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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curtailing physical contact between individuals reduces transmission and spread of the disease. Social distancing is an accepted and effective strategy to delay the disease spread and reduce the magnitude of outbreaks of pandemic COVID-19. However, no study quantified social distancing practice and associated factors in the current study area. Therefore, the study aimed to assess social distancing practice and associated factors in response to COVID-19 pandemic in West Guji Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A Community based cross-sectional study design was conducted among randomly selected 410 household members of Bule Hora Town, West Guji Zone. Data were collected by pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire adapted from previous peer reviewed articles. The data were coded and entered in to Epi data version 3.5 and analyzed by SPSS version 23. The bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions analysis was done to identify factors associated with social distancing practice. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p value <0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. RESULT: Out of 447 planned samples, 410 participants were successfully interviewed and included into final analysis; making the response rate of 91.7%. The median (±IQR) age of study participants was 28(±9) years. In this study, 38.3% [95% CI: 33.5%, 43.1%)] of the study participants have good social distancing practices for the prevention of COVID-19. Age group 26-30 years [AOR = 2.56(95% CI: 1.18-5.54)] and 31-35 years [AOR = 3.57(95%CI: 1.56-8.18)], employed [AOR = 6.10(95%CI: 3.46-10.74)],poor knowledge [AOR = 0.59 (95% CI:0.36-0.95)], negative attitude [AOR = 0.55 (95% CI:0.31-0.95)] and low perceived susceptibility [AOR = 0.33(95%CI: 0.20-0.54)] were significantly associated with good social distancing practice. CONCLUSION: Social distancing practice is relatively poor in the study area. The knowledge and attitude level of participants were identified to be the major factors for the observed poor social distancing practice. Sustained efforts to improve awareness and attitudes towards COVID-19 prevention might improve adherence to social distancing practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physical Distancing , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Self Efficacy , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572474

ABSTRACT

Despite several empirical studies on the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic that have highlighted its detrimental effect on individuals' mental health, the identification of psychological factors that may moderate its impact on individuals' behavior and well-being remains partly unexplored. The present study was conceived to examine the mediation role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy in the relationship between positivity and anxiety, depression, and perceived self-efficacy in complying with the containment measures to contrast the COVID-19 spread. Furthermore, the moderation role of age was tested. A sample of 1258 participants (64.2% women; Mage = 42.09, SD = 13.62) enrolled from the Italian general population answered an online survey aimed at investigating the role of individual differences in facing the COVID-19 pandemic. We opted for a snowball recruiting procedure to find participants. The online survey was disseminated through email invitation and using social media platforms (i.e., Facebook, Instagram). A multi-group path analysis model was performed using Mplus 8.4 to explore the hypothesized relations among variables. The following criteria were employed to evaluate the goodness of fit: χ2 likelihood ratio statistic, CFI and TLI > 0.95, RMSEA < 0.06 and SRMR < 0.08. The findings corroborated the protective role of both positivity and regulatory emotional self-efficacy in reducing individuals' anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as in fostering individuals' capabilities in complying with the containment measures imposed by the government to reduce the risk of illness and to contain the spread of the virus COVID-19. Specifically, regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the relations between positivity and anxiety and depressive symptoms and fully mediated the effect of positivity on perceived self-efficacy beliefs in complying with the containment measures. These paths were equal across ages. The results of the present study appear relevant to implementing psychological interventions aimed to reduce the deleterious effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health through the promotion of individuals' optimistic orientation and emotion regulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
3.
J Christ Nurs ; 38(3): E28-E31, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532593

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Nurses who provided care to patients with coronavirus (COVID-19) and supported patients in their transition from life to death in the absence of patients' families have been especially needful of spiritual self-care. A spiritual first aid kit can help nurses cope with these difficult times. Spiritual self-care is vital for all nurses to renew and preserve the psychological, spiritual, and physical self.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurse-Patient Relations , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Self Care/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/nursing , Critical Care/psychology , First Aid , Humans , Spirituality
4.
Enferm Clin ; 31: 601-604, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520893

