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2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613898

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSA) (octreotide LAR and lanreotide Autogel) are recommended as first line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with a good expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR). Both of these SSAs are usually administered via injections repeated every 4 weeks. The purpose of the study was to compare the route of SSA administration (injection performed by professional medical staff and self-administration of the drug) with progression-free survival. Materials and methods: 88 patients in 2019 and 96 patients in 2020 with locally advanced or metastatic well-differentiated NETs were included in the study. All patients had a good expression of SSTR type 2 and had been treated for at least 3 months with a stable dose of long-acting somatostatin analogue every 4 weeks. All of them had received training on drug self-injections from professional NET nurses at the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic. Results: The rate of NET progression in the study group in 2020 was higher than in 2019 29.1% vs. 18.1% (28 vs. 16 cases), p = 0.081. Conclusions: The method of administration of long-acting SSA injection performed by professional medical staff vs. self-injection of the drug may significantly affect the risk of NET progression. The unequivocal confirmation of such a relationship requires further observation.


Subject(s)
Neuroendocrine Tumors , Octreotide/administration & dosage , Peptides, Cyclic/administration & dosage , Self Administration , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/drug therapy , Somatostatin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e105-e113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established the high effectiveness and safety of medication abortion in clinical settings. However, barriers to clinical abortion care have shifted most medication abortion use to out-of-clinic settings, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this shift, we aimed to estimate the effectiveness of self-managed medication abortion (medication abortion without clinical support), and to compare it to effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion. METHODS: For this prospective, observational cohort study, we recruited callers from two safe abortion accompaniment groups in Argentina and Nigeria who requested information on self-managed medication abortion. Before using one of two medication regimens (misoprostol alone or in combination with mifepristone), participants completed a baseline survey, and then two follow-up phone surveys at 1 week and 3 weeks after taking pills. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants reporting a complete abortion without surgical intervention. Legal restrictions precluded enrolment of a concurrent clinical control group; thus, a non-inferiority analysis compared abortion completion among those in our self-managed medication abortion cohort with abortion completion reported in historical clinical trials using the same medication regimens, restricted to participants with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation. This study was registered with ISCRTN, ISRCTN95769543. FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2019, and April 27, 2020, we enrolled 1051 participants. We analysed abortion outcomes for 961 participants, with an additional 47 participants reached after the study period. Most pregnancies were less than 12 weeks' duration. Participants in follow-up self-managed their abortions using misoprostol alone (593 participants) or the combined regimen of misoprostol plus mifepristone (356 participants). At last follow-up, 586 (99%) misoprostol alone users and 334 (94%) combined regimen users had a complete abortion without surgical intervention. For those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, both regimens were non-inferior to medication abortion effectiveness in clinical settings. INTERPRETATION: Findings from this prospective cohort study show that self-managed medication abortion with accompaniment group support is highly effective and, for those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, non-inferior to the effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion administered in a clinical setting. These findings support the use of remote self-managed models of early abortion care, as well as telemedicine, as is being considered in several countries because of the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: David and Lucile Packard Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Arabic, French, Bahasa Indonesian, Spanish and Yoruba translations of the Article see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Self Administration , Self-Management/methods , Abortifacient Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Nigeria , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The measures implemented by governments worldwide to control and prevent the spread of the COVID-19 have impacted the populations and directly influenced individuals' quality of life and consumption habits. OBJECTIVE: This work investigates the Portuguese population's changes in alcohol, stimulants drinks, illegal substances, and pharmaceutical consumptions habits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire comprising seven groups of questions-with one group referring to alcohol, stimulant drinks, illegal substances, and pharmaceuticals consumption habits-was made available to the general adult population of mainland Portugal from the 26th January through the 31st of March 2021. After applying the inclusion criteria, 1666 questionnaires were selected and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Our results show that 48.9% of the participants have alcohol drinking habits and increased their alcohol consumption by 16% after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Furthermore, 8.7% of the respondents felt the need to increase their consumption of stimulant drinks, especially coffee, the most consumed stimulant drink (77.9%). We also observed that of the 3.1% of respondents who are usual consumers of illegal substances, 26.9% increased their consumption of these substances during the COVID-19 pandemic. Concerning pharmaceuticals, 23.2% of the respondents expressed their need to take a therapeutic drug after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The profile of common consumers of alcohol, stimulant drinks, illegal substances, and pharmaceuticals in the COVID-19 pandemic context is contrasting and varies according to gender, age, and employment status. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in the consumption of alcohol, stimulant drinks, illegal substances, and pharmaceuticals prescribed to treat anxiety, depression, and sleep changes in the Portuguese population. These new consumption patterns have probably aggravated domestic violence, mental diseases, and impairment of family quality of life in the Portuguese population.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Recreational Drug Use/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Illicit Drugs , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal , Self Administration , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 574-577, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462516

