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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 131, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779669

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students' own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion. RESULTS: Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with student's self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students' self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity. To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students' self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Environment , Students/psychology , Sweden/epidemiology , Universities
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 699, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779630

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We explored associations between sociodemographic factors and public beliefs, behaviors, and information acquisition related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to identify how the experiences of subpopulations in Canada may vary. METHODS: We administered a national online survey through Ipsos Incorporated to adults residing in Canada. Sampling was stratified by population age, sex, and regional distributions. We used descriptive statistics to summarize responses and test for differences based on gender, age, educational attainment, and household income using chi-squared tests, followed by weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: We collected 1996 eligible questionnaires between April 26th and May 1st, 2020. Respondents mean age was 50 years, 51% were women, 56% had a post-secondary degree, and 72% had a household income <$100,000. Our analysis found differences within the four demographic groups, with age effects most acutely evidenced. Respondents 65 years and older were more likely to perceive the pandemic as very serious, less likely to report declines in overall health, and more likely to intend to get vaccinated, compared to 18-29 year olds. Women overall were more likely to report negative outcomes than men, including stress due to the pandemic, and worsening social, mental/emotional, and spiritual health. Respondents 45 and older were more likely to seek and trust information from traditional Canadian news sources, while 18-29 year olds were more likely to seek and trust information on social media; overall, women and respondents with a post-secondary degree were more likely to access and trust online information from public health sites. CONCLUSION: This study found important demographic differences in how adults living in Canada perceived the COVID-19 pandemic, the impacts on their health, and their preferences for information acquisition. Our results highlight the need to consider demographic characteristics in tailoring the format and information medium to improve large scale acceptance and uptake of mitigation and containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 674, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When working from home (WFH) became temporarily necessary for staff as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, it had to be implemented without significant organisational experience or understanding of WFH and its complexities. This study aims to determine the impacts experienced by staff who have undertaken WFH during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study using survey with a purposive sampling strategy for staff from corporate and non-clinical departments. These staff undertook WFH during COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. None of these staff had any direct operational roles in a hospital facility and clinical service. Participants' self-reports of their mood while working in their normal workplace and while WFH were collected via the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), a validated affect balance questionnaire. The responses from the open-ended question were analysed using thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: A total of 143 participants completed the survey responses. Majority (61%) WFH for four or more months as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants rated their skills very highly on the technologies with an average rating of 9 (out of 10) for computer skills, smartphones and videoconferencing/teleconferencing applications. Participants felt WFH was an improvement on normal working, in particular in relation to their ability to concentrate and be productive. The "SPANE" relating to affect balance while WFH was completed by 124 participants (85.7%), resulting in a mean score of 5.45 (S.D. 2.98). The SPANE relating to normal working conditions was completed by 127 participant (88.8%) resulting in a mean score of 2.70 (S.D 3.69). This indicated that while participants' positive emotions typically predominated in both situations, they felt slightly more positive on average with WFH. Over 90% participants reported that they would take the opportunity to WFH again if it were offered. Data obtained from the open-ended questions had complimented the findings of the structure close-ended questions in the benefits of remote working and support for their health and wellbeing. The open-ended questions had provided additional information on challenges which the participants encountered during the WFH experience and their suggested preference to sustain this workplace practice. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted factors that impacted workers' work processes, productivity, physical and mental health well-being while WFH and provided a foundation for considering how to best support a positive WFH experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Self Report , Teleworking
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 201, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is one of 30 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, and poor adherence to TB treatment is one of the biggest challenges for TB control. We aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of treatment adherence among drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients under the "Integrated model" in Western China, to provide evidence-based treatment and control regimens for DS-TB patients to improve adherence behaviours. METHODS: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to explore the factors associated with self-reported adherence (SRA) behaviours. Questionnaire surveys with DS-TB patients and in-depth interviews with leaders from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and community health sectors (CHCs), healthcare workers (HCWs) from CHCs, and DS-TB patients were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 459 eligible patients were included in the quantitative survey, and two patients and 13 healthcare providers were included in the in-depth interviews. The percentage of patients who experienced a missed dose, lack of follow-up sputum examination, and interrupted treatment were 19.0%, 11.3%, and 9.2%, respectively. Patients aged 20-39 had a higher risk of missed dose [OR (95% CI): 2.302 (1.001-5.305)] and a lower risk of interrupted treatment [OR (95% CI): 0.278 (0.077-0.982)] than patients more than 60 years. Patients who were of Han ethnicity (OR [95% CI]: 0.524 [0.301-0.912]) received psychological support (OR [95% CI]: 0.379 [0.144-0.998]) from their family and had a lower risk of missed doses. Patients who had drug side effects had a higher risk of interrupted treatment (OR [95% CI]: 2.587 [1.237-5.412]). Patients who possessed higher knowledge had a lower risk of lack of follow-up sputum examination [OR (95% CI): 0.817 (0.673-0.991)]. The results of the qualitative study also reported that patients' poor TB knowledge was the main reason for their non-SRA behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-centred strategies should be implemented to improve health literacy and strengthen psychological support. More effective case management should be designed and implemented based on different patient characteristics to improve adherence behaviours in further studies.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Tuberculosis , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 834744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776038