ABSTRACT

Objective: Self efficacy is an important factor that plays a role in dealing with stress during pregnancy, especially during the Covid 19 pandemic era. This study aims to determine the self efficacy of pregnant women during the Covid 19 pandemic era. Method: This is quantitative research with a cross-sectional design. The number of research subjects was 99 taken from the entire population or total sampling. Data were collected using the General Self-Efficacy Scale and analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The result showed that the Profession and education of the research subjects have an effect on the self efficacy of pregnant women with a significance value of <0.05. Conclusions: In Conclusion, profession is the most influential factor on the self efficacy of pregnant women in the Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with an OR value of 0.101 and p-value 0.001.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
5.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
6.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 504-515, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514397

ABSTRACT

Guided by the job demands-resources model and social-cognitive theory, we examined how educator perceived school connectedness and their attempts to connect with school members (i.e., administrators, staff, students, and families) concurrently and interactively influenced educators' compassion fatigue and online teaching self-efficacy during distance learning in the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Participants were 321 educators in a large, urban school district in northern California. Results of linear regression modeling suggested that educators with longer years of working in education and White educators reported higher levels of compassion fatigue than their counterparts. White educators also reported a lower level of online teaching self-efficacy than their counterparts. With the control of educators' gender, race/ethnicity, and years of teaching in education, educators' self-reported school connectedness is negatively associated with compassion fatigue. Educators' attempts to connect with students not only positively associated with compassion fatigue but also intensified the negative association between school connectedness and compassion fatigue. Moreover, educators' school connectedness and attempts to connect with administrators and staff both positively associated with online teaching self-efficacy. Also, educators' attempts to connect with families mitigated the positive association between school connectedness and online teaching self-efficacy. The findings highlight the importance of promoting educators' school connectedness in improving educators' occupational wellbeing. It also highlights that educators' school connectedness and their attempts to connect with certain group of school members mutually and interactively influence educators' compassion fatigue and online teaching self-efficacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
7.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 494-503, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514396

ABSTRACT

In the context of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, teachers faced unprecedented challenges and threats while implementing distance learning. Consequently, teachers may have experienced emotional exhaustion. The aim of our study was threefold: To explore teachers' threat appraisals, to investigate the relation between teachers' threat appraisals and their emotional exhaustion, and to examine processes protecting teachers from emotional exhaustion. Self-efficacy belief, especially, may have driven teachers' perceptions of distance learning as an opportunity (i.e., distance learning strengths), rather than an impediment (i.e., distance learning weakness) to teaching. During the first wave of COVID-19, Italian teachers (N = 1,036) filled in an online survey. A mixed-method design was used to address our three research aims. Findings indicated that, above and beyond other COVID-19 threats, one third of teachers reported worries, fears, and concerns related to their job (i.e., job-related threats). Furthermore, those who mentioned job-related threats experienced greater emotional exhaustion. Finally, teachers' self-efficacy was related to lower emotional exhaustion both directly and indirectly via teachers' perceptions of distance learning. Indeed, distance learning weaknesses (but not distance learning strengths) mediated the negative relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion. Altogether, our findings encourage reflection on possible interventions to reduce teachers' job-related threats and help them navigate distance learning effectively. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512295

