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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2211692, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838113

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identification of potential indirect outcomes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the pediatric population may be essential for understanding the challenges of the current global public health crisis for children and adolescents. Objective: To investigate whether the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and subsequent effective public health measures in Australia were associated with an increase in admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) of children and adolescents with deliberate self-harm (DSH). Design, Setting, and Participants: This national, multicenter cohort study was conducted using the Australian data subset of the binational Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care registry, a collaborative containing more than 200 000 medical records with continuous contributions from all 8 Australian specialist, university-affiliated pediatric ICUs, along with 1 combined neonatal-pediatric ICU and 14 general (adult) ICUs in Australia. The study period encompassed 6.5 years from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2021. Patients aged 12 to 17 years were included. Data were analyzed from December 2021 through February 2022. Exposures: Any of the following admission diagnoses: ingestion of a drug, ingestion of a nondrug, hanging or strangulation, or self-injury. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was the temporal trend for national incidence of DSH ICU admissions per 1 million children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in Australia. Results: A total of 813 children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years admitted to ICUs with DSH were identified among 64 145 patients aged 0 to 17 years in the Australian subset of the registry during the study period. Median (IQR) age was 15.1 (14.3-15.8) years; there were 550 (67.7%) female patients, 261 (32.2%) male patients, and 2 (0.2%) patients with indeterminate sex. At the onset of the pandemic, monthly incidence of DSH ICU admissions per million children and adolescents increased from 7.2 admissions in March 2020 to a peak of 11.4 admissions by August 2020, constituting a significant break in the temporal trend (odds ratio of DSH ICU admissions on or after vs before March 2020, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.09 to 21.53; P = .04). This occurred while the rate of all-cause admissions to pediatric ICUs of children and adolescents of all ages (ie, ages 0-17 years) per 1 million children and adolescents decreased from a long-term monthly median (IQR) of 150.9 (138.1-159.8) admissions to 91.7 admissions in April 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that the coronavirus pandemic in Australia was associated with a significant increase in admissions of children and adolescents to intensive care with DSH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 262-266, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827781

