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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
3.
Epilepsia Open ; 6(2): 437-442, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyperventilation (HV) is one of the main and basic activation methods during ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG), unless medical reasons contraindicate it. During the COVID-19 pandemic, with the high risk of human-to-human infection, local guidelines and recommendations have been developed that suggest not to perform the HV maneuver routinely. Our objective was to characterize patients who present positive HV in an epilepsy center. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively all the ambulatory EEGs performed during one year in our specialized ambulatory child and adolescent epilepsy center, and describe patients with positive maneuver. RESULTS: A total of 305 EEGs were performed. Patients under 3 years and 11 months were excluded as well as all patients that did not fill up the criteria for epilepsy diagnosis. From the 252 EEGs that were included in the study, 194 EEGs (77%) were classified as abnormal and 58 (23%) as normal. From these same 252 EEGs, 150 EEG finished correctly the HV maneuver. Physiological slowing response was found in 54 EEGs (36%), no changes (negative) in 83 (55%), and abnormal response (positive) in 13 EEGs (9%). The 13 HV-positive EEGs showed 4 patients with an increase of epileptiform activity, 3 patients experienced an increase of basal preregistered abnormal slowing, and 6 EEGs showed trigger of bilaterally synchronous and symmetric 2-4 Hz spike-and-slow wave discharges and absences. None of these last 6 patients needed more than 3 minutes to elicit the paroxysmal discharge. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these findings and according with other studies, the low positivity and high specificity of the HV maneuver support the idea that HV could be excluded during the COVID-19 pandemic situation, and also reevaluate whether it could be changed to a complementary maneuver, restricted only for cases where absence epilepsy is suspected. Larger studies will be needed to reaffirm this proposal.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy, Absence , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Chile/epidemiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological/standards , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological/trends , Epilepsy, Absence/diagnosis , Epilepsy, Absence/epidemiology , Epilepsy, Absence/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyperventilation , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/physiopathology , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 872-883, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for electrographic seizures and other electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) undergoing clinically indicated continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring and to assess whether EEG findings are associated with outcomes. METHODS: We identified 197 patients with COVID-19 referred for cEEG at 9 participating centers. Medical records and EEG reports were reviewed retrospectively to determine the incidence of and clinical risk factors for seizures and other epileptiform patterns. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis assessed the relationship between EEG patterns and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Electrographic seizures were detected in 19 (9.6%) patients, including nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in 11 (5.6%). Epileptiform abnormalities (either ictal or interictal) were present in 96 (48.7%). Preceding clinical seizures during hospitalization were associated with both electrographic seizures (36.4% in those with vs 8.1% in those without prior clinical seizures, odds ratio [OR] 6.51, p = 0.01) and NCSE (27.3% vs 4.3%, OR 8.34, p = 0.01). A pre-existing intracranial lesion on neuroimaging was associated with NCSE (14.3% vs 3.7%; OR 4.33, p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis of outcomes, electrographic seizures were an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.07 [1.44-11.51], p < 0.01). In competing risks analysis, hospital length of stay increased in the presence of NCSE (30 day proportion discharged with vs without NCSE: HR 0.21 [0.03-0.33] vs 0.43 [0.36-0.49]). INTERPRETATION: This multicenter retrospective cohort study demonstrates that seizures and other epileptiform abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19 undergoing clinically indicated cEEG and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:872-883.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/trends , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seizures/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
6.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 109-118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated. RESULTS: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Egypt/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Myositis/epidemiology , Myositis/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
8.
Seizure ; 84: 66-68, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065590

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , De Lange Syndrome/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/complications , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy
9.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
10.
Seizure ; 83: 1-4, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023745

