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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e97, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765658

ABSTRACT

Seizure is an uncommon complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency and characteristics of new-onset seizures in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were investigated. Of a total of 1,487 patients with confirmed COVID-19, six (0.4%) developed new-onset seizures. All six had severe or critical COVID-19 requiring intensive care and mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. Among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (n = 169), the incidence of new-onset seizures was 3.6%. Underlying structural lesions (acute infarction and remote hemorrhage), hypoxia, sepsis, and metabolic derangements were associated with the development of seizures. Of the six patients, three patients died, and, at the time of discharge, one patient had a severe disability, while the remaining two were well recovered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Seizures/etiology
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736042

ABSTRACT

Although neurological manifestations such as headache and myalgias have been observed with COVID-19, presentation with more serious neurological illness is uncommon and rare. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. Her clinical presentation was primarily neurological rather than the more common presentation with respiratory manifestations. She presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures, along with history of undocumented low-grade fever and generalised body aches. The positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR nasal swab, the cerebrospinal fluid analysis (lymphocytic pleocytosis) and electroencephalogram were consistent with viral encephalitis; brain imaging was unremarkable. This case highlights the variable presenting features of COVID-19 infection as patients can primarily present with neurological manifestations in the absence of significant respiratory symptoms. We believe it is important to recognise neurological disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with asymptomatic respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Status Epilepticus , Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Status Epilepticus/complications
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
6.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(1): 25-26, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358124

ABSTRACT

Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients have attracted the interest of the scientific community, yet their mechanisms remain unknown. In some circumstances, the presence of neurological manifestations may result in an incidental diagnosis after a detailed investigation. In the present letter, we discuss a case published by Demir et al., in which the diagnosis of COVID-19 enabled the diagnosis of a rare neurological disorder, characterized by bilateral brain calcifications, commonly known by the eponym Fahr's syndrome. In addition, we report a case of primary brain calcifications unveiled by a suspected coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Basal Ganglia Diseases/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Middle Aged , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Seizures/etiology
7.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually leads to a mild infectious disease course in children, while serious complications may occur in conjunction with both acute infection and neurological symptoms, which have been predominantly reported in adults. The neurological complications in these patients vary based on patient age and underlying comorbidities. Data on clinical features, particularly neurological features, and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. This study provides a concise overview of neurological complications in pediatric COVID-19 cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study reviewed medical records of all patients who were admitted to our hospital and were diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay between 11 March 2020 and 30 January 2021. Patients with a positive PCR result were categorized into two groups: outpatient departments patients and inpatient departments (IPD). RESULTS: Of the 2530 children who underwent RT-PCR during the study period, 382 (8.6%) were confirmed as COVID-19 positive, comprising 188 (49.2%) girls and 194 (50.8%) boys with a mean age of 7.14±5.84 (range, 0-17) years. Neurological complications that required hospitalization were present in 34 (8.9%) patients, including seizure (52.9%), headache (38.2%), dizziness (11.1%) and meningoencephalitis (5.8%). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that neurological manifestations are not rare in children suffering from COVID-19. Seizures, headaches, dizziness, anosmia, ageusia and meningoencephalitis are major neurological manifestations during acute COVID-19 disease. Although seizures were the most common cause of hospitalization in IPD patients, the frequency of meningoencephalitis was quite high. Seizures were observed as febrile seizures for children under 6 years of age and afebrile seizures for those over 6 years of age. Febrile seizure accounted for half of all seizure children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108184, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether published studies that identified a causal relationship between psychological stress and seizure worsening in patients with epilepsy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic considered the temporality of Hill's criteria. METHOD: A systematic review approach was used to comprehensively search MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for relevant studies. Studies that reported an association between psychological stress and seizure worsening in patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic were included accordingly. The quality of assessments in each study was evaluated and an assessment for considering temporality in the causal relationship between the two events in each study was carried out. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. Most (14/17) were cross-sectional studies and only four out of these 17 studies (23.5%) considered temporality in the causality. Further, these four studies did not consider temporality in the study design, they only described it as a limitation. CONCLUSION: We found that many articles reported a causal relationship between psychological stress and seizure worsening without considering temporality. As both researchers and readers, we need to consider temporality when interpreting the causal relationship between increased psychological stress and seizure worsening in patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
10.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 12-18, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Altered mental status (AMS) is a common neurological manifestation of COVID-19 infection in hospitalized patients. The principal causes of AMS have yet to be determined. We aimed to identify the common causes of AMS in patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department with AMS on arrival. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients presenting with AMS to three New York hospitals, from March 1 to April 16, 2020. Underlying causes of AMS on arrival to the emergency department (ED) were categorized as (1) neurological causes (stroke, seizure, encephalitis); (2) metabolic encephalopathy; (3) indeterminant. Multivariable analysis was used to assess independent predictors. RESULTS: Overall, 166 patients presented to the ED with AMS. Metabolic encephalopathy was diagnosed as the cause in 154 (92.8%), with 118 (71.1%) categorized as multifactorial ME and 36 (21.7%) with single-cause ME. Hypoxia 103 (62.0%) and renal failure 75 (45.2%) were the most common underlying mechanisms. Neurological causes of AMS occurred in a total 20 patients (12%) and as the sole factor in 5 (3.0%); 10 (6.0%) cases were seizure related and 10 (6.0%) were cerebrovascular events. Of the 7 patients with indeterminant causes, only 1 was suspicious for encephalitis (0.6%). Age, pre-existing dementia and cerebrovascular disease, and impaired renal function were independent predictors of AMS. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, AMS on presentation to the ED is most frequently caused by metabolic encephalopathy (delirium). Seizures and cerebrovascular events contribute to a lesser degree; encephalitis appears rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e268-e269, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms in newborn infants are incompletely described. We present the first case of neuroradiologic abnormality associated with COVID-19 in a newborn infant with afebrile seizure. This case underlines the possible neurologic involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Seizures/virology , White Matter/pathology , White Matter/virology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fever , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Seizures/etiology
13.
Neurol Sci ; 42(7): 2619-2623, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188105