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Considering the resurgence of COVID19 and the rapid spread of new and deadlier strains across the globe understanding the incidence and pattern of violence and self harm tendencies during this period might help in formulating better contingency plans for future lockdowns. A deeper look at the available data shows that there is a significant dearth of research into self-harm & violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence and sociodemographic characteristics of self-harm and violence during the COVID19 lockdown and compare with a control group from the previous year. DESIGN: A cross-sectional retrospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with self harm and violence during the COVID-19 lockdown period between March 24-June 30, 2020 and March 24-June 30, 2019. EXPOSURE: The COVID-19 lockdown period. MAIN OUTCOME (S) AND MEASURE (S): The hypothesis being tested was formulated before the study. The null hypothesis tested was a decline in number of self-harm and violence cases during the lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 828 patients were analysed over both the time periods, out of which 30% (248) were females while 70% (580) were males. Increases in self-harm and violence were 12.71% and 95.32% respectively per 1000 ED admissions. A significant correlation was found between the COVID-19 lockdown and the increased incidence (X2 (1, N = 828) = 9.2, p < .05). An increase of violence by known individuals and between partners was seen. Intimate partner violence also increased to 7%. X2 (3, N = 662) = 21.03, p < .05. In the self harm dataset an increase in mortality, ICU admissions and decision to leave against medical advice was noted (X2 (4, N = 166) = 24.49, p < .05). Increase in the use of alcohol prior to acts of self harm and violence was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in the incidence of cases of self-harm and violence reported to the ED was noted during the lockdown period. Upgradation of health-care and law enforcement infrastructure maybe needed to deal with similar circumstances in a more efficient manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: N/A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reduced rates of help seeking by those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To understand changes in healthcare service contacts for self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic across primary, emergency and secondary care. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used routine electronic healthcare data for Wales, United Kingdom, from 2016 to March 14, 2021. Population-based data from primary care, emergency departments and hospital admissions were linked at individual-level. All Welsh residents aged ≥10 years over the study period were included in the study. Primary, emergency and secondary care contacts with self-harm at any time between 2016 and March 14, 2021 were identified. Outcomes were counts, incidence, prevalence and proportion of self-harm contacts relative to all contacts in each and all settings, as well as the proportion of people contacting one or more settings with self-harm. Weekly trends were modelled using generalised estimated equations, with differences between 2020 (to March 2021) and comparison years 2016-2018 (to March 2017-2019) quantified using difference in differences, from which mean rate of odds ratios (µROR) across years was reported. RESULTS: The study included 3,552,210 individuals over the study period. Self-harm contacts reduced across services in March and December 2020 compared to previous years. Primary care contacts with self-harm reduced disproportionately compared to non-self-harm contacts (µROR = 0.7, p<0.05), while their proportion increased in emergency departments during April 2020 (µROR = 1.3, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years) and hospital admissions during April-May 2020 (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years). Despite this, those who self-harmed in April 2020 were more likely to be seen in primary care than other settings compared to previous years (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05). A lower proportion of those with self-harm contacts in emergency departments were subsequently admitted to hospital in December 2020 compared to previous years (µROR = 0.5, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have been less likely to seek help, and those who did so faced more stringent criteria for admission. Communications encouraging those who self-harm to seek help during pandemics may be beneficial. However, this needs to be supported by maintained provision of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 304, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 77.0% of suicide cases occurred in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), which