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our objective is to describe the most prevalent electroencephalographic findings in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, and to determine possible predictors of mortality including EEG and clinical variables. METHODS: A multicentric prospective observational study in patients with COVID-19 requiring EEG during hospitalization. RESULTS: We found 94 EEG from 62 patients (55 % men, mean age 59.7 ± 17.8 years) were analyzed. Most frequent comorbidity was cardiac (52 %), followed by metabolic (45 %) and CNS disease (39 %). Patients required ICU management by 60 %, with a mortality of 27 % in the whole cohort. The most frequent EEG finding was generalized continuous slow-wave activity (66 %). Epileptic activity was observed in 19 % including non-convulsive status epilepticus, seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges. Periodic patterns were observed in 3 patients (3.2 %). Multivariate analysis found that cancer comorbidity and requiring an EEG during the third week of evolution portended a higher risk of mortality CONCLUSION: We observed that the most prevalent EEG finding in this cohort was generalized continuous slow-wave activity, while epileptic activity was observed in less than 20 % of the cases. Mortality risk factors were comorbidity with cancer and requiring an EEG during the third week of evolution, possibly related to the hyperinflammatory state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Electroencephalography , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Seizures/virology , Status Epilepticus/mortality , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Status Epilepticus/virology
11.
Seizure ; 83: 38-40, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdown measures drastically changed health care and emergency services utilization. This study evaluated trends in emergency department (ED) access for seizure-related reasons in the first 8 weeks of lockdown in Italy. METHODS: All ED accesses of children (<14 years of age) at two university hospitals, in Turin and Rome, Italy, between January 6, 2020 and April 21, 2020, were examined and compared with the corresponding periods of 2019. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period (February 23-April 21, 2020), there was a 72 % decrease in all pediatric ED accesses over the corresponding 2019 period (n = 3,395 vs n = 12,128), with a 38 % decrease in seizure-related accesses (n = 41 vs n = 66). The observed decrease of seizure-related ED accesses was not accompanied by significant changes in age, sex, type of seizure, or hospitalization rate after the ED visit. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown was accompanied by a sudden decrease in seizure-related hospital emergency visits. School closure, social distancing, reduced risk of infection, and increased parental supervision are some of the factors that might have contributed to the finding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Seizures/virology
13.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 415-431, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We discuss the evidence on the occurrence of de novo seizures in patients with COVID-19, the consequences of this catastrophic disease in people with epilepsy (PWE), and the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This systematic review was prepared according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase from inception to August 15, 2020 were systematically searched. These key words were used: "COVID" AND "seizure" OR "epilepsy" OR "EEG" OR "status epilepticus" OR "electroencephalography". RESULTS: We could identify 62 related manuscripts. Many studies were case reports or case series of patients with COVID-19 and seizures. PWE showed more psychological distress than healthy controls. Many cases with new-onset focal seizures, serial seizures, and status epilepticus have been reported in the literature. EEG studies have been significantly ignored and underused globally. CONCLUSION: Many PWE perceived significant disruption in the quality of care to them, and some people reported increase in their seizure frequency since the onset of the pandemic. Telemedicine is a helpful technology that may improve access to the needed care for PWE in these difficult times. De novo seizures may occur in people with COVID-19 and they may happen in a variety of forms. In addition to prolonged EEG monitoring, performing a through metabolic investigation, electrocardiogram, brain imaging, and a careful review of all medications are necessary steps. The susceptibility of PWE to contracting COVID-19 should be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Seizures , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology
14.
Seizure ; 83: 234-241, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of the literature to synthesize the data on EEG findings in COVID-19. Frontal EEG patterns are reported to be a characteristic finding in COVID-19 encephalopathy. Although several reports of EEG abnormalities are available, there is lack of clarity about typical findings. METHODS: Research databases were queried with the terms "COVID" OR "coronavirus" OR "SARS" AND "EEG". Available data was analyzed from 617 patients with EEG findings reported in 84 studies. RESULTS: The median age was 61.3 years (IQR 45-69, 33.3 % female). Common EEG indications were altered mental status (61.7 %), seizure-like events (31.2 %), and cardiac arrest (3.5 %). Abnormal EEG findings (n = 543, 88.0 %) were sub-classified into three groups: (1) Background abnormalities: diffuse slowing (n = 423, 68.6 %), focal slowing (n = 105, 17.0 %), and absent posterior dominant rhythm (n = 63, 10.2 %). (2) Periodic and rhythmic EEG patterns: generalized periodic discharges (n = 35, 5.7 %), lateralized/multifocal periodic discharges (n = 24, 3.9 %), generalized rhythmic activity (n = 32, 5.2 %). (3) Epileptiform changes: focal (n = 35, 5.7 %), generalized (n = 27, 4.4 %), seizures/status epilepticus (n = 34, 5.5 %). Frontal EEG patterns comprised of approximately a third of all findings. In studies that utilized continuous EEG, 96.8 % (n = 243) of the 251 patients were reported to have abnormalities compared to 85.0 % (n = 311) patients who did not undergo continuous EEG monitoring (χ2 = 22.8, p =< 0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: EEG abnormalities are common in COVID-19 related encephalopathy and correlates with disease severity, preexisting neurological conditions including epilepsy and prolonged EEG monitoring. Frontal findings are frequent and have been proposed as a biomarker for COVID-19 encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/physiopathology
15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(11): 2221-2230, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Covid-19 can involve multiple organs including the nervous system. We sought to characterize the neurologic manifestations, their risk factors, and associated outcomes in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. METHODS: We examined neurologic manifestations in 509 consecutive patients admitted with confirmed Covid-19 within a hospital network in Chicago, Illinois. We compared the severity of Covid-19 and outcomes in patients with and without neurologic manifestations. We also identified independent predictors of any neurologic manifestations, encephalopathy, and functional outcome using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Neurologic manifestations were present at Covid-19 onset in 215 (42.2%), at hospitalization in 319 (62.7%), and at any time during the disease course in 419 patients (82.3%). The most frequent neurologic manifestations were myalgias (44.8%), headaches (37.7%), encephalopathy (31.8%), dizziness (29.7%), dysgeusia (15.9%), and anosmia (11.4%). Strokes, movement disorders, motor and sensory deficits, ataxia, and seizures were uncommon (0.2 to 1.4% of patients each). Severe respiratory disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 134 patients (26.3%). Independent risk factors for developing any neurologic manifestation were severe Covid-19 (OR 4.02; 95% CI 2.04-8.89; P < 0.001) and younger age (OR 0.982; 95% CI 0.968-0.996; P = 0.014). Of all patients, 362 (71.1%) had a favorable functional outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0-2). However, encephalopathy was independently associated with worse functional outcome (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11-0.42; P < 0.001) and higher mortality within 30 days of hospitalization (35 [21.7%] vs. 11 [3.2%] patients; P < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Neurologic manifestations occur in most hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Encephalopathy was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, independent of respiratory disease severity.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ataxia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chicago , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Movement Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/physiopathology
16.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 55(8): 750-762, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808487