ABSTRACT

The most recent version of the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory proposes that demanding working conditions and employee strain form a self-perpetuating loss cycle. By acknowledging that such cycles are detrimental for both employees and organizations, the present study aimed to contribute to enhancing the current scarce understanding regarding their explanatory mechanisms. For this purpose, it applied social cognitive theory to propose that occupational self-efficacy mediates the effects of two role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee mental health complaints and vice versa. The hypothesized reciprocal mediation effects were tested using a three-wave full panel research design and a dataset of 917 (NT1 = 513, NT1+T2 = 122, NT1+T3 = 70, NT1+T2+T3 = 212) Croatian employees working in heterogeneous private sector industries. The results demonstrated that role conflict, but not role ambiguity, undermined employees' beliefs in their capabilities to successfully master their jobs which, in turn, led them to experience more mental health complaints over time. Contrary to expectations, poor mental health did not lead to diminished efficacy beliefs nor, in turn, more job demands over time. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated an additional mechanism in the job demands-strain relationship and, at the same time, shed new light on the role of personal resources within the JD-R theory. Accounting for the malleable nature of employee efficacy beliefs, the study proposes several ways in which organizations can enhance occupational self-efficacy and thereby curb the causal chain linking job demands and employee strain reactions.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Self Efficacy , Job Satisfaction , Mental Health , Organizations
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian Federal government has locked down schools as one measure to contain Covid-19 pandemic. Psychological effect of COVID-19 on students is increased due to the reopening of schools. The psychological effect of the pandemic is increasing along with physical aspect of health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the psychological impact of Covid-19 and its contributing factors of students' behavior in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional design was conducted from November to December 2020. Data were collected using pre tested self- administered questionnaire from secondary school students in Gondar city North West Ethiopia. Stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 403 secondary school students. Data were entered and cleaned with Epidata version 4.62 and exported for analysis STATA version 14. Multivariable logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to show the association of dependent and independent variables. Independent variables in relation to dependent variable measured using odd ratios and B coefficient with 95% confidence interval for Covid-19 anxiety and preventive behavior of Covid-19 respectively were used. RESULTS: A total of 370 students were participated giving response rate of 92%. The prevalence of Covid-19 anxiety and obsession among secondary school students were 38.1% and 40.27% respectively. Being 11thgrade 54% (AOR = 0.46; 95%CI:0.22, 0.95) and increased knowledge16% (AOR = 0.84;95%CI: 0.77, 0.89) score associated with decreased COVID-19 anxiety while Covid-19 obsession, 14.51 times (AOR = 14.51;95%CI: 8.05, 26.17), and being female 1.6 times (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.51) increased Covid-19 Anxiety. Furthermore, increased self-efficacy 0.5 times (B = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.28, 0.62), and increased cues to action 0.4 times (B = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.69) increased preventive behavior of Covid-19 while perceived barrier 0.1 times (B = -0.1; 95%CI:-0.22, 0.01) decrease preventive behavior of Covid-19. CONCLUSION: Almost two individuals of five participants developed COVID-19 anxiety and COVID-19 obsession. Being grade 11th and knowledge were negatively associated with anxiety while being female and being obsessed with COVID-19 were positively associated with anxiety. No variable was associated with obsession of Covid-19. Intervention is needed to reduce anxiety among females. Furthermore, perceived barrier, self-efficacy and cues to action were significant factors of preventive behaviour of Covid-19. Therefore, to increase preventive behaviour of Covid-19, information, education and communication and behavioural change communication should be targeted on reducing barriers and increasing motivations and confidences.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive Behavior/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Self Efficacy , Sex Factors , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258509, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variable, and typically inadequate, delivery of skills training following manual wheelchair (MWC) provision has a detrimental impact on user mobility and participation. Traditional in-person delivery of training by rehabilitation therapists has diminished due to cost, travel time, and most recently social distancing restrictions due to COVID-19. Effective alternative training approaches include eHealth home training applications and interactive peer-led training using experienced and proficient MWC users. An innovative TEAM Wheels program integrates app-based self-training and teleconference peer-led training using a computer tablet platform. OBJECTIVE: This protocol outlines implementation and evaluation of the TEAM Wheels training program in a randomized control trial using a wait-list control group. SETTING: The study will be implemented in a community setting in three Canadian cities. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥ 18 years of age within one year of transitioning to use of a MWC. INTERVENTION: Using a computer tablet, participants engage in three peer-led teleconference training sessions and 75-150 minutes of weekly practice using a video-based training application over 4 weeks. Peer trainers individualize the participants' training plans and monitor their tablet-based training activity online. Control group participants also receive the intervention following a 1-month wait-list period and data collection. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes assessing participation; skill capacity and performance; self-efficacy; mobility; and quality of life will be measured at baseline and post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up for the treatment group. IMPACT STATEMENT: We anticipate that TEAM Wheels will be successfully carried out at all sites and participants will demonstrate statistically significant improvement in the outcome measures compared with the control group.