would increase because of the COVID-19 pandemic and socioeconomic inequity. However, there is lack of reports on this topic from LMICs, especially during the pandemic. Therefore, this nationwide study aimed to explore self-harm and suicide ideation and its predictive variables during the pandemic in Indonesia as a MIC with the highest COVID-19 fatality rate in Asia. METHODS: Non-random sampling online survey was conducted nationwide between 25 May and 16 June 2021. The collected data were demographic variables (i.e. age group), loneliness from social isolation using The UCLA Loneliness Scale Six Items (ULS-6), and self-harm and suicide ideation using item 9 of The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Predictive model was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 5211 participants from all 34 provinces in Indonesia completed the survey. Among 39.3% of them reported self-harm and suicide ideation during the pandemic, which significantly correlated with loneliness. The predictive variables associated with the likelihood of self-harm and suicide ideation were age, residence, job, religion, sex-gender, sexual orientation, HIV status, disability status, and loneliness. The predictive model showed a significant goodness-of-fit to the observed data (x2 [ (15)] = 1803.46, p < .001), RN2 = .40. CONCLUSION: Four out of 10 Indonesians experienced self-harm and suicide ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly people within the age range of 18-24, living in the Java Island, unemployed/student/retired and freelancer, women, members of minority and marginalized communities, and experience of loneliness during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 87, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 had a great impact on the physical and mental health of people all over the world, especially for students whose physical and mental development was not yet mature. In order to understand the physical and mental conditions of students during the epidemic period and provide a theoretical basis for coping with psychological problems in public health emergencies, this study explored the mediating role of sleep disorders in the effect of the psychological stress response (PSR) on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with the moderating role of emotional management ability (EMA). METHODS: The SRQ-20, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, NSSI Behavior Questionnaire, and Emotional Management Questionnaire were used to investigate the mental health of Chinese students in April 10-20 (Time point 1, T1) and May 20-30 (Time point 2, T2), 2020. A total of 1,955 students (Mage = 19.64 years, 51.4% male) were examined at T1 and 342 students (Mage = 20.06 years, 48.2% male) were reassessed at T2. RESULTS: Overall, the detection rate of PSR and NSSI were 17.60% (n = 344) and 24.90% (n = 486) respectively in the T1 sample, and were 16.37% (n = 56) and 25.44% (n = 87), in the T2 sample. We also found that sleep disorders played a mediating role in the effect of PSR on NSSI in the T1 and T2 samples. In addition, EMA was shown to regulate the effect of PSR on sleep disorders and the effect of sleep disorders on NSSI in the T1 samples. CONCLUSION: We found that PSR resulting from public health emergency might lead to NSSI behaviors in individuals. PSR may also cause sleep disorders, which can bring about NSSI. However, these effects were also moderated by the EMA. This research expands our understanding of PSR and NSSI in students during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/etiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students/psychology
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 68, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the characteristics of people living in the community who have previously self-harmed and may benefit from interventions during and after COVID-19. We therefore aimed to: (a) examine the relationship between reported self-harm and COVID-19-related fear, and (b) describe the characteristics of a community sample of people who reported a lifetime history of self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional national online survey of UK adults who reported a lifetime history of self-harm (n = 1029) was conducted. Data were collected May - June 2020. Main outcomes were self-reported COVID-19-related fear (based on the Fear of COVID-19 scale [FCV-19S]), lifetime history of COVID-19, and lifetime history of self-harm. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Chi-square was used to compare characteristics of our sample with available national data. RESULTS: Overall, 75.1, 40.2 and 74.3% of the total sample reported lifetime suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and non-suicidal self-harm respectively. When adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, social grade, and exposure to death and suicide, binary logistic regression showed higher levels of perceived symptomatic (or physiological) reactions to COVID-19 were associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.07, 1.39) and suicidal attempts (OR = 3.91, 95%CI 1.18, 12.96) in the past week. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest an urgent need to consider the impact of COVID-19 on people with a lifetime history of self-harm when designing interventions to help support people in reducing suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. Experiencing symptomatic reactions of fear in particular is associated with self-harm. Helping to support people to develop coping plans in response to threat-related fear is likely to help people at risk of repeat self-harm during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(6): e45, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of self-injurious behavior (SIB) among persons who were directly impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially those with pre-existing mental disorders. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service-COVID-19 database cohort, the monthly SIB rate was calculated by COVID-19 subgroups (i.e., positive for COVID-19 test, negative for COVID-19 test, and non-COVID-19 test [control]). In addition, moderated regression analysis was utilized to examine the statistical difference of SIB (suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury using ICD-10 code) trend between COVID-19 subgroups and with and without pre-existing mental disorder. RESULTS: A total of 328,373 persons were included in the cohort study. Of these, 212,678 had been tested for COVID-19, and 7,713 of them were confirmed positive. During the pandemic peak, the "negative for COVID-19" group showed a large increase (P = 0.003) in SIB rates compared to the control group, the "positive for COVID-19" group showed a decreasing trend, but not significant (P = 0.314). Among those who were tested for COVID-19, those with pre-existing mental disorders showed an increasing trend of SIB compared to those without pre-existing mental disorders, however statistically insignificant (P = 0.137). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people who are tested for COVID-19 are at a high risk of SIB during the peak COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, screening for suicide risk and psychological interventions is needed for these high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052613, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial reduction in self-harm recorded in primary care occurred during the first wave of COVID-19 but effects on primary care management of self-harm are unknown. Our objectives were to examine the impact of COVID-19 on clinical management within 3 months of an episode of self-harm. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 4238 patients with an index episode of self-harm recorded in UK primary care during the COVID-19 first-wave period (10 March 2020-10 June 2020) compared with 48 739 patients in a prepandemic comparison period (10 March-10 June, 2010-2019). OUTCOME MEASURES: Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we compared cohorts of patients with an index self-harm episode recorded during the prepandemic period versus the COVID-19 first-wave period. Patients were followed up for 3 months to capture subsequent general practitioner (GP)/practice nurse consultation, referral to mental health services and psychotropic medication prescribing. We examined differences by gender, age group and Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile. RESULTS: Likelihood of having at least one GP/practice nurse consultation was broadly similar (83.2% vs 80.3% in the COVID-19 cohort). The proportion of patients referred to mental health services in the COVID-19 cohort (4.2%) was around two-thirds of that in the prepandemic cohort (6.1%). Similar proportions were prescribed psychotropic medication within 3 months in the prepandemic (54.0%) and COVID-19 first-wave (54.9%) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges experienced by primary healthcare teams during the initial COVID-19 wave, prescribing and consultation patterns following self-harm were broadly similar to prepandemic levels. We found no evidence of widening of digital exclusion in terms of access to remote consultations. However, the reduced likelihood of referral to mental health services warrants attention. Accessible outpatient and community services for people who have self-harmed are required as the COVID-19 crisis recedes and the population faces new challenges to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Cohort Studies , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143144, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620075

