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1.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(Suppl 3): 50-56, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145889

ABSTRACT

The most common neurological symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are headache, myalgia, encephalopathy, dizziness, dysgeusia and anosmia, making more than 90 percent of neurological manifestations of COVID-19. Other neurological manifestations such as stroke, movement disorder symptoms or epileptic seizures are rare but rather devastating, with possible lethal outcome. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acute symptomatic seizures among COVID-19 patients, while secondary aim was to determine their possible etiology. Out of 5382 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Dubrava University Hospital from November 1, 2020 until June 1, 2021, 38 (seizure rate 0.7%) of them had acute symptomatic seizures. Of these 38 patients, 29 (76.3%) had new-onset epileptic seizures and nine (23.7%) patients with previous epilepsy history had breakthrough seizures during COVID-19. Although acute symptomatic seizures are an infrequent complication of COVID-19, seizure risk must be considered in these patients, particularly in the group of patients with a severe course of the disease. Accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurrence of seizures in patients with COVID-19, but seizures may also be secondary to primary brain pathology related to COVID-19, such as stroke or encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Stroke , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/diagnosis , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
2.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(6): 588-593, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100905

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have shown that patients with epilepsy (PWE) perceived significant disruption in the quality and provision of care due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of this pandemic on seizure control status and changes in seizure frequency in PWE. Methods: A consecutive sample of adult PWE registered in the database of Shiraz Epilepsy Center (Shiraz, Iran) was included in the study. In July 2021, phone interviews were conducted with all selected patients. Information such as age, sex, last seizure, seizure type, and frequency during the 12 months before the study, and history of COVID-19 contraction was extracted. The seizure control status of the patients in 2019 (pre-pandemic) was compared with that during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed using SPSS software with the Fisher's exact test and Pearson's Chi squared test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 158 patients were included in the study, out of which 62 (39.2%) patients had a stable seizure control status, 47 (29.7%) had fewer seizures, and 50 (31.6%) had more seizures. Breakthrough seizures were reported by 32 (34.4%) patients. Seizure frequency increased in 18 (27.7%) and decreased in 46 (70.7%) patients. Conclusion: Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic has not been a major precipitating factor nor has it affected the seizure control status of PWE. In treated epilepsy, a fluctuating course with periods of seizure freedom followed by relapses is part of its natural history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adult , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Recurrence
3.
Seizure ; 102: 51-53, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042128

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assesses investigations, referrals and admissions in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with seizures, and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on such management. Outcomes in patients with learning disabilities, active significant mental health concerns, and from the most socioeconomically deprived areas were compared to those of the general cohort. METHODS: Investigations, referrals and admissions were recorded for 120 patients across two cohorts; pre-pandemic (September 2019) and during the pandemic (December 2020). Retrospective review of individual patient electronic health care records was used for data collection. RESULTS: There was a decrease in patient numbers from 2019 to 2020. A greater proportion of patients presented with organic cause seizures and fewer presented with non-epileptic attacks. Frequent use of CT heads (45%) is likely to represent improper use of limited resources. There were low referral rates, both to acute neurology (28%) and to the adult epilepsy team (32%). Patients with active significant mental health concerns were significantly less likely to be referred to neurology or admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a greater proportion of admissions during the Covid-19 pandemic, referrals to acute neurology and the epilepsy team remained low. Failure to refer prevents the most vulnerable seizure patients from receiving appropriate support, as seen in patients with active significant mental health concerns. Neurology staff were unaware of a significant number of patients presenting with seizures, which is of concern in an already over-stretched department. This offers an opportunity to improve care for people with epilepsy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Hospitals , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
4.
Pediatr Neurol ; 135: 52-55, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can experience neurological symptoms, but limited data are available on neurological symptoms associated with other respiratory infections. We compared proportions of neurological symptoms in children hospitalized with seizures and respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and endemic coronaviruses. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on children admitted for seizures who had positive respiratory polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus NL63, coronavirus OC34, influenza (A and B), adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or parainfluenza 3 or 4. Primary outcomes were rates of new neurological diagnoses and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 883 children were included. Mortality rates ranged from 0% with M. pneumoniae to 4.9% with parainfluenza 4. Strokes were observed with all infections except for coronavirus OC43 and M. pneumoniae, with the highest rates in parainfluenza 4 (4.9%) and SARS-CoV-2 (5.9%). Compared with other infections, children with SARS-CoV-2 were older, had higher rates of stroke, and lower rates of intubation. The most common brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality was diffusion restriction. Abnormal MRI rates were lower in SARS-CoV-2, compared with patients with other coronavirus (OC). However, rates of stroke, encephalopathy, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and meningoencephalitis were similar between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In children hospitalized with seizures, higher rates of stroke were observed in SARS-CoV-2 versus OC. Similar rates of neurological symptoms were observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and those with influenza. Strokes can occur in children with these viral infections, particularly SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Stroke/complications
5.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(8): 1159-1165, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577484