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory disease, it is known to affect multiple organ systems. In this article, we highlight the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus causing COVID-19) on the central nervous system as there is an urgent need to understand the longitudinal impacts of COVID-19 on brain function, behaviour and cognition. Furthermore, we address the possibility of intergenerational impacts of COVID-19 on the brain, potentially via both maternal and paternal routes. Evidence from preclinical models of earlier coronaviruses has shown direct viral infiltration across the blood-brain barrier and indirect secondary effects due to other organ pathology and inflammation. In the most severely ill patients with pneumonia requiring intensive care, there appears to be additional severe inflammatory response and associated thrombophilia with widespread organ damage, including the brain. Maternal viral (and other) infections during pregnancy can affect the offspring, with greater incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Available reports suggest possible vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, although longitudinal cohort studies of such offspring are needed. The impact of paternal infection on the offspring and intergenerational effects should also be considered. Research targeted at mechanistic insights into all aspects of pathogenesis, including neurological, neuropsychiatric and haematological systems alongside pulmonary pathology, will be critical in informing future therapeutic approaches. With these future challenges in mind, we highlight the importance of national and international collaborative efforts to gather the required clinical and preclinical data to effectively address the possible long-term sequelae of this global pandemic, particularly with respect to the brain and mental health.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Epilepsy , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Longitudinal Studies , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/virology
17.
Epilepsia ; 61(9): 1840-1853, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772439

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses particular challenges to the management of persons with chronic disease. Reports of a possible neuroinvasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 as well as pathophysiological mechanisms and indirect consequences in severe COVID-19 cases raise the question of whether the infection can be associated with an increased risk of seizure recurrence or the development of new onset and acute symptomatic seizures. Although the literature does not provide relevant evidence for seizure worsening in persons with epilepsy during the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, there are theoretical risks, for example, seizures triggered by fever. Moreover, a severe disease course and advanced disease stages can, for instance, result in hypoxic encephalopathy, cerebrovascular events, and cytokine storm, which may trigger the development of acute seizures. This is further confirmed by reports of occasional seizures in COVID-19 patients. Although the low number of reports so far suggests that the risk may be relatively low, the reports indicate that an early neurological manifestation with seizures should not be ruled out. In the context of these cases, we discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms that may trigger ictogenesis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Seizures/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology
18.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 197: 106173, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764395