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care professionals have made swift accommodations to provide consistent and safe care, including emphasizing remote access to allow physical distancing. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscular injection (DMPA-IM) prescription is typically administered by a health care professional, whereas DMPA-subcutaneous has the potential to be safely self-injected by patients, avoiding contact with a health care professional. However, DMPA-subcutaneous is rarely prescribed despite its U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 2004 and widespread coverage by both state Medicaid providers and many private insurers. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users are disproportionately non-White, and thus the restriction in DMPA-subcutaneous prescribing may both stem from and contribute to systemic racial health disparities. We review evidence on acceptability, safety, and continuation rates of DMPA-subcutaneous, consider sources of implicit bias that may impede prescription of this contraceptive method, and provide recommendations for implementing DMPA-subcutaneous prescribing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contraceptive Agents, Female/administration & dosage , Family Planning Services/statistics & numerical data , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Family Planning Services/methods , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Administration , United States
6.
BJOG ; 128(11): 1752-1761, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429453

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of women in Scotland who accessed medical abortion at home up to 12 weeks' gestation, delivered via a telemedicine abortion service implemented in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, to identify areas for improvement and inform service provision. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Abortion service in one National Health Service health board in Scotland. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Twenty women who accessed telemedicine abortion services and self-administered mifepristone and misoprostol at home up to 12 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Thematic analysis of semi-structured qualitative interviews, informed by the Framework analytic approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's experiences of accessing telemedicine for medical abortion at home, specifically: acceptability of the telephone consultation and remote support; views on no pre-abortion ultrasound scan; and self-administration of abortion medications at home. RESULTS: Novel study findings were three-fold: (1) participants valued the option of accessing abortion care via telemedicine and emphasised the benefits of providing a choice of telephone and in-person consultation to suit those with different life circumstances; (2) the quality of abortion care was enhanced by the telemedicine service in relation to access, comfort and flexibility, and ongoing telephone support; (3) participants described being comfortable with, and in some cases a preference for, not having an ultrasound scan. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates support for the continuation of telemedicine abortion services beyond the temporary arrangements in place during COVID-19, and lends weight to the argument that offering the option of telemedicine abortion care can enable women to access this essential health service. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: #Telemedicine provision of medical #abortion at home up to 12 weeks' gestation is acceptable and highly valued by #women #Research #SRHR @nbw80 @doctorjjrw @jeniharden @cameronsharon @mrc_crh @edinuniusher.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal/administration & dosage , Abortion, Induced/methods , Patient Satisfaction , Self Administration/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , Abortion, Induced/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland , State Medicine
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14026, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301181

ABSTRACT

Lateral flow immunoassays are low cost, rapid and highly efficacious point-of-care devices, which have been used for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing by professionals. However, there is a lack of understanding about how self-administered tests are used by the general public for mass testing in different environmental settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the user experience (UX) (including usability) of a self-testing kit to identify COVID-19 antibodies used by a representative sample of the public in their cars, which included 1544 participants in Northern Ireland. The results based on 5-point Likert ratings from a post-test questionnaire achieved an average UX score of 96.03% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.05-97.01%], suggesting a good degree of user experience. The results of the Wilcoxon rank sum tests suggest that UX scores were independent of the user's age and education level although the confidence in this conclusion could be strengthened by including more participants aged younger than 18 and those with only primary or secondary education. The agreement between the test result as interpreted by the participant and the researcher was 95.85% [95% CI 94.85-96.85%], Kappa score 0.75 [95% CI 0.69-0.81] (indicating substantial agreement). Text analysis via the latent Dirichlet allocation model for the free text responses in the survey suggest that the user experience could be improved for blood-sample collection, by modifying the method of sample transfer to the test device and giving clearer instructions on how to interpret the test results. The overall findings provide an insight into the opportunities for improving the design of SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing kits to be used by the general public and therefore inform protocols for future user experience studies of point-of-care tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Child , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Point-of-Care Systems , Self Administration , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 411: 113406, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252488