ABSTRACT

A few studies examined the comparative side effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines. We compared the extension and severity of self-reported side effects of seven COVID-19 vaccines [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), CoronaVac (Sinovac Life Sciences), Gam-COVID-Vac (Gamaleya's Sputnik V), Ad5-nCoV (CanSinoBIO), and Ad26.CoV2.S (Johnson & Johnson/Janssen)] in the Mexican population. We also evaluated the association of type of vaccine, sex, age, comorbidity, and history of allergies to the extent and severity of side effects. This was a cross-sectional study carried out online between August 12 and September 3, 2021 in Mexico. The first inclusion criterion was to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and the second, being at least 18 years old. The survey link was distributed via multiple social media platforms. We questioned about the type of vaccine and symptoms based on short-term side effects reported in the literature. Side effect extension was classified as local, systemic, or both. We asked about the need to take medicine, stop activities/miss work, or seek medical attention. Then, a severity index was constructed based on responses. Descriptive and stepwise multivariate logistic ordinal regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for each outcome adjusted by potential confounders. The mean age was 38.9 ± 11.0 years (n = 4,024). Prevalence of at least one side effect varied between vaccines and by a number of doses. At dose 1, ChAdOx1 was the vaccine with the highest rate of at least one side effect (85%) followed by Gam-COVID-Vac (80%). Both were associated to greater extension (adjusted OR 2.53, 95% CI 2.16, 2.96 and adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.76, 3.29, respectively) and severity of side effects (adjusted OR 4.32, 95% CI 3.73, 5.00 and adjusted OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.28, 3.94, respectively). Young age (<50 years), female sex, comorbidity, and history of allergies were associated with greater extension and severity, independent of the type of vaccine and potential confounders. At dose 2, mRNA-1273 was the vaccine with the highest rate of side effects (88%) and the only vaccine associated to greater extension (adjusted OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.59, 5.21) and severity of symptoms (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.82, 5.43). Continuous studies are necessary to acknowledge more post-vaccine symptoms in different populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Self Report
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775929

