em todos os subgrupos da população brasileira durante a pandemia da COVID-19.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la prevalencia de inactividad física y comportamientos sedentarios, según correlaciones durante la pandemia de COVID-19, entre adultos brasileños. Se realizó una encuesta nacional retrospectiva con 39.693 adultos brasileños. Se informó de actividad física (frecuencia semanal y duración diaria; punto de corte de 150 minutos/semana), ver TV y el uso de computadora/tablet (duración diaria; punto de corte de 4 horas/día) antes y durante el periodo pandémico. Las correlaciones fueron: sexo, grupo de edad, logros académicos más altos, color de piel, ingresos per cápita, macrorregión del país, estatus laboral durante la cuarentena, y adherencia a la cuarentena. Se usaron estadísticas descriptivas. La prevalencia de inactividad física, ver la TV durante mucho tiempo y el uso de computadora/tablet, incrementó, respectivamente, un 26%, 266% y 38% durante la pandemia. Al igual que el incremento en inactividad física, y que el uso de la computadora/tablet era el más extendido, se observaron incrementos más altos en la prevalencia de ver más la TV entre los jóvenes adultos (660%), con un nivel de educación más alto (437%) y entre quienes estaban teletrabajando (331%). La prevalencia de inactividad física y comportamientos sedentarios se incrementaron en todos los subgrupos de población durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19 , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 587146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574304

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a fast spreading virus leading to the development of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Severe and critical cases are characterized by damage to the respiratory system, endothelial inflammation, and multiple organ failure triggered by an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, culminating in the high number of deaths all over the world. Sedentarism induces worse, continuous, and progressive consequences to health. On the other hand, physical activity provides benefits to health and improves low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effects of physical activity in physical fitness, immune defense, and its contribution to mitigate the severe inflammatory response mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Physical exercise is an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this sense, studies have shown that acute physical exercise induces the production of myokines that are secreted in tissues and into the bloodstream, supporting its systemic modulatory effect. Therefore, maintaining physical activity influence balance the immune system and increases immune vigilance, and also might promote potent effects against the consequences of infectious diseases and chronic diseases associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. Protocols to maintain exercise practice are suggested and have been strongly established, such as home-based exercise (HBE) and outdoor-based exercise (OBE). In this regard, HBE might help to reduce levels of physical inactivity, bed rest, and sitting time, impacting on adherence to physical activity, promoting all the benefits related to exercise, and attracting patients in different stages of treatment for COVID-19. In parallel, OBE must improve health, but also prevent and mitigate COVID-19 severe outcomes in all populations. In conclusion, HBE or OBE models can be a potent strategy to mitigate the progress of infection, and a coadjutant therapy for COVID-19 at all ages and different chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Exercise , Healthy Lifestyle , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sedentary Behavior , Animals , Home Care Services , Humans , Physical Fitness , Social Isolation
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24059, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574866

ABSTRACT

During lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals have experienced poor sleep quality and sleep regularity, changes in lifestyle behaviours, and heightened depression and anxiety. However, the inter-relationship and relative strength of those behaviours on mental health outcomes is still unknown. We collected data between 12 May and 15 June 2020 from 1048 South African adults (age: 32.76 ± 14.43 years; n = 767 female; n = 473 students) using an online questionnaire. Using structural equation modelling, we investigated how insomnia symptoms, sleep regularity, exercise intensity/frequency and sitting/screen-use (sedentary screen-use) interacted to predict depressive and anxiety-related symptoms before and during lockdown. We also controlled for the effects of sex and student status. Irrespective of lockdown, (a) more severe symptoms of insomnia and greater sedentary screen-use predicted greater symptoms of depression and anxiety and (b) the effects of sedentary screen-use on mental health outcomes were mediated by insomnia. The effects of physical activity on mental health outcomes, however, were only significant during lockdown. Low physical activity predicted greater insomnia symptom severity, which in turn predicted increased depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Overall, relationships between the study variables and mental health outcomes were amplified during lockdown. The findings highlight the importance of maintaining physical activity and reducing sedentary screen-use to promote better sleep and mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , South Africa , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572579