ABSTRACT

Forward genetic mapping of F2 crosses between closely related substrains of inbred rodents - referred to as a reduced complexity cross (RCC) - is a relatively new strategy for accelerating the pace of gene discovery for complex traits, such as drug addiction. RCCs to date were generated in mice, but rats are thought to be optimal for addiction genetic studies. Based on past literature, one inbred Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat substrain, SHR/NCrl, is predicted to exhibit a distinct behavioral profile as it relates to cocaine self-administration traits relative to another substrain, SHR/NHsd. Direct substrain comparisons are a necessary first step before implementing an RCC. We evaluated model traits for cocaine addiction risk and cocaine self-administration behaviors using a longitudinal within-subjects design. Impulsive-like and compulsive-like traits were greater in SHR/NCrl than SHR/NHsd, as were reactivity to sucrose reward, sensitivity to acute psychostimulant effects of cocaine, and cocaine use studied under fixed-ratio and tandem schedules of cocaine self-administration. Compulsive-like behavior correlated with the acute psychostimulant effects of cocaine, which in turn correlated with cocaine taking under the tandem schedule. Compulsive-like behavior also was the best predictor of cocaine seeking responses. Heritability estimates indicated that 22 %-40 % of the variances for the above phenotypes can be explained by additive genetic factors, providing sufficient genetic variance to conduct genetic mapping in F2 crosses of SHR/NCrl and SHR/NHsd. These results provide compelling support for using an RCC approach in SHR substrains to uncover candidate genes and variants that are of relevance to cocaine use disorders.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive/physiopathology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR/psychology , Animals , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Phenotype , Rats , Risk Factors , Self Administration , Species Specificity
11.
Contraception ; 104(3): 289-295, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore US provider perspectives about self-sourced medication abortion and how their attitudes and clinic practices changed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multi-method study of survey and interview data. We performed 40 baseline interviews and surveys in spring 2019 and 36 follow-up surveys and ten interviews one year later. We compared pre- and post-Likert scale responses of provider views on the importance of different aspects of standard medication abortion assessment and evaluation (e.g., related to ultrasounds and blood-typing). We performed content analysis of the follow-up interviews using deductive-inductive analysis. RESULTS: Survey results revealed that clinics substantially changed their medication abortion protocols in response to COVID-19, with more than half increasing their gestational age limits and introducing telemedicine for follow-up of a medication abortion. Interview analysis suggested that physicians were more supportive of self-sourced medication abortion in response to changing clinic protocols that decreased in-clinic assessment and evaluation for medication abortion, and as a result of physicians' altered assessments of risk in the context of COVID-19. Having evidence already in place that supported these practice changes made the implementation of new protocols more efficient, while working in a state with restrictive abortion policies thwarted the flexibility of clinics to adapt to changes in standards of care. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study reveals that the COVID-19 pandemic has altered clinical assessment of risk and has shifted practice towards a less medicalized model. Further work to facilitate person-centered abortion information and care can build on initial modifications in response to the pandemic. IMPLICATIONS: COVID-19 has shifted clinician perception of risk and has catalyzed a change in clinical protocols for medication abortion. However, state laws and policies that regulate medication abortion limit physician ability to respond to changes in risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents/therapeutic use , Abortion, Induced/methods , Abortion, Induced/trends , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physicians/psychology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Adult , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/trends , Clinical Protocols , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Self Administration , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
12.
Contraception ; 103(6): 377-379, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157217

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of global contraception provision, exacerbating the barriers to access reproductive health services, leading to suspension of clinical services and disruption of supply chains. Critical to combatting this crisis is the expansion of healthcare to include self-care approaches to de-medicalize contraception and increase an individual's agency in determining what method they use, when they use it, and where they obtain it. Expanding the mix of self-administered contraceptives is essential for ensuring choice, access, and availability. We highlight advances in the self-care movement and actions needed to strengthen self-management approaches to maximize our chances of preventing a reproductive health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contraception/methods , Contraceptive Devices/supply & distribution , Family Planning Services/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility , Self-Management/methods , Family Planning Services/methods , Global Health , Humans , Self Administration
15.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S33-S36, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099990

ABSTRACT

Despite first trimester abortion being common and safe, there are numerousrestrictions that lead to barriers to seeking abortion care. The COVID-19 pandemic hasonly exacerbated these barriers, as many state legislators push to limit abortion accesseven further. During this pandemic, family physicians across the country haveincorporated telemedicine into their practices to continue to meet patient needs.Medication abortion can be offered to patients by telemedicine in most states, andmultiple studies have shown that labs, imaging, and physical exam may not beessential in all cases. Family physicians are well-poised to incorporate medicationabortion into their practices using approaches that limit the spread of the coronavirus,ultimately increasing access to abortion in these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents/administration & dosage , Abortion, Induced/methods , COVID-19 , Family Practice/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Physician's Role , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Practice/methods , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Self Administration , Telemedicine/methods , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 126: 108328, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078050