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Access to mental health care is a significant challenge in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Telepsychology can curb the access barriers and improve adherence but the role of telepsychology in improving adherence has not been well investigated. The current study examines the utility of telepsychology during the COVID-19 pandemic and treatment adherence in PNES patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with PNES admitted to a 12-week counseling program were offered two visit types: telepsychology and in-office. Visit type, visit status, and demographic information were obtained from department database. Follow-up visits in 6 months were used to examine the effect of visit type on visit status. Adherence to treatment was measured by higher attendance of scheduled visits and less cancellation and no-show rates. Results: Two hundred fifty-seven (n) patients who scheduled virtual or telepsychology visits were included in the study. After adjusting for demographic variables, and accounting for repeated measures, telepsychology visits were significantly more likely to be attended (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-3.41, p < 0.001) and were significantly less likely to be canceled (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.29-0.64, p < 0.001). The regression model showed patients in the telepsychology visit group attended more than three times as many visits as in-office patients (incidence rate ratios = 3.16, 95% CI = 2.13-4.73, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with PNES have logistical and psychological barriers that can impede their ability to attend counseling treatment. Receiving care remotely may have been associated with higher engagement with mental health treatment compared to having to travel to counseling clinics. Considering the symptom-related restrictions patients with PNES have and the barriers presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, telepsychology played a key role for continuation of mental health treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Seizures , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Humans , Pandemics , Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/psychology , Seizures/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
6.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 139: 106-113, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on seizure frequency in persons with epilepsy with a Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS) system implanted. METHODS: Weekly long episode counts (LEC) were used as a proxy for seizures for six months pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 period. Telephone surveys and chart reviews were conducted to assess patient mental health during the pandemic. The change in LEC between the two time periods was correlated to reported stressors. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Comparing the pre-COVID-19 period to the COVID-19 period, we found that only 5 (25%) patients had increased seizures, which was positively correlated with change in anti-seizure medications (ASM, p = 0.03) and bitemporal seizures (p = 0.03). Increased seizures were not correlated to anxiety (p = 1.00), depression (p = 0.58), and sleep disturbances (p = 1.00). The correlation between RNS-detected and patient-reported seizures was poor (p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Most of our patients did not have an increase in seizures following the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in ASM and bitemporal seizures were positively correlated to increased LEC. There was no correlation between pandemic-related stress and seizures in those found to have increased seizures. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study correlating RNS-derived objective LECs with patient self-reports and potential seizure risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Anxiety/therapy , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy
7.
Intern Med ; 61(15): 2287-2293, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968929

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate seizure control in patients with epilepsy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, and the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies. Studies that reported seizure control in patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of patients with epilepsy who experienced seizure worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using a random-effects model. The quality of the assessment for each study, heterogeneity between the studies, and publication bias were also evaluated. Subgroup analyses were performed, excluding studies with reports of seizures worsening from caregivers. Results A total of 24 studies with 6,492 patients/caregivers were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of seizure worsening was 18.5% (95% CI: 13.9-23.6; I2=96%; p<0.01). The pooled proportion of seizure worsening in the subgroup analysis was 18.9% (95% CI: 13.5-25.0; I2=96%; p<0.01). Conclusion Although the heterogeneity was high, our results showed a relatively high incidence of seizure worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians should be aware of the likelihood of worsening seizures in patients with epilepsy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsies, Partial , Epilepsy, Generalized , Epilepsy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy, Generalized/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/epidemiology
8.
Epileptic Disord ; 24(5): 787-794, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933442