ABSTRACT

The coexistence of childhood obesity (or its risk) and COVID-19 pandemic put children and adolescents in greater risk to develop respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, the restrictions introduced to limit the spread of the virus had detrimental effects on various lifestyle components, especially in young population. This resulted in augmented levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors and a reduced time spent in play outdoors or sport practices. Contrariwise, the increased use of technology led clinicians, teachers, and trainers to maintain relations with obese children/adolescents so as to reduce sedentary behaviors and the associated health risks. This narrative review aims to describe the role of Telehealth and Tele-exercise as useful tools in the management of pediatric obesity during COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and Tele-exercise were effective in promoting self-monitoring and behavioral changes, including adherence to exercise training programs in children and adolescents. Moreover, tele-exercise platforms such as applications or exergames allowed flexible scheduling, limiting the infection risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Telemedicine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has affected people's health in various ways. University students are a particularly sensitive group for mental and physical health issues. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the mental and physical health of male and female first-year university students during and before COVID-19. METHOD: Total of 115 first-year university students (54% male) answered questions about mental and physical health. The students were asked to estimate their physical activity, sedentary behavior, loneliness, stress, and sleep quality during COVID-19 opposed to before the pandemic. RESULT: Males had fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, and their self-esteem was higher than females (p<0.05). Over 50% of both genders estimated their mental health to be worse than before COVID-19. Larger proportion of males (69%) compared to females (38%) estimated that their physical health had worsened than before the pandemic. Larger proportion of females (38%) than males (14%) experience increased loneliness and stress (68% vs. 48%). Over 70% of both genders estimated increased sedentary behavior than before the pandemic, and larger proportion of males (76%), compared to females (56%), estimated that they were less physically active than before COVID-19. About 50% of participants estimated their sleep quality was worse than before COVID-19. CONCLUSION: University students estimated their mental and physical health to have deteriorated during the pandemic. Therefore, it is important that the school and healthcare systems assist students in unwinding these negative health and lifestyle changes that have accompanied the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Characteristics , Young Adult
6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1864, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socio-behavioural adaptations during the COVID-19 pandemic may have significantly affected adolescents' lifestyle. This study aimed to explore possible reasons affecting changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesian adolescents during the pandemic based on mothers' perspectives. METHODS: We recruited parents (n = 20) from the Yogyakarta region of Indonesia (July-August 2020) using purposive and snowball sampling. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and anonymised. Data were imported into NVivo software for a reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The interviews lasted between 38 and 113 min (M = 65 min). Participants' age ranged between 36 and 54 years (M = 42.6 years). Participants' children ranged in age from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.7 years, female: 9, male: 11). Themes related to changes in physical activity during the pandemic were 1) self-determination and enjoyment, 2) supports from others, and 3) physical activity facilities and equipment. Themes related to changes in sedentary behaviour during the pandemic included 1) educational demands, 2) psychological effects due to the pandemic, 3) devices and internet availability, 4) parental control, and 5) social facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, mothers perceived their children to be less active and using more screen-based devices, either for educational or recreational purposes, compared to before. The present themes might be useful when developing interventions and policies promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in adolescents. Interventions could, for example, consider increasing parents' and adolescents' awareness on current activity guidelines, providing education on healthier recreational screen time, and involving parents, peers, and teachers. Increasing the accessibility of physical activity facilities and equipment, making use of adolescents' favourite program and social media for interventions, and providing activities that are fun and enjoyable may also important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Exercise , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
8.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542685

ABSTRACT

Perceived changes in diet quality, emotional eating, physical activity, and lifestyle were evaluated in a group of Mexican adults before and during COVID-19 confinement. In this study, 8289 adults answered an online questionnaire between April and May 2020. Data about sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported weight and height, diet quality, emotional eating, physical activity, and lifestyle changes were collected. Before and after confinement, differences by sociodemographic characteristics were assessed with Wilcoxon, Anova, and linear regression analyses. Most participants were women (80%) between 18 and 38 years old (70%), with a low degree of marginalisation (82.8%) and a high educational level (84.2%); 53.1% had a normal weight and 31.4% were overweight. Half (46.8%) of the participants perceived a change in the quality of their diet. The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was higher during confinement (it improved by 3 points) in all groups, regardless of education level, marginalisation level, or place of residence (p < 0.001). Lifestyle changes were present among some of the participants, 6.1% stopped smoking, 12.1% stopped consuming alcohol, 53.3% sleep later, 9% became more sedentary, and increased their screen (43%) as well as sitting and lying down time (81.6%). Mexicans with Internet access staying at home during COVID-19 confinement perceived positive changes in the quality of their diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption, but negative changes in the level of physical activity and sleep quality. These results emphasise the relevance of encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviours during and after times of crisis to prevent the risk of complications due to infectious and chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet Access , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512297

ABSTRACT

In recent years, research on sedentary behaviour has increased. In this regard, there is a need for theoretical reviews that allow us to determine the past, analyse the present, and prepare the future of research in this field. The purpose of this review paper was to analyse and organise the emerging qualitative research trends (2010-2021) on the sedentary behaviour of older adults. A systematic literature search strategy was developed in various electronic scientific databases (e.g., PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scielo, and Scopus). The included studies were required to have different qualitative methodological approaches in terms of data collection and methods of data analysis. Studies conducted in any country and published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were considered. A thematic analysis approach was used for data extraction and synthesis, and confidence in the results was assessed using the GRADE-CERQual approach. This study may enable accurate guidelines to be established for future primary qualitative research related to sedentary behaviour.