ABSTRACT

This study describes use of the commercially available Medminder electronic pillbox at a community substance use disorder treatment program to safely increase the number of methadone take-home doses administered during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pillbox contains 28 cells that lock independently and can be opened only during preprogrammed time windows. This study provided patients (n = 42) deemed vulnerable to take-home mismanagement or more severe symptoms from COVID-19 infection the pillbox and observed them for 11 weeks. A telephone support line was staffed daily to manage technical issues. Overall, patients received about 14 more take-home doses per month after receiving the pillbox. Most medication was dispensed within scheduled windows. The study observed few incidents of suspected tampering, though five patients had their pillbox rescinded to allow more intensive on-site clinical monitoring. The study supports use of an electronic pillbox with a telephone support line to help vulnerable patients to better observe stay-at-home guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pillbox may offer public health and clinical benefits that extend beyond the pandemic by increasing program treatment capacity and patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronics , Methadone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronics/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Self Administration
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240779, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874201

ABSTRACT

The practicability of a prototype capillary whole-blood IgG-IgM COVID-19 self-test (Exacto® COVID-19 self-test, Biosynex Swiss SA, Freiburg, Switzerland) as a serological screening tool for SARS-CoV-2 infection adapted to the general public was evaluated in a cross-sectional, general adult population study performed between April and May 2020 in Strasbourg, France, consisting of face-to-face, paper-based, semi-structured, and self-administrated questionnaires. Practicability was defined as the correct use of the self-test and the correct interpretation of the result. The correct use of self-test was conditioned by the presence of the control band after 15-min of migration. The correct interpretation of the tests was defined by the percent agreement between the tests results read and interpret by the participants compared to the expected results coded by the numbers and verified by trained observers. A total of 167 participants (52.7% female; median age, 35.8 years; 82% with post-graduate level) were enrolled, including 83 and 84 for usability and test results interpretation substudies, respectively. All participants (100%; 95% CI: 95.6-100) correctly used the self-test. However, 12 (14.5%; 95% CI: 8.5-23.6) asked for verbal help. The percent agreement between the tests results read and interpret by the participants compared to the expected results was 98.5% (95% CI: 96.5-99.4). However, misinterpretation occurred in only 2.3% of positive and 1.2% of invalid test results. Finally, all (100%) participants found that performing the COVID-19 self-test was easy; and 98.8% found the interpretation of the self-test results easy. Taken together, these pilot observations demonstrated for the first-time, high practicability and satisfaction of COVID-19 self-testing for serological IgG and IgM immune status, indicating its potential for use by the general public to complete the arsenal of available SARS-CoV-2 serological assays in the urgent context of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Point-of-Care Testing , Self Administration , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Contraception ; 102(6): 392-395, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation and results of a proactive patient outreach project to offer self-administered, depot medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) subcutaneous (SC) to interested patients at a California safety-net clinic following expanded state Medicaid coverage. STUDY DESIGN: We contacted non-pregnant patients at an urban, safety-net hospital-based primary care clinic who had been prescribed DMPA intramuscular (IM) in the past year to gauge interest in self-administered DMPA-SC. Interested patients received a prescription for DMPA-SC and a telehealth appointment with a clinic provider to learn self-injection. We recorded patient interest in DMPA-SC, completed appointments, and completed first injections. We conducted initial outreach in May, 2020 and recorded appointment attendance and completed injections through August, 2020. RESULTS: Of 90 eligible patients (age 17-54), we successfully contacted and discussed DMPA-SC with 70 (78%). Twenty-six (37%) patients expressed interest in DMPA-SC and scheduled telehealth appointments to learn to self-administer the medication. Fifteen (58%) of those interested (21% of the total) successfully self-injected DMPA-SC. Of the 44 (63%) patients not interested in DMPA-SC, the three most common reasons were fear of self-injection (n = 23 [52%]), wanting to stop DMPA (n = 11 [25%]), and satisfaction with DMPA-IM (n = 6 [14%]). CONCLUSION: There is interest in and successful initiation of self-administered DMPA-SC among patients at an urban safety net hospital-based primary care clinic who have used DMPA-IM in the last year. IMPLICATIONS: Our data provide evidence for the interest and successful first injection rate after offering self-administered DMPA-SC to patients on DMPA-IM. Expanding coverage of self-administered DMPA-SC could increase patient-centeredness and accessibility of contraception as well as reduce patient anxiety around COVID-19 transmission without losing contraceptive access.


Subject(s)
Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Hormonal Contraception/methods , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Medicaid , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care/methods , Safety-net Providers , Self Administration , United States , Young Adult
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