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic era (April 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021), relative to the 2 years preceding the pandemic (March 1, 2018 to February 28, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters or hospitalizations for self-harm or overdose. A secondary outcome was self-harm, overdose, or all-cause mortality. Cause-specific hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were used for the primary outcome. Follow-up started at March 1, 2018, or the individual's 14th birthday, whichever was later, and age was used as the time scale. Results: In this study, 1 690 733 adolescents and young adults (823 904 [51.3%] female participants) were included with a median (IQR) age of 17.7 (14.1-21.4) years at start of follow-up. After 4 110 903 person-years of follow-up, 6224 adolescents and young adults experienced the primary outcome of self-harm or overdose during the pandemic (39.7 per 10 000 person-years) vs 12 970 (51.0 per 10 000 person-years) prepandemic, with an HR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.80). The risk of self-harm, overdose, or death was also lower during than before the pandemic (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81), but not all-cause mortality (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults, the initial 15-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a relative decline in hospital care for self-harm or overdose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(1): 4-6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556723

ABSTRACT

Although long-term outcomes of girls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are understudied, high risk for adolescent and young-adult self-harm is salient. We present data on predictors and mediators of such risk, highlighting a recent dual-process model involving trait impulsivity plus family- and peer-related contributors. We conclude with recommendations for assessment and preventive intervention.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E988-E997, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which heightened distress during the COVID-19 pandemic translated to increases in severe mental health outcomes is unknown. We examined trends in psychiatric presentations to acute care settings in the first 12 months after onset of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a trends analysis of administrative population data in Ontario, Canada. We examined rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for mental health diagnoses overall and stratified by sex, age and diagnostic grouping (e.g., mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders), as well as visits for intentional self-injury for people aged 10 to 105 years, from January 2019 to March 2021. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant inflection points after the onset of the pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: Among the 12 968 100 people included in our analysis, rates of mental health-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits declined immediately after the onset of the pandemic (peak overall decline of 30% [hospitalizations] and 37% [emergency department visits] compared to April 2019) and returned to near prepandemic levels by March 2021. Compared to April 2019, visits for intentional self-injury declined by 33% and remained below prepandemic levels until March 2021. We observed the largest declines in service use among adolescents aged 14 to 17 years (55% decline in hospitalizations, 58% decline in emergency department visits) and 10 to 13 years (56% decline in self-injury), and for those with substance-related disorders (33% decline in emergency department visits) and anxiety disorders (61% decline in hospitalizations). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to expectations, the abrupt decline in acute mental health service use immediately after the onset of the pandemic and the return to near prepandemic levels that we observed suggest that changes and stressors in the first 12 months of the pandemic did not translate to increased service use. Continued surveillance of acute mental health service use is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Emerg Med J ; 38(11): 842-845, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is significant interest in the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) attend the most seriously unwell and injured patients in the community; their data therefore present an early opportunity to examine self-harm trends. The primary aim was to compare the incidence of deliberate self-harm incident (DSH-I) encounters by HEMS before and during the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: Data were obtained from all three East of England HEMS: total number of activations and stand-downs, number of DSH-I activations and stand-downs, self-harm mechanism and number of 'severe' DSH-I patient encounters, in two 61-day periods: 1 March to 30 April in 2019 (control) and 2020 (COVID-19). Severe DSH-I was defined as cardiac arrest and/or died prehospital. Proportions were compared with a Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: There were a total of 1725 HEMS activations: n=981 (control) and n=744 (COVID-19), a decrease of 24.2% during COVID-19. DSH-I patient encounters increased by 65.4%: n=26 (control) and n=43 (COVID-19). The proportion of encounters that were DSH-I and severe DSH-I both significantly increased during COVID-19: p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively. The absolute number of hangings and falls from height both approximately tripled during COVID-19, whereas the number of other mechanisms remained almost constant. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction in overall HEMS patient encounters, there were significant increases in both the proportion of DSH-Is and their severity attended by HEMS during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the East of England.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/mortality , Trauma Severity Indices
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 220(1): 31-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath will result in excess suicides by increasing known risk factors such as self-harm, but evidence on how pandemic-related risk factors contribute to changes in these outcomes is lacking. AIMS: To examine how different COVID-19-related experiences of and worries about adversity contribute to changes in self-harm thoughts and behaviours. METHOD: Data from 49 324 UK adults in the University College London COVID-19 Social Study were analysed (1 April 2020 to 17 May 2021). Fixed-effects regressions explored associations between weekly within-person variation in five categories of adversity experience and adversity worries with changes in self-harm thoughts and behaviours across age groups (18-29, 30-44, 45-59 and 60+ years). RESULTS: In total, 26.1% and 7.9% of respondents reported self-harm thoughts and behaviours respectively at least once over the study period. The number of adverse experiences was more strongly related to outcomes than the number of worries. The largest specific adversity contributing to increases in both outcomes was having experienced physical or psychological abuse. Financial worries increased the likelihood of both outcomes in most age groups, and having had COVID-19 increased the likelihood of both outcomes in young (18-29 years) and middle-aged (45-59 years) adults. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that a significant portion of UK adults may be at increased risk for self-harm thoughts and behaviours during the pandemic. Given the likelihood that the economic and social consequences of the pandemic will accumulate, policy makers can begin adapting evidence-based suicide prevention strategies and other social policies to help mitigate its consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114208, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401795

