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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875635

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the motives and factors connected to suicidal behavior in 121 hospitalized patients with intentional self-harm (diagnosis X 60-81 according to the ICD-10); (2) Methods: Suicidal behavior of the patient was assessed from data obtained by psychiatric examinations and by the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Analysis of data to identify the patients' reason and motives behind suicidal behavior in a group of patients with a suicide attempt (SA, n = 80) and patients with Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior (NSSIB, n = 41) was carried out; (3) Results: Results showed that patients with affective disorder have a 19-times higher rate of SA against other diagnoses. Patients with personality disorders have a 32-times higher rate of NSSIB than patients with other diagnoses. Living alone and the absence of social support increased the likelihood of SA. Qualitative data analysis of patients' statements showed different themes in the justification of motives for suicidal behavior between SA and NSSIB cases. Significant differences were shown for non-communicated reasons, loneliness, social problems, extortion, and distress; (4) Conclusions: The evaluation of patients' verbal statements by qualitative analysis during the psychiatric examination should be considered in clinical practice. It should be considered to include self-poisoning in the criteria of the Non-suicidal Self-Injury diagnostic categories.


Subject(s)
Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicidal Ideation , Humans , Motivation , Personality Disorders , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/psychology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reduced rates of help seeking by those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To understand changes in healthcare service contacts for self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic across primary, emergency and secondary care. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used routine electronic healthcare data for Wales, United Kingdom, from 2016 to March 14, 2021. Population-based data from primary care, emergency departments and hospital admissions were linked at individual-level. All Welsh residents aged ≥10 years over the study period were included in the study. Primary, emergency and secondary care contacts with self-harm at any time between 2016 and March 14, 2021 were identified. Outcomes were counts, incidence, prevalence and proportion of self-harm contacts relative to all contacts in each and all settings, as well as the proportion of people contacting one or more settings with self-harm. Weekly trends were modelled using generalised estimated equations, with differences between 2020 (to March 2021) and comparison years 2016-2018 (to March 2017-2019) quantified using difference in differences, from which mean rate of odds ratios (µROR) across years was reported. RESULTS: The study included 3,552,210 individuals over the study period. Self-harm contacts reduced across services in March and December 2020 compared to previous years. Primary care contacts with self-harm reduced disproportionately compared to non-self-harm contacts (µROR = 0.7, p<0.05), while their proportion increased in emergency departments during April 2020 (µROR = 1.3, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years) and hospital admissions during April-May 2020 (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years). Despite this, those who self-harmed in April 2020 were more likely to be seen in primary care than other settings compared to previous years (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05). A lower proportion of those with self-harm contacts in emergency departments were subsequently admitted to hospital in December 2020 compared to previous years (µROR = 0.5, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have been less likely to seek help, and those who did so faced more stringent criteria for admission. Communications encouraging those who self-harm to seek help during pandemics may be beneficial. However, this needs to be supported by maintained provision of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
3.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 193-200, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may mediate the association between family functioning and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mediation effects of depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and COVID-related PTSS on the relationship between family functioning and NSSI in adolescents. METHOD: A sample of 5854 adolescents was recruited from June 16 to July 8, 2020. The data for family functioning, depressive symptoms, emotional competence, COVID-related PTSS, and NSSI behavior of adolescents were collected via self-reported questionnaires. A structural equation model was constructed to examine the relationship, and a bootstrap analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediation effects. RESULTS: The reporting rate of adolescent NSSI was 30.2%. The poor family functioning was positively associated with adolescent NSSI (ß = 0.130, 95% CI = 0.093-0.182), which was mediated by depression with effect size of 0.231 (95% CI = 0.201-0.257). The pathway coefficients between emotional competence and NSSI, and depression, COVID-related PTSS and NSSI, though statistically significant were unlikely to be clinically meaning with values of 0.057 and 0.015. There was no mediating effect by COVID-related PTSS. The pathways initially constructed between family functioning and COVID-related PTSS, emotional capacity and COVID-related PTSS were not been verified. LIMITATIONS: It was unclear whether this mediational effect would be supported in a longitudinal design. The application and extension of this model toward other regions and countries, and different ages need to be further explored. CONCLUSION: The interventions of adolescent NSSI should focus on both the family level and individual levels. Improving family environment, screening depressive symptoms, enhancing emotional competence and lessening COVID-related PTSS may reduce NSSI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 87, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 had a great impact on the physical and mental health of people all over the world, especially for students whose physical and mental development was not yet mature. In order to understand the physical and mental conditions of students during the epidemic period and provide a theoretical basis for coping with psychological problems in public health emergencies, this study explored the mediating role of sleep disorders in the effect of the psychological stress response (PSR) on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with the moderating role of emotional management ability (EMA). METHODS: The SRQ-20, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, NSSI Behavior Questionnaire, and Emotional Management Questionnaire were used to investigate the mental health of Chinese students in April 10-20 (Time point 1, T1) and May 20-30 (Time point 2, T2), 2020. A total of 1,955 students (Mage = 19.64 years, 51.4% male) were examined at T1 and 342 students (Mage = 20.06 years, 48.2% male) were reassessed at T2. RESULTS: Overall, the detection rate of PSR and NSSI were 17.60% (n = 344) and 24.90% (n = 486) respectively in the T1 sample, and were 16.37% (n = 56) and 25.44% (n = 87), in the T2 sample. We also found that sleep disorders played a mediating role in the effect of PSR on NSSI in the T1 and T2 samples. In addition, EMA was shown to regulate the effect of PSR on sleep disorders and the effect of sleep disorders on NSSI in the T1 samples. CONCLUSION: We found that PSR resulting from public health emergency might lead to NSSI behaviors in individuals. PSR may also cause sleep disorders, which can bring about NSSI. However, these effects were also moderated by the EMA. This research expands our understanding of PSR and NSSI in students during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/etiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students/psychology
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2479-2486, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1725052