Subject(s)
Program Evaluation , Wheelchairs , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Durable Medical Equipment/standards , Humans , Male , Manuals as Topic , Movement , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
12.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123453, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400714

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older adults who are homebound can be difficult to reach owing to their functional limitations and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving their health needs unrecognized at an earlier stage. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a telecare case management program for older adults who are homebound during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 68 older adults in Hong Kong from May 21 to July 20, 2020, with a last follow-up date of October 20, 2020. Inclusion criteria were being 60 years or older, owning a smartphone, and going outside less than once a week in the previous 6 months. Interventions: Participants in the telecare group received weekly case management from a nurse supported by a social service team via telephone call and weekly video messages covering self-care topics delivered via smartphone for 3 months. Participants in the control group received monthly social telephone calls. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in general self-efficacy from before the intervention to after the intervention at 3 months. Self-efficacy was measured by the Chinese version of the 10-item, 4-point General Self-efficacy Scale, with higher scores representing higher self-efficacy levels. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: A total of 68 participants who fulfilled the criteria were enrolled (34 in the control group and 34 in the intervention group; 56 [82.4%] were women; and mean [SD] age, 71.8 [6.1] years). At 3 months, there was no statistical difference in self-efficacy between the telecare group and the control group. Scores for self-efficacy improved in both groups (ß = 1.68; 95% CI, -0.68 to 4.03; P = .16). No significant differences were found in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and use of health care services. However, the telecare group showed statistically significant interactions of group and time effects on medication adherence (ß = -8.30; 95% CI, -13.14 to -3.47; P = .001) and quality of life (physical component score: ß = 4.99; 95% CI, 0.29-9.69; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, participants who received the telecare program were statistically no different from the control group with respect to changes in self-efficacy, although scores in both groups improved. After the intervention, the telecare group had better medication adherence and quality of life than the control group, although the small sample size may limit generalizability. A large-scale study is needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04304989.


Subject(s)
Case Management , Homebound Persons/psychology , Homebound Persons/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Telemedicine/methods , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case Managers , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Nurses , Pilot Projects , Professional-Patient Relations , Quality of Life
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a significant public health problem globally. In Ethiopia, the number of infected peoples and deaths due to COVID-19 has increased dramatically in the past. Currently, students are resuming to face to face education with strict prevention measures. University students are more dynamic and more susceptible to acquiring and spreading the virus. OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy to prevent and control COVID-19 and associated factors among university students during school reopening, Northeast Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Debre Berhan University (DBU) students from December 1 to 15/2020, when students return to campus. A multistage sampling technique was applied to recruit 682 participants. The ReadyScore criteria were used to classify the level of preparedness. Epi-Data version 4.6 was used for data entry, while SPSS version 25 for analysis. Descriptive and Binary logistic regression analysis was computed, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall level of favourable attitude, good preparedness, and high self-efficacy among students were 67.2%, 17.9%, and 50.4%, respectively. Only mothers' education was associated with attitude. Female gender, open relationships, health science faculty, heart disease, and favourable attitude were significant preparedness factors. Whereas being undergraduate, parents' education, residing in dorm being four and above, having kidney disease, having friend/family history of COVID-19 infection and death, favourable attitude, and good preparedness were predictors of self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The level of attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy towards COVID-19 among students during campus re-entry were low. Managing chronic illnesses and raising the attitude and preparedness of students is essential to reduce the burden of COVID-19 pandemics. Besides, emphasis should be placed on male, unmarried, postgraduate, and non-health science students to increase the level of preparedness and self-efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Self Efficacy , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Students/psychology , Young Adult
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 463, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379788