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis and asthma in plain lands and hilly areas of Shenmu City in China, and analyze the differences between regions. Methods: The multi-stage stratified random sampling was applied in a cross-sectional survey of adult residents in Shenmu City, from September to December 2019. The unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influence factors of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Results: 4,706 adults participated in the survey, and 99% (4,655 in 4,706) completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 25.4%, and the prevalence of asthma was 9.4%. The prevalence of the allergic rhinitis without asthma, asthma without allergic rhinitis, and the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma were 18.9, 2.9, and 6.5%, respectively. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed regional differences. The prevalence of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis was 41.5% in plain lands areas and 22.1% in hilly areas. The prevalence of adult self-reported asthma was 12.8% in plain lands and 8.8% in hilly areas. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed seasonal differences, with the highest prevalence from July to September. The analysis of risk factors showed that higher education [middle and high school (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.42-2.07); college and above (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.99-3.59)], comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 3.90, 95%CI 3.23-4.70), family history of allergies (OR 2.89, 95%CI 2.36-3.53), and plain lands areas (OR 2.51, 95%CI 2.06-3.05) were the risk factors for the allergic rhinitis without asthma. Aging [40-49 years old (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.02-18.13); 50-59 years old (OR 5.89, 95%CI 1.40-24.76); ≥60 years old: (OR 6.14, 95%CI 1.41-26.71)], never-smokers (OR 1.66, 95%CI 0.99-2.80), comorbidities of other allergic disorders (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.42-3.32), and family history of allergies (OR 2.20, 95%CI 1.40-3.47) were the risk factors for the asthma without allergic rhinitis. Advanced age [30-39 years (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.23-3.82); 40-49 years (OR 2.86, 95%CI 1.56 to 5.25); 50-59 years (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.58-5.51); ≥60 years old (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.09-4.72)], higher education [middle and high school (OR 2.23, 95%CI 1.62-3.07); college and above (OR 4.28, 95%CI 2.72-6.74)], non-agricultural workers (OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.18-2.43),never-smokers (OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.51-3.39), comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 4.45, 95%CI 3.37-5.88), family history of allergies (OR 5.27, 95%CI 3.98-6.97), and plain lands areas (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51-2.86) were the risk factors for the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma. Conclusions: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Shenmu City was relatively high, with regional differences. Genetic and environmental factors were the important risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Our research would provide data support for preventing and controlling allergic rhinitis and asthma in this region in the future, and appropriate prevention and control programs should be formulated according to the characteristics of different regions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 713202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775829

ABSTRACT

Objective: Verify the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version and correlate household environmental risks with the history of falls by community-dwelling older adults. Method: Cross sectional study with 50 community-dwelling older adults who were screened by the cut-off point of the Mini Mental State Exam and replied to the HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version using two evaluators, on three occasions. The reliability analysis was determined by the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC), considering ICC > 0.70 as adequate. To test the correlations, the Spearman test was used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 73.2 ± 5.8 years. The inter- rater reliability of HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version was ICC 0.83 (IC95%, 0.70-0.90) and the Intra- reliability ICC 0.85 (IC95%, 0.74-0.91). A risk of falls was verified in 88% of the sample and four environmental risks presented significant correlations with the history of falls. Conclusions: The HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version presented adequate reliability for the evaluation of household environmental risks for community-dwelling older adults. Risks such as inadequate armchairs/ sofas, the absence of anti-slip mats in the shower recess, the presence of pets and inadequate beds require attention in the evaluation of household risks, due to their correlation with the occurrence of falls.