Subject(s)
Sedentary Behavior , Qualitative Research , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512224

ABSTRACT

Regular exercise can upgrade the efficiency of the immune system and beneficially alter the composition of the gastro-intestinal microbiome. We tested the hypothesis that active athletes have a more diverse microbiome than sedentary subjects, which could provide better protection against COVID-19 during infection. Twenty active competing athletes (CA) (16 male and 4 females of the national first and second leagues), aged 24.15 ± 4.7 years, and 20 sedentary subjects (SED) (15 male and 5 females), aged 27.75 ± 7.5 years, who had been diagnosed as positive for COVID-19 by a PCR test, served as subjects for the study. Fecal samples collected five to eight days after diagnosis and three weeks after a negative COVID-19 PCR test were used for microbiome analysis. Except for two individuals, all subjects reported very mild and/or mild symptoms of COVID-19 and stayed at home under quarantine. Significant differences were not found in the bacterial flora of trained and untrained subjects. On the other hand, during COVID-19 infection, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was elevated during COVID-19 compared to the level measured three weeks after a negative PCR test (p < 0.05) when all subjects were included in the statistical analysis. Since it is known that Bacteroidetes can suppress toll-like receptor 4 and ACE2-dependent signaling, thus enhancing resistance against pro-inflammatory cytokines, it is suggested that Bacteroidetes provide protection against severe COVID-19 infection. There is no difference in the microbiome bacterial flora of trained and untrained subjects during and after a mild level of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Bacteroidetes/growth & development , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Bacteroidetes/classification , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488555

ABSTRACT

The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the change in sedentary time during the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on health outcomes in the general population. One thousand six hundred and one articles published after 2019 were retrieved from five databases, of which 64 and 40 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Studies were grouped according to population: children (<18 years), adults (18-64 years) and older adults (>65 years). Average sedentary time was calculated, with sub-analyses performed by country, behaviour type and health outcomes. Children were most affected, increasing their sedentary time by 159.5 ± 142.6 min day-1, followed by adults (+126.9 ± 42.2 min day-1) and older adults (+46.9 ± 22.0 min day-1). There were no sex differences in any age group. Screen time was the only consistently measured behaviour and accounted for 46.8% and 57.2% of total sedentary time in children and adults, respectively. Increases in sedentary time were negatively correlated with global mental health, depression, anxiety and quality of life, irrespective of age. Whilst lockdown negatively affected all age groups, children were more negatively affected than adults or older adults, highlighting this population as a key intervention target. As lockdowns ease worldwide, strategies should be employed to reduce time spent sedentary. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020208909).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1939, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the general population of the multi-ethnic nation of Singapore as part of the Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes towards Diabetes study, a cross-sectional and population-based survey. It also examined the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed via the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), while physical and mental HRQoL was assessed via the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Survey weights were employed to account for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to examine sociodemographic correlates of physical activity (insufficient vs. sufficient physical activity) and sedentary behaviour (< 7 h/day vs ≥7 h/day). Descriptive statistics were calculated to examine the percentage of time spent in different domains of physical activity. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine the association between physical activity and sedentary behaviour with physical and mental HRQoL. RESULTS: Two thousand eight hundred sixty seven participants recruited from February 2019 to March 2020 (prior to COVID-19 lockdown and related restrictions in Singapore) were included in the analyses. 83.3% of respondents had sufficient physical activity. Age (65 years and above) and income (SGD 2000 to 3999) were associated with a higher likelihood of insufficient physical activity. In contrast, those of Malay ethnicity and having one chronic physical condition were associated with a lower likelihood of insufficient physical activity. 47.7% reported that they had sedentary behaviour of ≥7 h/day. Older age and a primary school education were related to a lower likelihood of sedentary behaviour, while being single, having higher income, obesity, and multimorbidity were associated with higher sedentary behaviour. Insufficient physical activity was significantly associated with lower physical HRQoL but was not significantly associated with mental HRQoL. Sedentary behaviour was not significantly associated with mental or physical HRQoL. CONCLUSION: About 17% of the population did not meet the minimum requirements for physical activity, while around half of the population spent a considerable time being sedentary. As insufficient physical activity was associated with poorer physical HRQoL, policymakers should promote moderate physical activity and encouraging the breaking up of prolonged sedentary periods within the middle- and high-income groups, especially at the workplace. Increased leisure-time exercise should be encouraged for those in the lower- income group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a significant decrease in physical activity, an increase in sedentary behavior, and thus also such things as screen time or a change in health behavior patterns. The survey aimed to compare levels of physical activity, screen time, hours spent sitting and sleeping time among Polish children aged 3-5 years of age before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We identified 3000 respondents under five years of age, at Polish kindergartens. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions according to the recommendations of health behavior in school-aged children. The questionnaire was completed by the parents of these children. RESULTS: Only 30.77% of children complied with WHO criteria before the pandemic. During the pandemic, the percentage of children meeting the recommendations for physical activity decreased even more. Children spent much more time in a sitting position before the restrictions. The children slept as recommended 10-13 h a day, and the pandemic caused an increase in sleep duration of 10-18%. Most children had a limited time allowed for the use of electronic devices already before the pandemic, but during the pandemic the results negatively decreased by 71.54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate decreased physical activity and increased screen time. It is also crucial to develop recommendations for prevention management strategies of sedentary lifestyles in the youngest group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , World Health Organization
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470871