ABSTRACT

Major disruption in the delivery of healthcare services can occur in exceptional situations such as natural disasters, conflicts, periods of severe economic hardship, and epidemics. These disruptions typically affect to the greatest extent the most vulnerable segments of the population, including people with epilepsy. Inability to access healthcare services can lead to failure to undergo necessary diagnostic investigations, or to receive needed therapeutic interventions, including epilepsy surgery. Stress and other factors associated with the nature or the cause of the disruption can adversely affect seizure control status, or precipitate the occurrence of psychiatric disorders and other comorbid conditions. Failure to access antiseizure medications is a common occurrence in these situations and can result in loss of seizure control, withdrawal seizures, and status epilepticus. In this article, we provide examples of recent disruptions in healthcare and their implications for people with epilepsy. We discuss the consequences of natural disasters, conflicts, economic sanctions, and focus in greater detail on lessons learnt during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss possible mitigation procedures, focusing in particular on the application of telemedicine to epilepsy care. Finally, we underline the need for governments, healthcare authorities, and international organizations to improve their preparedness to deal with exceptional situations that may arise in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Telemedicine , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Seizures/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(21): 703-708, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865662

ABSTRACT

Seizures, transient signs or symptoms caused by abnormal surges of electrical activity in the brain, can result from epilepsy, a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal electrical brain activity causing recurrent, unprovoked seizures, or from other inciting causes, such as high fever or substance abuse (1). Seizures generally account for approximately 1% of all emergency department (ED) visits (2,3). Persons of any age can experience seizures, and outcomes might range from no complications for those with a single seizure to increased risk for injury, comorbidity, impaired quality of life, and early mortality for those with epilepsy (4). To examine trends in weekly seizure- or epilepsy-related (seizure-related) ED visits† in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC analyzed data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP).§ Seizure-related ED visits decreased abruptly during the early pandemic period. By the end of 2020, seizure-related ED visits returned almost to prepandemic levels for persons of all ages, except children aged 0-9 years. By mid-2021, however, this age group gradually returned to baseline as well. Reasons for the decrease in seizure-related ED visits in 2020 among all age groups and the slow return to baseline among children aged 0-9 years compared with other age groups are unclear. The decrease might have been associated with fear of exposure to COVID-19 infection in EDs deterring parents or guardians of children from seeking care, adherence to mitigation measures including avoiding public settings such as EDs, or increased access to telehealth services decreasing the need for ED visits (5). These findings reinforce the importance of understanding factors associated with ED avoidance among persons with epilepsy or seizure, the importance that all eligible persons be up to date¶ with COVID-19 vaccination, and the need to encourage persons to seek appropriate care for seizure-related emergencies** to prevent adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Seizures/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(11): 4784-4788, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861210

ABSTRACT

The incidence of new-onset seizures, which we defined as de novo seizures occurring within 4 weeks of receiving any of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved COVID-19 vaccinations as reported in patient-reported data compiled in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Data (CDC VAERS), has not been explored. The VAERS database contains de-identified patient-reported adverse events following vaccination and represents post-marketing surveillance and analysis of vaccine safety. After adjusting for time at risk, this resulted in estimated incidence rates of 3.19 seizures per 100 000 persons per year for the COVID-19 vaccine and 0.090 seizures per 100 000 persons per year for the influenza vaccines. A data-driven, individualized dataset that is comprehensive and coupled with a longitudinal follow-up in larger numbers of vaccinated individuals is needed to expand on our preliminary findings of vaccine-related seizures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 101: 112-117, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851610

ABSTRACT

We describea series of patients with COVID-19 who presented with seizures, reported in the Spanish Society of Neurology's COVID-19 Registry. This observational, descriptive,multicentre, registry-based study includes patients with confirmed COVID-19 who experienced seizures during active infection.Wedescribe theclinicalpresentation of COVID-19,seizures,and resultsof complementary tests.Wealsodescribe the suspectedaetiologyof the seizures. Of 232 reported cases, 26 (11.2%) presented with seizures;7 of these patients (26.9%) had prior history of epilepsy, whereas the remaining 19 (73.1%) had no history of seizures.In most cases, seizures presented on days 0 and 7 after onset of COVID-19. By seizure type, 8 patients (30.7%) presentedgeneralised tonic-clonic seizures, 7 (26.9%) status epilepticus, 8 (30.7%) focal impaired-awareness seizures, and 4 (11.7%) secondary generalised seizures.Six patients (23.1%) also presented other neurological symptoms, includingaltered mental status and decreased level of consciousness. Predisposing factors for seizures (eg, dementia, tumour, cerebrovascular disease) were observed in 10 of the 19 patients with no prior history of epilepsy (52.6%). Patients with COVID-19 may present with seizures over the course of the disease,either alone or in the context of encephalopathy.Seizures may present in patients with no prior history of epilepsy; however, most of these patients present predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic , Epilepsy , Neurology , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic/drug therapy , Humans , Registries , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology
12.
Epilepsia ; 63(8): e86-e91, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832048