ABSTRACT

We report here the first case of a young individual otherwise healthy, who presented with frequent focal seizures with impaired awareness as a possible long-term complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Seizures were documented by electroencephalography and responded clinically and neuro-physiologically to antiseizure therapy. The patient underwent an extensive investigation including cerebrospinal fluid examination, conventional and quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-FDG positron emission tomography. Beyond the clinical interest, this case contributes to clarify the possible pathways by which SARS-CoV-2 may enter the central nervous system and cause long-term neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 108-112, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174389

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with vascular and thrombotic complications, some of which may result from endothelial dysfunction, including the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We report a case series of 8 patients with COVID-19 and PRES diagnosed at two academic medical centers between March and July of 2020. The clinical, laboratory and radiographic data, treatment, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 57.9 ± 12 years, and 50% were women. Four patients had previous vascular comorbidities. All the patients suffered from severe pneumonia, requiring intensive care unit admission. Five patients were not hypertensive at presentation (all SBP < 127 mmHg). Neurologic symptoms included seizures in 7 patients; impaired consciousness in 5 patients; focal neurological signs in 3 patients; and visual disturbances in 1 patient. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicated asymmetric T2 prolongation or diffusion changes (50%), extensive fronto-parieto-occipital involvement (25%), vascular irregularities (12.5%) and intracranial hemorrhage (25%). Four patients were treated with tocilizumab. Three patients were discharged without neurologic disability, 2 patients had persistent focal neurologic deficits and 2 expired. One patient's prognosis remains guarded. Together, these data support the relationship between PRES and endothelial dysfunction associated with severe COVID-19. In patients with severe COVID-19, PRES can be triggered by uncontrolled hypertension, or occur independently in the setting of systemic illness and certain medications. Like other infectious processes, critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be at greater risk of PRES because of impaired vasoreactivity or the use of novel agents like Tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/etiology , Vision Disorders/etiology
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150215

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has now emerged from a respiratory illness to a systemic viral illness with multisystem involvement. There is still a lot to learn about this illness as new disease associations with COVID-19 emerge consistently. We present a unique case of a neurological manifestation of a patient with structural brain disease who was COVID-19 positive and developed mental status changes, new-onset seizures and findings suggestive of viral meningitis on lumbar puncture. We also review the literature and discuss our case in the context of the other cases reported. We highlight the value of considering seizures and encephalopathy as one of the presenting features of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Confusion/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Radiography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709620986302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112425

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) as a global pandemic, various of its neurological manifestations have been reported. We report a case of a 54-year-old male with new-onset seizure who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample. Investigative findings, which included contrast-enhancing right posterior temporal lobe T2-hyperintensity on brain magnetic resonance imaging, right-sided lateralized periodic discharges on the electroencephalogram, and elevated protein level on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, supported the diagnosis of possible encephalitis from COVID-19 infection. The findings in this case are placed in the context of the existing literature.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Limbic Encephalitis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Comorbidity , Electroencephalography , Humans , Limbic Encephalitis/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Seizures/diagnosis
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 423: 117377, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal movements in Covid-19 patients have been reported with varying degree of frequency, prompting neurologic consultation and additional diagnostic evaluation. We sought to evaluate the frequency and etiology of abnormal movements among hospitalized Covid-19 patients undergoing neurologic consultation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the first 50 consecutive patients with confirmed Covid-19 hospitalized at our tertiary medical care center who underwent acute inpatient neurology consultation from March 2020 through May 2020. Indication for neurologic consultation and diagnostic studies performed were identified by electronic medical record review. RESULTS: Of the 50 initial consultation requests, 11 (22.0%) patients were evaluated for abnormal movements (nine male and two female). Myoclonus was diagnosed in 6/11 (54.5%) patients. Additionally, two patients were diagnosed with seizures (confirmed on EEG in one), while two additional patients were diagnosed with tremor (physiologic and probable functional). A single case of serotonin syndrome was also identified. CONCLUSION: Abnormal movements observed in hospitalized Covid-19 patients can have a wide range of etiologies and were a frequent initial indication for neurologic consultation. Myoclonus was the most frequent type of abnormal movement observed. Early clinical recognition and directed diagnostic work-up is essential for accurate diagnoses in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyskinesias/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Serotonin Syndrome/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Tremor/etiology
19.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(6): 671-691, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082035

ABSTRACT

The sudden and storming onset of coronavirus 2 infection (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) was associated by severe acute respiratory syndrome. Recently, corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) has appeared as a pandemic throughout the world. The mutational nature of the virus, along with the different means of entering and spreading throughout the body has involved different organs. Thus, patients are faced with a wide range of symptoms and signs. Neurological symptoms, such as anosmia, agnosia, stroke, paralysis, cranial nerve deficits, encephalopathy, meningitis, delirium and seizures, are reported as common complications affecting the course of the disease and its treatment. In this review, special attention was paid to reports that addressed the acute or chronic neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients who may present acute respiratory syndrome or not. Moreover, we discussed the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications in SARS-Cov2-infected patients, and also the pathophysiology of neurological abnormalities in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications , Brain/physiopathology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Seizures/complications , Seizures/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
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