ABSTRACT

Population-level physical activity (PA) and sedentary time/behaviour estimates represent a significant public health issue exacerbated by restrictions enforced to control COVID-19. This integrative review interrogated available literature to explore the pandemic's impact on correlates of such behaviours in adults (≥18 years). Five electronic databases were systematically searched in January 2021. Data extracted from 64 articles were assessed for risk-of-bias using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool, with correlates identified, coded, and themed via thematic analysis. A socioecological model of during-pandemic PA was conceptualized and mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour (COM-B) model of behaviour change mechanisms, which illustrates influences over five levels: Individual (biological)-general health; Individual (psychological)-mental health, cognition, motivation, and behaviour; Social-domestic situation, sociodemographic factors, support, and lifestyle choices; Environmental-resources and area of residence; and Policy-COVID-19-related rules. For sedentary time/behaviour, individual level factors, namely general and mental health, may be important correlates. Neither age or sex were clearly correlated with either behaviour. As we transition into a new normal, understanding which behaviour mechanisms could effectively challenge physical inactivity is essential. Targeting capability on a psychological level may facilitate PA and limit sedentary time/behaviour, whereas, on a physical level, maximizing PA opportunities could be crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic cautionary measures have affected the daily life of people around the globe. Further, understanding the complete lifestyle behaviors profile can help healthcare providers in designing effective interventions and assessing overall health impact on risk of disease development. Thus, this study aims to assess the complete spectrum of lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, distress, social support, dietary habits, and smoking) prevalence and its association with fear of COVID-19 in people living in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Self-administered survey consisted of seven sections was used to collect data on fear of COVID-19 using Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), physical activity and sedentary behavior using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), psychosocial distress using Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), social support using the MOS social support survey, and dietary habits using a short version of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The online survey was distributed via social media platforms during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic (May-June 2020). Each section consisted of validated questionnaire examining one of aforementioned lifestyle behaviors. Associations were analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 669 individuals attempted to complete the online survey, 554 participants completed at least 2 sections of the survey (82.8%), and 41.3% (n = 276) completed the whole online survey. The majority of the sample were female (83%), not smokers (86.5%), had sufficient sleep duration (7.5 hrs ± 2.1), and only indicated mild level of distress (21.4 ± 8.9); they also reported high level of sedentary behavior (7.7 hrs ± 4.5), poor sleep quality (5.4 ± 2.4), were not engaged in healthy eating habits, and moderate level of perceived social support (62.0% ± 27). Only physical activity results indicated that about half of the sample were engaged in moderate to vigorous level of physical activity (54.3%). Further, being female (ß = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.45, 2.94) and married (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.3, 2.63) were associated with fear of COVID-19 level (ß = 0.21; 95% IC: 0.05, 0.19) with a confidence interval level of 95%. In addition, distress was associated with fear. CONCLUSION: The trend of lifestyle behaviors measured during lockdown period changed from previously published rates. Future research needs to establish the short-term and long-term effect of lifestyle behaviors complete profile on physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Life Style , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258460, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smartphone applications provide new opportunities for secondary prevention healthcare. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine if smartphone applications are effective at changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Six electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Sports Discus and EMBASE) were searched from 2007 to October 2020. Cardiovascular disease secondary prevention physical activity or sedentary behaviour interventions were included where the primary element was a smartphone or tablet computer application (excluding SMS-only text-messaging). Study quality was assessed using validated tools appropriate for each study design. Random effects model was used and the pooled mean difference between post scores were calculated. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine differences based on diagnosis, sample size, age, intervention duration, activity tracker use, target behaviour, and self-report versus device-measured outcome. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with a total of 1,543 participants were included (coronary heart disease, n = 10; hypertension, n = 4; stroke, n = 3; heart failure, n = 1; peripheral artery disease, n = 1). Risk of bias was rated as high. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Only two controlled studies reported on sedentary behaviour. Smartphone applications produced a significant increase of 40.35 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per week (7 studies; p = 0.04; 95% CI 1.03 to 79.67) and 2,390 steps per day (3 studies; p = 0.0007; 95% CI 1,006.9 to 3,791.2). Subgroup analyses found no difference when comparing diagnoses, sample size, activity tracker use, target behaviour and self-report versus device-measured outcome. Larger improvements in physical activity were noted in intervention durations of ≤3-months and participants ≥60yrs (95.35 mins.week-1; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone applications were effective in increasing physical activity in people with cardiovascular disease. Caution is warranted for the low-quality evidence, small sample and larger coronary heart disease representation. More rigorous research is needed to investigate the effect of smartphone applications across diagnoses and in sedentary behaviour.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Smartphone
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447985