ABSTRACT

We are reporting 16 pediatric patients (ages 0-18-years-old) who presented to our urban hospital emergency room with seizures and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the surge of the Omicron variant. There was an increased number of pediatric patients with seizures and COVID-19 during this period as compared to prior COVID-19 surges. The 16 patients ranged in age from 3 months to 12 years of age. Five of the 16 patients (31%) had a prior history of epilepsy. Eight patients (50%) presented in status epilepticus, and in six patients (38%) the seizures appeared to have focal features. Fourteen patients (88%) presented with a complex provoked seizure defined as exhibiting either focality, seizure >5 min in length, or more than one seizure in 24 h. We suggest that in the pediatric population, when compared to prior variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the Omicron variant is more likely to be associated with neurologic symptoms, including complex provoked seizures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Status Epilepticus , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/epidemiology , Status Epilepticus/etiology
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 131(Pt A): 108707, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799654

ABSTRACT

The ILAE task force has identified a gap in treatment access for patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES) [1]. Access to multidisciplinary treatment clinics for adults with NES is limited with only 18 institutions delivering care across the United States [2]. Patient engagement has been low in the University of Colorado, NES Clinic treatment program despite our clinic's status as the only clinic of its kind in the mountain west. We analyzed patient factors of those who engaged in treatment before and after COVID-19 regulations were imposed and found a 23.6% increase in treatment engagement using telehealth. Those who engaged using telehealth were more likely to be of white race, of non-Hispanic ethnicity, publicly insured, employed, have a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of zero, a daily seizure rate of 0-1, did not have suicidal ideation or attempts, and live greater than 25 miles from the NES clinic. Delivering NES treatment via telehealth reduced the logistical and psychological barriers to initiating recovery and with a severe lack of accessible treatments for patients with NES, barrier reduction is necessary. This study describes patient factors that result in higher engagement with NES treatment using telehealth and emphasizes the importance of telehealth utilization to improve access to available treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Electroencephalography , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Participation , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/psychology , Seizures/therapy , United States
14.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 137: 102-112, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize continuous video electroencephalogram (VEEG) findings of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted at three New York City hospitals who underwent VEEG at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Demographics, comorbidities, neuroimaging, VEEG indications and findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Of 93 patients monitored, 77% had severe COVID-19 and 40% died. Acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke was present in 26% and 15%, respectively. Most common VEEG indications were encephalopathy/coma (60%) and seizure-like movements (38%). Most common VEEG findings were generalized slowing (97%), generalized attenuation (31%), generalized periodic discharges (17%) and generalized sharp waves (15%). Epileptiform abnormalities were present in 43% and seizures in 8% of patients, all of whom had seizure risk factors. Factors associated with an epileptiform VEEG included increasing age (OR 1.07, p = 0.001) and hepatic/renal failure (OR 2.99, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 patients who underwent VEEG monitoring had severe COVID-19 and over one-third had acute cerebral injury (e.g., stroke, anoxia). Seizures were uncommon. VEEG findings were nonspecific. SIGNIFICANCE: VEEG findings in this cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were those often seen in critical illness. Seizures were uncommon and occurred in the setting of common seizure risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Electroencephalography/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/epidemiology
15.
Neurol Sci ; 43(6): 3489-3496, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease was first seen in December 2019 and was declared a pandemic soon after. To fight the pandemic, there is an immense need for effective vaccines. The purposes of our study were to investigate the effect of coronavirus vaccines on seizures in people with epilepsy (PWE) and assess the adverse events of COVID-19 vaccine in PWE. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. We included epilepsy patients who got vaccinated with two or three doses at least 1 month earlier. We gathered the data using a standardized form. The form contained questions about patients' demographic features, clinical features, and information about the vaccination and its adverse events. The questionnaire included questions about epilepsy-related adverse events. RESULTS: We included 178 people with epilepsy in our study. The frequency of adverse events was lower than clinical studies of the vaccines. The mean number of seizures in the month before the vaccination was 1.62, between the doses was 1.61, and after vaccination was 1.64. There was no significant difference in the number of monthly seizures before the vaccination, the month between the doses, or the month after the vaccination (p = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The vaccines under consideration in our study were tolerated well by the epilepsy patients. The vaccines did not affect the monthly number of seizures of the PWE. A small number of patients had more seizures than normal after vaccination. We think that benefits of the vaccines outweigh the slightly increased possibility of having a seizure after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
16.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 22(1): 11-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653759