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on education. e-Learning has been becoming most popular. Satisfaction of the student is one of important goal of e-Learning, therefore factors affecting this satisfaction should be considered extensively. This study aims to evaluate the effect of learning style and General Self-Efficacy (GSE) on satisfaction of e-Learning in dental student. METHOD: Electronic questionnaires were sent to 85 fifth and sixth-year students who had passed the face-to-face orthodontics course in the previous semester and were studying online orthodontics at the time of this study. Three questionnaires were used including Soloman and Felder learning styles index, General self-efficacy questionnaire and Satisfaction questionnaire for online education. RESULTS: The results of the reliability test showed that Cronbach's alpha index for the self-efficacy and satisfaction questionnaire was 0.836 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation between satisfaction and the dimensions of learning style showed that the active dimension of processing information had a significant relationship with the level of satisfaction. In the understanding dimension, a relatively strong correlation was observed in the Global dimension. Moderate significant relationship between the total score of self-efficacy and the level of satisfaction has been found. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study highlight the necessity of more studies regarding defining effective on student satisfaction during e-Learning. GSES and active learning style in the processing dimension and global learning style in the understanding dimension affect students' satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Students, Dental
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378276

ABSTRACT

Few studies have considered more than one behavior, despite the tendency towards multiple behaviors, and there are none that have focused on a Latino population. We determined the concurrence of four unhealthy behaviors related to glycemic control and identified common cognitive factors at advanced stages of readiness for change in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. A cross-sectional study was carried out during August-December 2018 in northeastern Mexico. We consecutively included patients between 20 and 70 years who were without medical contraindication, physical impediment against exercise, pregnancy and edentulism, among other selection criteria (n = 407). Stages of behavior were measured according to the Transtheoretical Model. Pros, cons, self-efficacy, susceptibility, and severity data were collected by interview. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. A total of 36.7% exhibited more than one unhealthy behavior in precontemplation or contemplation (no interest or some interest in changing consumption of refined sugars and saturated fats, exercise, or oral hygiene behavior). Cons (p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were common to all four unhealthy behaviors, independent of potential confounders. Studies like ours facilitate the recognition of individuals with multiple unhealthy behaviors who share equivalent profiles of readiness for change before implementing public health programs.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Health Behavior , Humans , Mexico , Self Efficacy
17.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211040746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Arkansas COVID-19 vaccine uptake has been lower than the national average. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, fear of infection, and protection self-efficacy. METHODS: Adults either residing, having employment, or receiving health care in Arkansas (n = 754) participated in an online survey between October 30, 2020 and January 16, 2021. Participants were recruited in both rural and urban areas from 6 Arkansas primary care clinics. Survey questions addressed sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 infection fear, protection self-efficacy, and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between dependent variables and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 infection fear, and COVID-19 protection self-efficacy. RESULTS: About 38% of participants reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Age, sex, race, and education were significantly associated with COVID-19 and general vaccine attitudes. Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy decreased as age increased (OR = 0.98; P < .01). Women had higher odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy than men (OR = 1.52; P < .05). Respondents with a high school diploma and below and respondents with some college or a technical degree had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (OR = 2.58; P < .001; and OR = 1.97; P < .01, respectively) compared to respondents with a 4-year college degree. Black/African American respondents had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy compared to White respondents (OR = 3.08; P < .001). No significant difference was observed among rural and urban respondents regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy; however, respondents in rural areas were more likely to report low general vaccine trust compared to those in urban areas (OR = 1.87; P < .01). Respondents reporting no fear (OR = 5.51; P < .001) and very little fear (OR = 1.95; P < .05) of COVID-19 had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy compared to respondents who feared COVID-19 infection to a great extent. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and general trust in vaccines differ significantly among age, sex, race, and education. These trust and hesitancy patterns are challenges for achieving population immunity and follow similar patterns of vulnerability to COVID-19. Vaccination programs and interventions must consider these differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and general vaccine trust to alleviate COVID-19 disparities. Findings make a significant contribution in evaluating vaccine hesitancy among a large, diverse sample from a rural state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Vaccination
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357664