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente ensaio busca discutir as implicações do isolamento social devido à pandemia do COVID-19 para o uso intensivo da internet entre crianças e adolescentes e suas possíveis consequências para a prática de violências autoinflingidas. Discutimos brevemente o potencial ansiogênico e a reprodução de um "medo global" que se consolidam com a exposição maciça e sem mediação dos conteúdos consumidos, que podem aumentar as vulnerabilidades para estresse e ideações suicidas. Centramos nosso debate sobre práticas "recreativas", denominadas de "desafios" com poder autolesivo, realizados por adolescentes no site Youtube. Essa prática revelou-se crescente a partir das medidas de isolamento social. Nossa reflexão sobre esses riscos é feita a partir da perspectiva teórica da sociabilidade digital, e suas implicações nas interações de adolescentes mediadas pela internet.


Abstract This essay aimed to discuss the implications of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic for the intensive use of the internet among children and adolescents and its possible consequences for the practice of self-inflicted violence. We briefly discussed the anxiogenic potential and the reproduction of a "global fear" that are consolidated with the massive and unmediated exposure of the content consumed, which can increase the vulnerabilities to stress and suicidal ideas. We centered our debate on "recreational" practices, called "challenges" with self-harm power, carried out by teenagers on the YouTube website. This practice has been shown to increase with the social isolation measures. Our reflection on these risks builds on the theoretical perspective of digital sociability, and its implications for the internet-mediated interactions of adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Anxiety/psychology , Self Concept , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Time Factors , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Behavior, Addictive , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear , Social Media/statistics & numerical data
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052613, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial reduction in self-harm recorded in primary care occurred during the first wave of COVID-19 but effects on primary care management of self-harm are unknown. Our objectives were to examine the impact of COVID-19 on clinical management within 3 months of an episode of self-harm. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 4238 patients with an index episode of self-harm recorded in UK primary care during the COVID-19 first-wave period (10 March 2020-10 June 2020) compared with 48 739 patients in a prepandemic comparison period (10 March-10 June, 2010-2019). OUTCOME MEASURES: Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we compared cohorts of patients with an index self-harm episode recorded during the prepandemic period versus the COVID-19 first-wave period. Patients were followed up for 3 months to capture subsequent general practitioner (GP)/practice nurse consultation, referral to mental health services and psychotropic medication prescribing. We examined differences by gender, age group and Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile. RESULTS: Likelihood of having at least one GP/practice nurse consultation was broadly similar (83.2% vs 80.3% in the COVID-19 cohort). The proportion of patients referred to mental health services in the COVID-19 cohort (4.2%) was around two-thirds of that in the prepandemic cohort (6.1%). Similar proportions were prescribed psychotropic medication within 3 months in the prepandemic (54.0%) and COVID-19 first-wave (54.9%) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges experienced by primary healthcare teams during the initial COVID-19 wave, prescribing and consultation patterns following self-harm were broadly similar to prepandemic levels. We found no evidence of widening of digital exclusion in terms of access to remote consultations. However, the reduced likelihood of referral to mental health services warrants attention. Accessible outpatient and community services for people who have self-harmed are required as the COVID-19 crisis recedes and the population faces new challenges to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Cohort Studies , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637414

