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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 829879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785327

ABSTRACT

Owing to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we need to pay a particular focus on the impact of coronavirus infection on breast cancer patients. Approximately 70% of breast cancer patients express estrogen receptor (ER), and intervention therapy for ER has been the primary treatment strategy to prevent the development and metastasis of breast cancer. Recent studies have suggested that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. With its anti-ER and anti-viral combined functions, SERMs may be an effective treatment for COVID-19 in patients with breast cancer. In this review, we explore the latent effect of SERMs, especially tamoxifen, and the mechanism between ER and virus susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Receptors, Estrogen , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use
2.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(3): 301-303, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291550

ABSTRACT

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) resulting from estrogen deprivation at menopause often results in distressing vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Fewer than 25% of affected women seek help for this condition citing embarrassment, cultural values, an aging or unavailable partner and concerns about use of estrogens following the Women's Health Initiative. Available non-hormonal treatments, such as moisturizers, while affording some relief can be messy to apply and do not prevent disease progression. A new oral selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, has been found to have strong estrogenic activity in vaginal tissues without adverse estrogenic effects at other sites.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/drug therapy , Menopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/analogs & derivatives , Vagina/drug effects , Vulva/drug effects , Aged , Atrophy/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Menopause/physiology , Middle Aged , Postmenopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Vagina/pathology , Vulva/pathology
3.
J Microbiol ; 59(2): 124-131, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060272

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and led to mass casualty. Even though much effort has been put into development of vaccine and treatment methods to combat COVID-19, no safe and efficient cure has been discovered. Drug repurposing or drug repositioning which is a process of investigating pre-existing drug candidates for novel applications outside their original medical indication can speed up the drug development process. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been approved by FDA in 1997 for treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer. Recently, raloxifene demonstrates efficacy in treating viral infections by Ebola, influenza A, and hepatitis C viruses and shows potential for drug repurposing for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review will provide an overview of raloxifene's mechanism of action as a SERM and present proposed mechanisms of action in treatment of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estrogens/agonists , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use
5.
Endocrinology ; 161(9)2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690822

ABSTRACT

Severe outcomes and death from the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appear to be characterized by an exaggerated immune response with hypercytokinemia leading to inflammatory infiltration of the lungs and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes is consistently lower in women than men worldwide, suggesting that female biological sex is instrumental in protection. This mini-review discusses the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of high physiological concentrations of the steroids 17ß-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We review how E2 and P4 favor a state of decreased innate immune inflammatory response while enhancing immune tolerance and antibody production. We discuss how the combination of E2 and P4 may improve the immune dysregulation that leads to the COVID-19 cytokine storm. It is intended to stimulate novel consideration of the biological forces that are protective in women compared to men, and to therapeutically harness these factors to mitigate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Estradiol/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Progesterone/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Progesterone/therapeutic use , Progestins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
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