Subject(s)
Independent Living , Accidental Falls , Aged , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(4): 1539-1550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of older adults with cognitive impairment suffer from insomnia. When untreated, pre-existing cognitive problems may be exacerbated and potentially contribute to further cognitive decline. One promising approach to maintain cognitive health is to improve sleep quantity and quality. OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of Sleep Health Using the Internet for Older Adult Sufferers of Insomnia and Sleeplessness (SHUTi OASIS), an Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) program in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Older adults with MCI and insomnia were recruited from hospital-based memory and sleep disorders clinics and enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants completed the six cores of SHUTi OASIS, over nine weeks with two-week baseline and post-assessments using self-reported sleep diaries. Feasibility and acceptability were informed by usage statistics and qualitative interviews; preliminary efficacy was informed by patient-generated sleep data. RESULTS: Twelve participants enrolled and, on average, were 75.8 years of age. Ten participants completed the study and logged in most days. Most participants reported a positive overall experience, and interviews revealed successful and independent program management and completion. There were significant changes on all baseline to post-assessment sleep measures, including clinically meaningful improvements on the Insomnia Severity Index (13.5 to 8.3, p < 0.01), sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep onset latency (ps < 0.02). There was no statistically significant change in cognitive measures (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study supports that older adults with cognitive impairment can independently complete CBT-I via the Internet and achieve clinical sleep improvements.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Internet-Based Intervention , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Aged , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Self Report , Treatment Outcome
9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(3): e34148, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2017, an estimated 17.3 million adults in the United States experienced at least one major depressive episode, with 35% of them not receiving any treatment. Underdiagnosis of depression has been attributed to many reasons, including stigma surrounding mental health, limited access to medical care, and barriers due to cost. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if low-burden personal health solutions, leveraging person-generated health data (PGHD), could represent a possible way to increase engagement and improve outcomes. METHODS: Here, we present the development of PSYCHE-D (Prediction of Severity Change-Depression), a predictive model developed using PGHD from more than 4000 individuals, which forecasts the long-term increase in depression severity. PSYCHE-D uses a 2-phase approach. The first phase supplements self-reports with intermediate generated labels, and the second phase predicts changing status over a 3-month period, up to 2 months in advance. The 2 phases are implemented as a single pipeline in order to eliminate data leakage and ensure results are generalizable. RESULTS: PSYCHE-D is composed of 2 Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) algorithm-based classifiers that use a range of PGHD input features, including objective activity and sleep, self-reported changes in lifestyle and medication, and generated intermediate observations of depression status. The approach generalizes to previously unseen participants to detect an increase in depression severity over a 3-month interval, with a sensitivity of 55.4% and a specificity of 65.3%, nearly tripling sensitivity while maintaining specificity when compared with a random model. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that low-burden PGHD can be the basis of accurate and timely warnings that an individual's mental health may be deteriorating. We hope this work will serve as a basis for improved engagement and treatment of individuals experiencing depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Humans , Mental Health , Self Report
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 260, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to unprecedented worries and challenges for pregnant women due to social restrictions and changes in maternity care provision. We aimed to investigate the mental health impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women in Sweden and explore factors associated with poor perinatal mental health in this specific context. METHOD: This was a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of pregnant women living in Sweden. Validated questionnaires were distributed through non-profit organizations´ websites and social media channels from May 2020 to February 2021. Perinatal depression, anxiety, and acute stress reaction were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Impact Event Scale (Revised) (IES-R), respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-perceived mental well-being were also obtained. Factors associated with mental health outcomes were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among a total of 470 participants, 43.2% (n = 203) reported depression (EPDS ≥13), 25.7% (n = 121) moderate to severe anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 10), and 23.7% (n = 110) moderate to severe acute stress reaction (IES-R ≥ 33). 27.4% participants (n = 129) expressed concerns regarding their mental well-being during the pandemic. Pregnant mothers who had sick family members reported poorer mental health outcomes than those who did not (median [Interquartile range (IQR)] EPDS scores: 14.0 [8.75-18.0] vs 11.0 [6.25-15.0], p < .001; median (IQR) GAD7 scores: 7.0 [4.0-12.25] vs 6.0 [3.0-9.0], p = .003); median (IQR) IES-R scores: 20.0 [9.0-38.0] vs 15.0 [7.0-30.0], p = .048). Logistic regression analyses revealed that risk factors for poor mental health outcomes were having a sick family member with any illness, unemployment, and experiencing a substantially stressful life event. Having a higher educational level and a younger age during the pandemic were protective. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety were highly prevalent among pregnant women in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating a need for professional mental health support for this vulnerable group of population. Unemployment was an associated risk factor whereas younger age and higher educational level were protective suggesting an important role of socio-economic factors in modulating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Self Report , Sweden/epidemiology
11.
Health Rep ; 33(3): 3-14, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766291