ABSTRACT

Contemporary performance and accessibility are features that enable mobile devices to be increasingly beneficial in the context of optimizing the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Smartphones have the potential to effectively support psychotherapeutic interventions among adolescents and young adults who require them. In the present study, the use and subjective influence of a smartphone app with content from dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was investigated among transitional age youth (TAY) with borderline personality disorder, focusing on suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), in a natural setting. A longitudinal qualitative approach was used by means of individual semi-structured interviews, where participants were asked about their experiences and associated emotions before and after a testing period of 30 days. A total of 13 TAY with a diagnosed borderline personality disorder between the ages of 18 and 23 were included. Six overarching themes were identified through qualitative text analysis: (1) experiences with DBT skills, (2) phenomenon of self-harm, (3) feelings connected with self-harm, (4) dealing with disorder-specific symptoms, (5) prevention of self-harm, and (6) attitude toward skills apps. In general, the provision of an app with DBT content achieved a positive response among participants. Despite a small change in the perception of suicidality and NSSI, participants could imagine its benefits by integrating their use of the app as a supportive measure for personal psychotherapy sessions.


Subject(s)
Borderline Personality Disorder , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Mobile Applications , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , Behavior Therapy , Borderline Personality Disorder/therapy , Humans , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Burns ; 48(4): 984-988, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the increased restrictions, isolation and stressors associated with COVID-19 led to an increase in rates or severity of self-immolation burn injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective review of a prospectively-collected database of New South Wales burn patients, comparing 2020 data with the preceding 5 years. SETTING: Both adult units in the New South Wales Statewide Burn Injury Service (Concord Repatriation General Hospital and Royal North Shore Hospital). PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients in New South Wales with self-inflicted burn injuries between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information, precipitating factors, burn severity, morbidity and mortality outcomes. RESULTS: We found18 episodes of self-immolation in 2020, compared to an average of 10 per year previously. Burn size significantly increased (43% total body surface area vs 28%) as did revised Baux score (92 vs 77). Most patients had a pre-existing psychiatric illness. Family conflict and acute psychiatric illness were the most common precipitating factors. CONCLUSION: 2020 saw an increase in both the frequency and severity of self-inflicted burn injuries in New South Wales, with psychiatric illness a major factor.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adult , Burns/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1997181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559184

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Prevalent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) negatively affected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using network analyses, this study explored the construct of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China to identify similarities and differences in PTSD symptom network connectivity between the general Chinese population and individuals reporting PTSD. Methods: We conducted an online survey recruiting 2858 Chinese adults. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PCL-5 and PTSD was determined according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results: In the general population, self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average the most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) avoidance of thoughts and avoidance of reminders, 2) concentration difficulties and sleep disturbance, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours, and 5) hypervigilance and exaggerated startle responses. Besides, negative connections were found between intrusive thoughts and trauma-related amnesia and between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Among individuals reporting PTSD, symptoms such as flashbacks and self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, 2) intrusive thoughts and emotional cue reactivity, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviour, and 5) detachment and restricted affect. In addition, a negative connection was found between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Conclusion: Our results indicate similarly positive connections between concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, and irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours in the general and PTSD-reported populations. We argue that self-destructive/reckless behaviours are a core symptom of COVID-19 related PTSD, worthy of more attention in future psychiatric programmers.