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have often been associated with subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis. Rare cases of subacute thyroiditis have been reported after vaccines. Various vaccines have been developed with different techniques against SARS-CoV-2. This case report presents a rare case of subacute thyroiditis after the inactive SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine, CoronaVac.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Thyroiditis, Subacute/etiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444198

ABSTRACT

Background: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in social distancing and isolation which leads to insufficient physical activity and thereby increases sedentary behaviors. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviors among medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Pakistan, and to determine their associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among 407 medical students from the Punjab and Sindh provinces between May and June 2020. To collect data, an e-questionnaire was sent to obtain informed consent along with questions concerning socio-demographics as well as an International Physical Activity Questionnaires-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Results: As per the IPAQ, almost five in ten participants were physically inactive (48.2%), and 45.2% reported sedentary behaviors. Participants with insufficient physical activity were more likely to report sedentary behaviors than their counterparts (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.66-3.85, p < 0.001). The odds of insufficient physical activity were higher among the participants who did not strictly follow the COVID-19 preventive measures (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.35-4.69, p = 0.004); similarly, there were increased odds of sedentary behaviors observed among participants within a normal weight range compared to those who were underweight (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.76-4.11, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior are prevalent among medical students in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings indicate the importance of establishing tailored policies and programs to encourage young adults to engage in physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Pakistan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1770, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in public health and policy measures to reduce in-person contact and the transmission of the virus. These measures impacted daily life and mental well-being (MWB). The aims of this study were to explore the MWB impacts of COVID-19 on children and assess the associations among perceived changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB), with perceived MWB changes, using a mixed-methods approach. METHODS: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design consisting of an online survey with a convenience sample and interviews was conducted from May through July 2020 with parents/caregivers of kindergarten through 5th graders in the St. Louis region. Survey domains assessed included child MWB, PA, and SB. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed using a code book developed to elicit themes. Survey data was analyzed with chi-squared tests and logistic regressions. The dependent variable was perceived change in child MWB due to the impact of COVID-19. Independent variables included perceived changes in PA, SB, and child concerns about COVID-19. RESULTS: Sample size consisted of 144 surveys and 16 interviews. Most parents reported a perceived decrease in child MWB (74%), a decrease in child PA (61%), and an increase in child SB (91%). Discontentment with stay-at-home orders and concern about COVID-19 were associated with a perceived decrease in MWB. Children whose PA decreased were 53% less likely to have the same or better MWB (OR 0.47) and children whose outside PA decreased were 72% less likely to have the same or better MWB (OR 0.28). Common qualitative themes included difficulty in adjusting to COVID-19 restrictions due to school closures and lack of socializing, child concerns about family getting sick, and PA benefits for improving MWB. CONCLUSIONS: Based on parent perceptions, MWB decreased with COVID-19. Maintained or increased child PA improved the chances MWB would remain the same or improve. Parent interviews provide context to these findings by showing how COVID-19 impacted MWB and the associations between PA and MWB. Understanding protective factors for child MWB during COVID-19 is important to offset negative long-term health outcomes from this ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Exercise , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
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