ABSTRACT

Life-time prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has consistently been found to be around 17% in community samples of adolescents. Concerns of threats to mental health in adolescents during covid-19 have been raised. Life-time prevalence of NSSI in high school students in Sweden was compared using the same item to assess NSSI at three different time points. Results showed very similar prevalence of NSSI in 2011 and 2014 (17.2 % vs. 17.7 %), and an increase to 27.6 % during the pandemic of 2020-2021. Our findings imply a need to highlight the potential psychosocial consequences of covid-19 for young people.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Students
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 304: 114152, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336863

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to conduct an ecologically valid test of etiological models of deliberate self-harm (DSH) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a sample of Canadian adolescents, we investigated: (1) the association between COVID-19-related stress and DSH; (2) whether emotion regulation (ER) difficulties mediated/moderated this association, including whether these effects differed by age; and (3) whether the mediating/moderating effects of ER difficulties were stronger among socially distanced youth. Canadian adolescents (N = 809) aged 12-18 were recruited on social media and completed an online survey. COVID-19-related stress was associated with recent DSH. Nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to ER strategies fully mediated this association. The indirect effect through nonacceptance of emotional responses was stronger among more socially distanced youth, whereas the indirect effect through limited access to ER strategies was stronger among older and more socially distanced youth. COVID-19-related stress and ER difficulties did not interact to predict DSH, nor did age or social distancing moderate these interactions. These results align with etiological models proposing central roles for stress and ER difficulties in DSH. Furthermore, this study underscores a need to support adolescents, particularly older teens with reduced in-person interactions, in adaptively coping with pandemic-related stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Canada , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology
16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 892-900, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is widespread concern over the impact of public health measures, such as lockdowns, associated with COVID-19 on mental health, including suicide. High-quality evidence from low-income and middle-income countries, where the burden of suicide and self-harm is greatest, is scarce. We aimed to determine the effect of the pandemic on hospital presentations for self-poisoning. METHODS: In this interrupted time-series analysis, we established a new self-poisoning register at the tertiary care Teaching Hospital Peradeniya in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle-income country. Using a standard extraction sheet, data were gathered for all patients admitted to the Toxicology Unit with self-poisoning between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020. Only patients classified by the treating clinician as having intentionally self-poisoned were included. Data on date of admission, age or date of birth, sex, and poisoning method were collected. No data on ethnicity were available. We used interrupted time-series analysis to calculate weekly hospital admissions for self-poisoning before (Jan 1, 2019-March 19, 2020) and during (March 20-Aug 31, 2020) the pandemic, overall and by age (age <25 years vs ≥25 years) and sex. Individuals with missing date of admission were excluded from the main analysis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020, 1401 individuals (584 [41·7%] males, 761 [54·3%] females, and 56 [4·0%] of unknown sex) presented to the hospital with self-poisoning and had date of admission data. A 32% (95% CI 12-48) reduction in hospital presentations for self-poisoning in the pandemic period compared with pre-pandemic trends was observed (rate ratio 0·68, 95% CI 0·52-0·88; p=0·0032). We found no evidence that the impact of the pandemic differed by sex (rate ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·94, for females vs 0·85, 0·57-1·26, for males; pinteraction=0·43) or age (0·64, 0·44-0·93, for patients aged <25 years vs 0·81, 0·57-1·16, for patients aged ≥25 years; pinteraction=0·077). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study from a lower-middle-income country to estimate the impact of the pandemic on self-harm (non-fatal) accounting for underlying trends. If the fall in hospital presentations during the pandemic reflects a reduction in the medical treatment of people who have self-poisoned, rather than a true fall in incidence, then public health messages should emphasise the importance of seeking help early. FUNDING: Elizabeth Blackwell Institute University of Bristol, Wellcome Trust, and Centre for Pesticide Suicide Prevention. TRANSLATIONS: For the Sinhalese and Tamil translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Poisoning/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Male , Poisoning/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
17.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 56(5): 571, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327787
18.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(3): 560-575, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327583

ABSTRACT

We examined the longitudinal course of, and pre- and during-pandemic risk factors for, self-injury and domestic physical violence perpetration in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data came from a Swiss longitudinal study (N = 786, age ˜22 in 2020), with one prepandemic (2018) and four during-pandemic assessments (2020). The prevalence of self-injury did not change between April (during the first Swiss national lockdown) and September 2020 (postlockdown). Domestic violence perpetration increased temporarily in males. Prepandemic self-injury was a major risk factor for during-pandemic self-injury. Specific living arrangements, pandemic-related stressor accumulation, and a lack of adaptive coping strategies were associated with during-pandemic self-injury and domestic violence. Stressor accumulation had indirect effects on self-injury and domestic violence through negative emotions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Self-Injurious Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 422-428, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293883

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression and self-harm are leading causes of disability in young people, but prospective data on how maternal depression and self-harm thoughts contribute to these outcomes, and how they may interact is lacking. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 8,425 mothers and offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an ongoing birth cohort study. Exposures were maternal self-harm ideation and depression measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, collected at eleven time points over the period 18 weeks' gestation to 18 years post-partum. Outcomes were offspring past-year major depressive disorder and lifetime self-harm assessed at age 24. RESULTS: Nearly one-fifth (16.7%) of mothers reported thoughts of self-harm on at least one of the eleven assessment points. The frequency of maternal self-harm ideation was related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Young adults whose mothers had self-harm ideation on 5-11 occasions were over three times more likely (Odds ratio (OR), 3.32; 95% CI, 1.63-6.76) to be depressed and over 1.5 times as likely (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.73, 3.29) to have self-harmed than their peers whose mothers had never reported self-harm thoughts. Maternal self-harm thoughts remained associated with both offspring outcomes independent of maternal depression, and no evidence was found for an interaction between the two exposures. DISCUSSION: Clinicians collecting data on maternal depression may consider paying attention to questions about self-harm ideation in assessments. Examining accumulated maternal self-harm ideation over time may provide insights into which children are most at risk for later self-harm and depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Prospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
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