Antecedentes y Objetivos: El Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) prevalente afectó negativamente a los individuos durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Usando análisis de redes, este estudio exploró el constructo de síntomas de TEPT durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en China para identificar las similitudes y diferencias en la conectividad de red de síntomas de TEPT entre la población general china y los individuos que reportan TEPT.Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en línea que reclutó 2.858 adultos chinos. Los síntomas de TEPT se midieron usando el PCL-5 y el TEPT se determinó de acuerdo a los criterios del DSM-5.Resultados: En la población general, las conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes fueron, en promedio, las más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) evitación de pensamientos y evitación de recordatorios, 2) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes y 5) hipervigilancia y respuestas de sobresalto exageradas. Además, se encontraron conexiones negativas entre pensamientos intrusivos y amnesia relacionada con el trauma y entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes. Entre los individuos que reportaron TEPT, los síntomas como flashbacks y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes estuvieron, en promedio, más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 2) pensamientos intrusivos y reactividad emocional a ciertas señales, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes, y 5) desapego y afecto restringido. Además, se encontró una conexión negativa entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes.Conclusión: Nuestros resultados indican conexiones igualmente positivas entre dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, e irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes en la población general y la que reporto TEPT. Argumentamos que las conductas autodestructivas/imprudentes son un síntoma central de TEPT relacionado con COVID-19, que merece más atención en futuros programas psiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493216

ABSTRACT

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone Use , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Care/methods , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Aggression , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep , Social Skills
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113998, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475002

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, and efforts to mitigate its spread, are creating extensive mental health problems. Experts have speculated the mental, economic, behavioral, and psychosocial problems linked to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a rise in suicide behavior. However, a quantitative synthesis is needed to reach an overall conclusion regarding the pandemic-suicide link. In the most comprehensive test of the COVID-19-suicidality link to date, we meta-analyzed data from 308,596 participants across 54 studies. Our results suggested increased event rates for suicide ideation (10.81%), suicide attempts (4.68%), and self-harm (9.63%) during the COVID-19 pandemic when considered against event rates from pre-pandemic studies. Moderation analysis indicated younger people, women, and individuals from democratic countries are most susceptible to suicide ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and helping professionals are advised that suicide behaviors are alarmingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic and vary based upon age, gender, and geopolitics. Strong protections from governments (e.g., implementing best practices in suicide prevention) are urgently needed to reduce suicide behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 892-900, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is widespread concern over the impact of public health measures, such as lockdowns, associated with COVID-19 on mental health, including suicide. High-quality evidence from low-income and middle-income countries, where the burden of suicide and self-harm is greatest, is scarce. We aimed to determine the effect of the pandemic on hospital presentations for self-poisoning. METHODS: In this interrupted time-series analysis, we established a new self-poisoning register at the tertiary care Teaching Hospital Peradeniya in Sri Lanka, a lower-middle-income country. Using a standard extraction sheet, data were gathered for all patients admitted to the Toxicology Unit with self-poisoning between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020. Only patients classified by the treating clinician as having intentionally self-poisoned were included. Data on date of admission, age or date of birth, sex, and poisoning method were collected. No data on ethnicity were available. We used interrupted time-series analysis to calculate weekly hospital admissions for self-poisoning before (Jan 1, 2019-March 19, 2020) and during (March 20-Aug 31, 2020) the pandemic, overall and by age (age <25 years vs ≥25 years) and sex. Individuals with missing date of admission were excluded from the main analysis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2019, and Aug 31, 2020, 1401 individuals (584 [41·7%] males, 761 [54·3%] females, and 56 [4·0%] of unknown sex) presented to the hospital with self-poisoning and had date of admission data. A 32% (95% CI 12-48) reduction in hospital presentations for self-poisoning in the pandemic period compared with pre-pandemic trends was observed (rate ratio 0·68, 95% CI 0·52-0·88; p=0·0032). We found no evidence that the impact of the pandemic differed by sex (rate ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·94, for females vs 0·85, 0·57-1·26, for males; pinteraction=0·43) or age (0·64, 0·44-0·93, for patients aged <25 years vs 0·81, 0·57-1·16, for patients aged ≥25 years; pinteraction=0·077). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study from a lower-middle-income country to estimate the impact of the pandemic on self-harm (non-fatal) accounting for underlying trends. If the fall in hospital presentations during the pandemic reflects a reduction in the medical treatment of people who have self-poisoned, rather than a true fall in incidence, then public health messages should emphasise the importance of seeking help early. FUNDING: Elizabeth Blackwell Institute University of Bristol, Wellcome Trust, and Centre for Pesticide Suicide Prevention. TRANSLATIONS: For the Sinhalese and Tamil translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Poisoning/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Male , Poisoning/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113654, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997443