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults, released in October 2020, recommend 7 to 9 hours of good-quality sleep for adults aged 18 to 64 and 7 to 8 hours for adults aged 65 and older, on a regular basis, with consistent sleep and wake times for health benefits. This study assesses the sleep behaviours of Canadian adults and how these behaviours align with the recommendations. DATA AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study uses nationally representative data from the 2020 Canadian Community Health Survey healthy living rapid response module (N = 9,248), collected from January to March 2020. Sleep behaviours were self-reported by respondents, and descriptive statistics were used to calculate means or percentages for sleep duration, guideline adherence, physical activity and screen time, sleep timing, and sleep variability in the full sample. This was done by age, sex, household education, household income adequacy and employment status. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration was 7.9 hours for adults aged 18 to 64, with 77% meeting sleep duration recommendations, and 8.1 hours for adults aged 65 and older, with 55% meeting sleep duration recommendations. Among adults aged 18 to 64, 61% reported high sleep quality, compared with 71% among adults aged 65 and older. High sleep variability (≥30-minute difference between work and free days) and poor sleep-facilitating behaviours were prevalent. Adults who reported high sleep quality and high sleep variability were more likely to meet sleep duration recommendations. INTERPRETATION: To maximize health benefits, continued efforts are needed to promote good sleep behaviours among Canadian adults. Device-based measures of sleep could improve surveillance and research.


Subject(s)
Healthy Lifestyle , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Self Report , Sleep/physiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Health Psychol ; 41(4): 311-318, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify patient-level demographic and behavioral characteristics associated with higher social isolation among patients with cancer throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: Moffitt Cancer Center patients seen on or after January 1, 2015, had a last known alive vital status, a valid e-mail address, and were 18-89 years old, were emailed a survey regarding social isolation. We collected information on age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, smoking, self-reported cancer diagnosis, cancer treatment, and perceived life changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We calculated a COVID-19 risk mitigation score by summing the frequency of risk mitigation behaviors (e.g., mask wearing). Social isolation was assessed with the self-reported Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Short Form. Logistic regression models compared characteristics of participants reporting higher versus lower social isolation (T-scores >60 vs. ≤60). RESULTS: Most participants (N = 9,579) were female (59.2%), White (93.0%), and non-Hispanic (92.5%). Participants at greater odds of higher social isolation were younger (per 10 years decrease odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.30, 1.43]), female (vs. male OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.36, 1.74]), unmarried (vs. married OR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.62, 2.08]), current smokers (vs. never OR = 2.38, 95% CI [1.88, 3.00]), reporting more risk mitigation behaviors (per 1 SD; OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.24, 1.42]), and more perceived life changes (vs. little/no change; OR = 2.64, 95% CI [2.08, 3.35]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified younger age, females, unmarried, current smokers, more risk mitigation behaviors, and more perceived life changes increased odds of social isolation for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. This can inform identification of patients with cancer at higher risk of social isolation for targeted mitigation strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935567, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic affected drinking behaviors among adolescents. This remote questionnaire-based study aimed to compare alcohol use in 1030 final-year high school students in Split-Dalmatia County (SDC), Croatia before and during the national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS An online self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted among 1030 final-year high school students (57.96% female; mean age 17.71 years, SD=0.66) in SDC. The data were collected from June 6 to July 20, 2020 and from October 12 to December 28, 2020. Differences in drinking habits between groups were detected with the chi-squared (χ²) test and before and during the COVID-19 lockdown using the Z test. RESULTS Before the lockdown, 84.66% of students were consuming alcohol, most frequently with friends (78.64%) and "to feel better" (29.51%), while during the lockdown, 44.76% of them were drinking, most frequently with friends (34.37%) and due to boredom (17.48%). Drinking alone (P=0.005) and with family members (P=0.003) significantly increased during the lockdown. No difference in drinking between girls and boys was found before the lockdown, but boys were drinking more during the lockdown (P<0.001). There was no difference in drinking prevalence in different schools before the lockdown, but during the lockdown, more students from vocational schools were drinking (P<0.001) and with higher frequency (P=0.002). Among 53.98% of students during the lockdown, a reduction in frequency of drinking was found (P<0.001), most significantly on islands (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS During the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption by final-year high school students in SDC significantly decreased, particularly in girls and in gymnasium/private school students.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Adolescent , Boredom , COVID-19/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Schools , Self Report
15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown pose a threat for adolescents' mental health, especially for those with an earlier vulnerability. Accordingly, these adolescents may need increased support from family and friends. This study investigated whether family functioning and peer connectedness protects adolescents with earlier internalizing or externalizing symptoms from increased depressive symptoms during the first Dutch COVID-19 lockdown in a low-risk community sample. METHODS: This sample comprised 115 adolescents (Mage = 13.06; 44% girls) and their parents (N = 111) and is part of an ongoing prospective study on child development. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were self-reported a year before the COVID-19 lockdown. In an online survey during the first Dutch lockdown (April-May 2020), adolescents reported depressive symptoms and perceived peer connectedness, and parents reported family functioning. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of adolescents reported clinically relevant symptoms of depression during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Depressive symptoms were significantly predicted by earlier internalizing, but not externalizing symptoms. Furthermore, higher quality of family functioning, but not peer connectedness, predicted fewer adolescent depressive symptoms. Family functioning and peer connectedness did not moderate the link between pre-existing internalizing symptoms and later depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In a low-risk community sample, one-in-four adolescents reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms at the first COVID-19 lockdown. Higher earlier internalizing symptoms and lower quality of family functioning increased risks. These results indicate that even in low-risk samples, a substantial group of adolescents and their families are vulnerable during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Defense Mechanisms , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(3): 1532, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752758