ABSTRACT

Introduction: coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Several public health and social protective measures that may prevent or slow down the transmission of COVID-19 were introduced. However, these measures are unfortunately being neglected or deliberately ignored by some individuals. Methods: a cross sectional online based survey was conducted to identify possible factors influencing public willingness to adhere to precautionary measures and preventive guidelines against COVID-19 during the lockdown periods in Sudan. The questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of study participants, their health beliefs and willingness regarding adherence to precautionary measures against COVID-19 based on the constructs of the Health Belief Model. Results: a total of 680 respondents completed and returned the online questionnaire. Significant predictors of the willingness to adhere to the precautionary measures against COVID-19 were gender (ß= 3.34, P<0.001), self-efficacy (ß= 0.476, P<0.001), perceived benefits (ß= 0.349, P<0.001) and perceived severity (ß= 0.113, P=0.005). These factors explained 43% of the variance in respondents' willingness to adhere to COVID-19 precautionary measures. Participants who were female, confident in their ability to adhere to the protective measures when available, believing in the benefits of the protective measures against COVID-19 and perceiving that the disease could have serious consequences were more likely to be willing to adhere to the protective measures. Conclusion: female respondents and respondents having higher self-efficacy, higher perceived benefits and higher perceived severity were more likely to be willing to adhere to the protective measures against COVID-19 in Sudan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Public Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Self Efficacy , Sex Factors , Sudan , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357432

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The growing COVID-19 pandemic has posed a great threat to millions of people worldwide. Nurses and nursing students are an important group of health professionals who are most likely to face many challenges in this unprecedented scenario. The present study aimed at exploring nurses' and nursing students' perception of psychological preparedness for the pandemic (COVID-19) management. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study employed a quantitative cross-sectional online survey research design. Purposive sampling was used with an attempt to represent the entire nurses (i.e. nursing officers, nurse administrators and nursing teachers) and nursing students' group of India. The survey link including the questionnaires was shared to their email ID and they were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected using Psychological Preparedness for Disaster Threat Scale (PPDTS)-Modified, General Self Efficacy (GSE) Scale, Optimism Scale and Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRS). Totally 685 responses were received and 676 forms were completed which were analyzed using SPSS software (version 24). RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 31.72±9.58 years. Around 20% of the subjects previously had some kind of psychological training and 4% of the subjects had taken care of persons with COVID-19. Findings revealed that mean score for PPDTS, GSE, BRCS and Optimism was 73.44±10.82, 33.19±5.23, 16.79±2.73 and 9.61±2.26 respectively indicating that the subjects had moderate level of psychological preparedness, self-efficacy and resilience but higher level of optimism. Psychological preparedness, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience were positively correlated to each other. Self- efficacy, optimism, and resilience emerged as predictors of psychological preparedness. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that self-efficacy, optimism and resilience can be considered as predictors for psychological preparedness in pandemic management. Appropriate training could influence self-efficacy while programs addressing resilience and coping may strengthen psychological preparedness which can help in further management of ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Optimism , Self Efficacy
20.
Nurs Crit Care ; 26(6): 493-500, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care workers employed in the COVID-19 emergency are at a high risk of stress. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the mediating roles of self-efficacy and resilience between stress and both physical and mental quality-of-life components in intensive care nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey design. METHODS: The stress subscale (depression, anxiety, and stress scale in Spanish Scale, DASS-21), the summary components (physical and mental) of health-related quality of life (SF-36), the general self-efficacy scale (GSES), and the resilience scale (RS-14) were administered in 308 intensive care nurses. Serial multiple mediator models were used. RESULTS: There was a significant indirect effect of levels of perceived stress on both physical and mental health components through self-efficacy and resilience. Specifically, greater perception of self-efficacy was associated with a lower perception of stress and greater resilience, while higher resilience was associated with greater physical and mental health (B = -0.03; SE = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [-0.07, -0.01]; B = -0.03, SE = 0.01, 95% CI = [-0.07, -0.01], respectively). It was observed that self-efficacy alone also mediates the relationship of the perception of stress on the components of physical and mental health (B = -0.07; SE = 0.05; 95% CI = [-0.18, -0.03]; B = -0.09; SE = 0.04; 95% CI = [-0.17, -0.24], respectively). However, resilience alone was not a significant mediator of these associations. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that stress is linked to the physical and mental health components related to quality of life through self-efficacy and resilience. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: These psychological resources would allow the nursing staff to maintain a good quality of life despite high levels of stress. These findings have implications for future research in terms of both model testing and clinical application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Resilience, Psychological , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
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