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seizures, including status epilepticus, have been reported in association with acute COVID-19 infection. People with epilepsy (PWE) have suffered from seizure exacerbations during the pandemic. This article reviews the data for clinical and electrographic seizures associated with COVID-19, technical EEG considerations for reducing risk of transmission, and factors contributing to seizure exacerbations in PWE as well as strategies to address this issue. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of studies of larger cohorts, accounting for a variety of variables and often utilizing EEG with standardized terminology, are assessing the prevalence of seizures in hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19 infections, and gaining insight into the prevalence of seizures and their effect on outcomes. Additionally, recent studies are evaluating the effect of the pandemic on PWE, barriers faced, and the usefulness of telehealth. Although there is still much to learn regarding COVID-19, current studies help in assessing the risk of seizures, guiding EEG utilization, and optimizing the use of telehealth during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Status Epilepticus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Seizures/complications , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy , Status Epilepticus/epidemiology , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Status Epilepticus/therapy
17.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 122(3): 725-733, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations are frequent during COVID-19 but have been poorly studied as prognostic markers of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether neurological manifestations are associated with a poor prognosis of COVID-19, and which patient and COVID-19 characteristics were associated with encephalopathy. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study and included patients admitted with COVID-19 in four hospitals from Recife, Brazil. Data were collected by reviewing medical records. RESULTS: 613 were included; 54.6% were male, the median age was 54 (41-68) years, 26.4% required mechanical ventilation, and 24.1% died. The neurological symptoms presented were: myalgia (25.6%), headache (22%), fatigue (22%), drowsiness (16%), anosmia (14%), disorientation (8.8%), ageusia (7.3%), seizures (2.8%), and dizziness (1.5%). Twelve patients (2%) had strokes (ischemic strokes: 9) and 149 (24.3%), encephalopathy. Older age, a prolonged hospitalization, diabetes mellitus, a previous history of stroke and having epileptic seizures during hospitalization were significantly associated with the occurrence of encephalopathy. Older age, smoking and requiring mechanical ventilation were associated with prolonged hospitalization. Older patients, those requiring mechanical ventilation and those with encephalopathy presented a significantly higher risk, while those who had anosmia presented a significantly lower risk of dying. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological symptoms are frequent among patients with COVID-19. Encephalopathy was the most frequent neurological complication and was associated with a higher mortality. Those with anosmia had a lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Stroke/etiology
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 434: 120100, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the longitudinal seizure outcomes of people with epilepsy (PWE) following the acute and chronic phases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Consecutive PWE who were treated at the epilepsy center of Hiroshima University Hospital between 2018 and 2021 were enrolled. We evaluated the incidence of seizure frequency increase or decrease following the pandemic during observational periods in 2020 and 2021. Data between 2018 and 2019 were used as a control set. The sustainability of the altered seizure frequency condition was evaluated throughout the study period. We analyzed the clinical, psychological, and social factors associated with PWE with seizure exacerbation or amelioration. RESULTS: Among the 223 PWE who were evaluated (mean age 37.8 ± 16.3 years), seizure frequency increased for 40 (16.8%) and decreased for 34 (15.2%) after the pandemic began. While seizure exacerbation tended to be a transient episode during 2020, seizure amelioration was likely to maintain excellent status over the observation periods; the sustainability of the altered seizure frequency condition was more prominent for amelioration than exacerbation (p < 0.001). Seizure exacerbation was significantly associated with "no housemate" (odds ratio [OR] 3.37; p = 0.045) and "comorbidity of insomnia" (OR 5.80; p = 0.004). Conversely, "structural abnormality of MRI" (OR 2.57; p = 0.039) and "two-generation householding" (OR 3.70; p = 0.004) were independently associated with seizure amelioration. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal observation confirmed that seizure exacerbation and amelioration emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the stark difference that social support systems can make on outcomes for PWE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Seizures/complications , Seizures/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 127: 108530, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the clinical characteristics of patients with functional seizure (FS) (at the time of diagnosis) in a large multicenter international study. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. We investigated all patients with FS, who were admitted at the epilepsy monitoring units at six centers in the world: 1. Shiraz, Iran; 2. Salzburg, Austria; 3. Nancy, France; 4. Atlanta, USA; 5. Kuwait City, Kuwait; and 6. Cairo, Egypt. Patients were studied during two time periods: admitted in 2018-2019 (pre-COVID era) and 2020-2021 (COVID era). RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty-six patients were studied. Two hundred and twenty-four (68.7%) patients were diagnosed before and 102 (31.3%) persons during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only, a history of family dysfunction was significantly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic era (Odds Ratio: 1.925, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.099-3.371; p = 0.022). A low level of education might also be associated with FS during the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in some cultures (e.g., the Middle-East). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has not affected the clinical characteristics of patients with FS (at the time of diagnosis). However, a history of family dysfunction was significantly more frequently associated with FS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiagency integration of law enforcement responses, social services, and social awareness is recommended to address family dysfunction and domestic violence and support the victims during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
20.
Rev Neurol ; 73(11): 390-393, 2021 12 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Countries worldwide are having to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The burden on their national health systems is currently at unprecedented levels. Telemedicine care was initiated at an early stage in our centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to evaluate the usefulness of telemedicine during lockdown in our centre. Patients included in the study had a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy, with two visits via telemedicine, who had been followed up for at least six months during the normal situation prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and two face-to-face consultations during the same period. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were included. The average age was 29 years, 53% were males, 52.2% had focal epilepsy, 58.3% with a structural causation and 57.4% had difficult-to-treat epilepsy. The mean number of seizures prior to lockdown was 9.73/month and 6.54/month during lockdown. The number of patients who were seizure-free when lockdown ended was higher than that observed in the phase before it began: 54 versus 45 out of 115. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine is a very useful strategy for monitoring the course, progress and therapeutic changes in epileptic patients in the short and medium term. The reduction in the seizure frequency can be sustained in the medium term, not only in the short term as corroborated in previous studies. Telemedicine allows access to virtually all patients and closer monitoring.