ABSTRACT

Health Canada, in collaboration with Advanis, conducted the Canadian Perspectives on Environmental Noise Survey (CPENS) to investigate expectations and attitudes toward environmental noise in rural and non-rural Canada. The CPENS, a 26-item questionnaire, was completed online by 6647 randomly selected Canadians, age 18 y and older between April and May 2021. The prevalence of reporting their area as often or always calm, quiet, and relaxing was 76.8%, 64%, and 48.4% in rural/remote, suburban, and urban, respectively. A high expectation of quiet was less prevalent yet followed the same pattern: rural/remote (58.2%), suburban (37.4%), and urban (21.8%). Self-reported health status and noise sensitivity were unrelated to geographic region. A high magnitude of non-specific sleep disturbance over the previous 12 months was reported by 7.8% overall; highest among urban dwellers (9.8%), followed by suburban (7.2%) and rural/remote (5.5%) dwellers (p < 0.01). High annoyance toward road traffic noise was 8.5% overall, and significantly higher in urban (10.5%), relative to suburban (7.9%) and rural/remote (6.6%) areas (p < 0.0001). Annoyance toward noise from rail, aircraft, mining, industry, marine activity, construction, wind turbines, and landscaping equipment is reported. The analysis also explores potential differences between Indigenous Peoples of Canada and non-Indigenous Canadians in their attitudes and expectations toward environmental noise.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Noise , Adolescent , Canada/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Noise/adverse effects , Self Report
17.
J Epidemiol ; 32(4): 195-203, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected the most vulnerable populations. We assessed the prevalence and disparities of economic hardships and their impact on health deterioration in Japan. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nation-wide, cross-sectional, internet-based, self-reported survey conducted during August-September, 2020 with individuals aged 15-79 years in Japan (n = 25,482). Economic hardships and changes in various physical and mental health status were measured using sample-weighted data. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) were estimated to investigate the associations between economic hardships and health outcomes. RESULTS: During April-September, 2020 in Japan, 25.0%, 9.6%, 7.9%, and 3.1% of the respondents experienced income loss, money shortage, financial anxiety and financial exploitation, respectively, with higher prevalence among workers (vs non-workers). Stratifying by sex and working status, income loss was associated with physical health deterioration (APRs ranged from 1.45-1.95), mental health deterioration (APRs ranged from 1.47-1.68), and having serious psychological distress (APRs ranged from 1.41-2.01) across all strata. Shortage of money and financial anxiety were also associated with increased likelihood of all adverse health outcomes assessed, regardless of whether the hardships were pre-existing or experienced first time. Among non-working individuals, financial exploitation was associated with physical health deterioration among males (APR 1.88) and mental health deterioration among both males (APR 1.80) and females (APR 2.23), while such associations were not observed among working individuals. CONCLUSIONS: During the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, COVID-19-related economic hardships were associated with physical and mental health deterioration in Japan, particularly among the vulnerable populations. Timely and prompt responses are warranted to mitigate both economic and health burdens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Financial Stress , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736907