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic put global medical systems under massive pressure for its uncertainty, severity, and persistence. For detecting the prevalence of suicidal and self-harm ideation (SSI) and its related risk factors among hospital staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, this cross-sectional study collected the sociodemographic data, epidemic-related information, the psychological status and need, and perceived stress and support from 11507 staff in 46 hospitals by an online survey from February 14 to March 2, 2020. The prevalence of SSI was 6.47%. Hospital staff with SSI had high family members or relatives infected number and the self-rated probability of infection. Additionally, they had more perceived stress, psychological need, and psychological impact. On the contrary, hospital staff without SSI reported high self-rated health, willingness to work in a COVID-19 ward, confidence in defeating COVID-19, and perceived support. Furthermore, they reported better marital or family relationship, longer sleep hours, and shorter work hours. The infection of family members or relatives, poor marital status, poor self-rated health, the current need for psychological intervention, perceived high stress, perceived low support, depression, and anxiety were independent factors to SSI. A systematic psychological intervention strategy during a public health crisis was needed for the hospital staff's mental well-being.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Uncertainty , Young Adult
16.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 266-277, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11th March 2020. The UK government introduced strict social distancing measures on 23rd March 2020, with the country put into a full lockdown to further halt the spread of the virus.The aims of this article are to ascertain whether there was a rise in the incidence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) presentations to the emergency department at a level one trauma center associated with the introduction of lockdown measures. METHOD: An observational study from a level one trauma center was carried out. Retrospective data from 23rd March 2020 to 1st May 2020 was collected and compared to the same time period in 2019. Data was collected from coded electronic patient records. RESULTS: Total attendances to the Emergency Department (ED) reduced from 2019 to 2020 (5198 and 3059 respectively). There was a significant increase in the total number of self-harm presentations between 2019 and 2020 (103 vs 113, p-value <0.001) as well as paracetamol, NSAID and opiate overdoses, with more cases requiring hospital admission in 2020 vs 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Societal lockdown measures secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant effect on the mental health of patients. One way this can be detected is through an increased incidence and severity of deliberate self-harm injuries presenting to the ED. These findings, in conjunction with the available, literature provide valuable implications for community and emergency physicians and psychiatrists for any future wave of disease or pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 607-617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647841

ABSTRACT

Quarantine plays a key role in controlling the pandemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study investigated (a) the associations between mandatory quarantine status and negative cognitions (perceived discrimination because of COVID-19 and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection)/mental health status (emotional distress because of COVID-19, probable depression, and self-harm/suicidal ideation), (b) the associations between the negative cognitions and mental health status, and (c) potential mediations between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 24,378 students of 26 universities in 16 Chinese cities (February 1-10, 2020). Correlation coefficients, odds ratios (OR), structural equation modeling, and other statistics were used for data analysis. Mandatory quarantined status was significantly and positively associated with perceived discrimination (Cohen's d = 0.62), perceived high/very high risk of infection (OR = 1.61), emotional distress (Cohen's d = 0.46), probable depression (OR = 2.54), and self-harm/suicidal ideation (OR = 4.98). Perceived discrimination was moderately and positively associated with emotional distress (Spearman correlation = 0.44). Associations between perceived risk of infection and mental health variables were significant but relatively weak. Cross-sectional mediation models showed good model fit, but the overall indirect paths via COVID-19-related negative cognitions/emotional distress only accounted for 12-15% of the total effects between quarantined status and probable depression and self-harm/suicidal ideation. In conclusion, quarantined participants were more likely than others to perceive discrimination and exhibit mental distress. It is important to integrate mental health care into the planning and implementation of quarantine measures. Future longitudinal studies to explore mechanisms underlying the mental health impact of quarantines are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Mandatory Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
20.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(4): 543-546, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641520

ABSTRACT

This study explored patterns of abuse, self-harm and thoughts of suicide/self-harm in the UK during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic using data from the COVID-19 Social Study (n=44 775), a non-probability sample weighted to population proportions. The reported frequency of abuse, self-harm and thoughts of suicide/self-harm was higher among women, Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, unemployment, disability, chronic physical illnesses, mental disorders and COVID-19 diagnosis. Psychiatric medications were the most common type of support being used, but fewer than half of those affected were accessing formal or informal support.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Domestic Violence , Mental Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/psychology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/virology , Mental Health Services , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Psychosocial Support Systems , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/prevention & control , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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