TITLE: Telemedicina y epilepsia: experiencia asistencial de un centro de referencia nacional durante la pandemia de COVID-19.Introducción. El mundo entero está afrontando la pandemia por COVID-19 causada por el SARS-CoV-2. Los sistemas de salud nacionales están sometidos a niveles de sobrecarga sin precedentes. En nuestro centro se inició de forma temprana la asistencia a través de telemedicina. Pacientes y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo para evaluar la utilidad de la telemedicina durante el confinamiento en nuestro centro. Se incluyó a los pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de epilepsia, con dos asistencias a través de telemedicina, que tuvieran seguimiento durante al menos seis meses durante la situación de normalidad previa a la pandemia por COVID-19 y dos consultas presenciales durante ese mismo período. Resultados. Se incluyó a 115 pacientes. La media de edad fue de 29 años, el 53% fueron varones, el 52,2% con epilepsia focal, el 58,3% de etiología estructural y el 57,4% presentaba epilepsia de difícil control. La media de crisis preconfinamiento fue de 9,73/mes y de 6,54/mes durante el confinamiento. El número de pacientes libres de crisis fue mayor al final del confinamiento respecto a la fase preconfinamiento, 54 frente a 45/115. Conclusiones. La telemedicina es una estrategia de mucha utilidad en la monitorización de la evolución, el control evolutivo y los cambios terapéuticos en pacientes epilépticos a corto y medio plazo. La reducción de la frecuencia de crisis puede mantenerse a medio plazo, no sólo a corto plazo como se corroboró en estudios previos. La telemedicina permite acceder a prácticamente la totalidad de los pacientes y realizar un seguimiento más cercano.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy , Epilepsies, Partial/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Guatemala/epidemiology , Health Facility Closure , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Remote Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/prevention & control , Telephone , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing , Young Adult
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