ABSTRACT

People with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19, can have neurological problems including headache, anosmia, dysgeusia, altered mental status (AMS), ischemic stroke with or without large vessel occlusion, and Guillen-Barre Syndrome. Louisiana was one of the states hit hardest by the pandemic with just over 57,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 by the end of June 2020. We reviewed the electronic medical records (EMR) of patients hospitalized during the peak of the pandemic, March 1st through March 31st, to document the type and frequency of neurological problems seen in patients with COVID-19 at presentation to the emergency room. Secondary aims were to determine: 1) the frequency of neurological complaints during the hospital stay; 2) whether the presence of any neurological complaint at presentation or any of the individual types of neurological complaints at admission predicted three separate outcomes: death, length of hospital stay, or the need for intubation; and 3) if the presence of any neurological complaint or any of the individual types of neurological complaints developed during hospital stay predicted the previous three outcomes. A large proportion of our sample (80 %) was African American and had hypertension (79 %). Out of 250 patients, 56 (22 %) patients died, and 72 (29 %) patients required intubation. Thirty-four (14 %) had a neurological chief complaint at presentation; the most common neurological chief complaints in the entire sample were altered mental status (AMS) (8 %), headache (2 %), and syncope (2 %). We used a competing risk model to determine whether neurological symptoms at presentation or during hospital stay were predictors of prolonged hospital stay and death. To establish whether neurological symptoms were associated with higher odds of intubation, we used logistic regression. Age was the only significant demographic predictor of death and hospital stay. The HR (95 %CI) for remaining in the hospital for a ten-year increase in age was 1.2, (1.1, 1.3, p < 0.0001), and for death was 1.3, (1.1, 1.5, p < 0.01). There were no demographic characteristics, including age or comorbidities predictive of intubation. Adjusting for age, patients who at presentation had neurological issues as their chief complaint were at significantly increased risk for remaining in the hospital, HR = 1.7, (1.1,2.5, p = 0.0001), and dying, HR = 2.1(1.1,3.8, p = 0.02), compared to patients without any neurological complaint. Of the individual admission complaints, AMS was associated with a significantly prolonged hospital stay, HR = 1.8, (1.0-3.3, p = 0.05). Patients that required dialysis or intubation or had AMS during hospitalization had more extended hospital stays. After adjusting for age, dialysis, and intubation, patients with AMS during hospital stay had a HR of 1.6, (1.1, 2.5, p = 0.01) for remaining in the hospital. Patients who had statistically significant higher odds of requiring intubation were those who presented with any neurological chief complaint, OR = 2.8 (1.3,5.8, p = 0.01), or with headaches OR = 13.3 (2.1,257.0, p = 0.008). Patients with AMS during the hospital stay, as well as those who had seizures, were more likely to need intubation. In the multivariate model, dialysis, OR = 4.9 (2.6,9.4, p < 0.0001), and AMS, OR = 8.8 (3.9,21.2, p < 0.0001), were the only independent predictors of intubation. Neurological complaints at presentation and during the hospital stay are associated with a higher risk of death, prolonged hospital stay, and intubation. More work is needed to determine whether the cause of the neurological complaints was direct CNS involvement by the virus or the other systemic complications of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , New Orleans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Syncope/etiology , Syncope/physiopathology
19.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 17(1): 55, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755214

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious threat to human health. Examples include the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2003 (SARS-CoV-1), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outbreak of 2012, and the current SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Herein, we review the neurological manifestations of coronaviruses and discuss the potential pathogenic role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. We present the hypothesis that pre-existing vascular damage (due to aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension or other conditions) facilitates infiltration of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS), increasing neuro-inflammation and the likelihood of neurological symptoms. We also discuss the role of a neuroinflammatory cytokine profile in both blood-brain barrier dysfunction and macrovascular disease (e.g. ischemic stroke and thromboembolism). Future studies are needed to better understand the involvement of the microvasculature in coronavirus neuropathology, and to test the diagnostic potential of minimally-invasive screening tools (e.g. serum biomarkers, fluorescein retinal angiography and dynamic-contrast MRI).


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Encephalitis/immunology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Microvessels/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/immunology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107396, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to have a better understanding of the influence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in people with epilepsy (PWE) and to assess whether there have been changes in seizure control during the current COVID-19 outbreak, exploring the possible causes thereof. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective study based on prospective data collection of 100 successive patients who attended an epilepsy outpatient clinic either face-to-face or telephonically during the months of the COVID-19 outbreak and national state of emergency. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, 52% women, mean age 42.4 years. During the COVID-19 period, 27% of the patients presented an increase of >50% of seizure frequency. An increase of stress/anxiety (odds ratios (OR): 5.78; p = 0.008) and a prior higher seizure frequency (OR: 12.4; p = 0.001) were associated with worsening of seizures. Other risk factors were exacerbation of depression, sleep deprivation, less physical activity, and history of epilepsy surgery. Three patients had status epilepticus (SE) and one a cluster of seizures. Likewise, 9% of patients improved their seizure control. Reduction in stress/anxiety (OR: 0.05; p = 0.03) and recent adjustment of antiepileptics (OR: 0.07; p = 0.01) acted as protecting factors. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of PWE suffered a significant worsening of their seizure control during the months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emotional distress due to home confinement was the main factor for the change in seizure control. Promoting physical activity and adequate sleep may minimize the potential impact of the pandemic in PWE. Ensuring correct follow-up can prevent decompensation in those PWE at high risk.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/psychology , Disease Progression , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/psychology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Spain , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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