ABSTRACT

Depression is ranked as the second-leading cause for years lived with disability worldwide. Objective monitoring with a standardized scale for depressive symptoms can improve treatment outcomes. This study evaluates the construct and concurrent validity of the Malay Self-Report Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16) among Malaysian clinical and community samples. This cross-sectional study was based on 277 participants, i.e., patients with current major depressive episode (MDE), n = 104, and participants without current MDE, n = 173. Participants answered the Malay QIDS-SR16 and were administered the validated Malay Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV-TR. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity, alpha statistic for internal consistency, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for concurrent validity with MINI to determine the optimal threshold to identify MDE. Data analysis provided evidence for the unidimensionality of the Malay QIDS-SR16 with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.88). Based on ROC analysis, the questionnaire demonstrated good validity with a robust area under the curve of 0.916 (p < 0.000, 95% CI 0.884-0.948). A cut-off score of nine provided the best balance between sensitivity (88.5%) and specificity (83.2%). The Malay QIDS-SR16 is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying MDE in unipolar or bipolar depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Humans , Malaysia , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
19.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 918-924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Smell and taste disorders are among the most common symptoms of COVID-19. However, the relationship between smell and taste disorders and systemic symptoms is not fully understood in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 105 of 111 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized at our hospital between March and July 2020 in Japan. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (response rate: 70.5%) completed the survey. Of these, six patients (8.1%) presented with smell disorders only, 16 (21.6%) presented with taste disorders only, and 17 (23.0%) presented with both smell and taste disorders. The mean Visual Analog Scale for smell and taste was 0.5 and 20, respectively, at the time of the most severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients in Japan, smell and taste disorders are often followed by fever and may not be the first symptoms. Sense of smell is particularly impaired. These symptoms often improve, although they sometimes persist for a long time as sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 761987, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731863

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the deadly novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has disrupted life worldwide in an unprecedented manner. Over the period, scientific breakthroughs have resulted in the rollout of many vaccination programmes to protect against the disease, reduce the fear and ease public health restrictions for lives to return to some normalcy. The aim of this study was to identify the factors responsible for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance or vaccine hesitancy and to develop a framework to improve vaccine uptake in the Ghanaian-Dutch, Afro and Hindustani Surinamese-Dutch communities in Amsterdam. Using a mixed method approach, this community-based cross-sectional survey recruited 160 respondents consisting of 57 Ghanaian-Dutch, 54 Afro Surinamese-Dutch and 49 Hindustani-Dutch residents in Amsterdam. Our findings showed that the choice of a vaccine as well as the likelihood of self-reported willingness to receive a vaccine is highly dependent on vaccine efficacy and safety. Available evidence of high vaccine effectiveness and safety could encourage about 41.3% of the respondents to accept the vaccine. Additionally, 69.6% of the respondents indicated their willingness to accept the vaccine when vaccine passports are made mandatory by the government. Other major factors that could drive the likelihood of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine include travel requirement for vaccination (28.3%), the safety/probability of only minor side effects (26.1%) and recommendation by family and friends (15.2%). The study therefore provides systematic evidence of factors associated with individual preferences toward COVID-19 vaccination. It demonstrates that the needs of each community are unique and specific interventional efforts are urgently needed to address concerns likely to be associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ghana , Humans , Netherlands , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Vaccination
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