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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052613, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial reduction in self-harm recorded in primary care occurred during the first wave of COVID-19 but effects on primary care management of self-harm are unknown. Our objectives were to examine the impact of COVID-19 on clinical management within 3 months of an episode of self-harm. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 4238 patients with an index episode of self-harm recorded in UK primary care during the COVID-19 first-wave period (10 March 2020-10 June 2020) compared with 48 739 patients in a prepandemic comparison period (10 March-10 June, 2010-2019). OUTCOME MEASURES: Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we compared cohorts of patients with an index self-harm episode recorded during the prepandemic period versus the COVID-19 first-wave period. Patients were followed up for 3 months to capture subsequent general practitioner (GP)/practice nurse consultation, referral to mental health services and psychotropic medication prescribing. We examined differences by gender, age group and Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile. RESULTS: Likelihood of having at least one GP/practice nurse consultation was broadly similar (83.2% vs 80.3% in the COVID-19 cohort). The proportion of patients referred to mental health services in the COVID-19 cohort (4.2%) was around two-thirds of that in the prepandemic cohort (6.1%). Similar proportions were prescribed psychotropic medication within 3 months in the prepandemic (54.0%) and COVID-19 first-wave (54.9%) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges experienced by primary healthcare teams during the initial COVID-19 wave, prescribing and consultation patterns following self-harm were broadly similar to prepandemic levels. We found no evidence of widening of digital exclusion in terms of access to remote consultations. However, the reduced likelihood of referral to mental health services warrants attention. Accessible outpatient and community services for people who have self-harmed are required as the COVID-19 crisis recedes and the population faces new challenges to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Cohort Studies , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637414

ABSTRACT

Contemporary performance and accessibility are features that enable mobile devices to be increasingly beneficial in the context of optimizing the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Smartphones have the potential to effectively support psychotherapeutic interventions among adolescents and young adults who require them. In the present study, the use and subjective influence of a smartphone app with content from dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was investigated among transitional age youth (TAY) with borderline personality disorder, focusing on suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), in a natural setting. A longitudinal qualitative approach was used by means of individual semi-structured interviews, where participants were asked about their experiences and associated emotions before and after a testing period of 30 days. A total of 13 TAY with a diagnosed borderline personality disorder between the ages of 18 and 23 were included. Six overarching themes were identified through qualitative text analysis: (1) experiences with DBT skills, (2) phenomenon of self-harm, (3) feelings connected with self-harm, (4) dealing with disorder-specific symptoms, (5) prevention of self-harm, and (6) attitude toward skills apps. In general, the provision of an app with DBT content achieved a positive response among participants. Despite a small change in the perception of suicidality and NSSI, participants could imagine its benefits by integrating their use of the app as a supportive measure for personal psychotherapy sessions.


Subject(s)
Borderline Personality Disorder , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Mobile Applications , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , Behavior Therapy , Borderline Personality Disorder/therapy , Humans , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(11): 768-769, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500366
4.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 60(9): 1062-1063, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356273

ABSTRACT

The study by Asarnow et al.1 is the third major paper from a large, federally funded, randomized, controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) as compared to Individual and Group Supportive Therapy (IGST) for reducing self-injury in teens. The first paper established the superiority of DBT as compared to IGST.2 The second paper focused on predictors and moderators of treatment outcome.3 The goal of this, the third, publication1 is to identify the mechanism by which DBT is effective in reducing suicidal and self-injurious behavior in an at-risk group of adolescents. The value of DBT in reducing suicidal behavior is increasingly important as we face what appears to be a rise in attempt rates and suicide deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic.4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216614, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227700

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and suicidal behavior are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. The comparative performance of psychotherapies for suicidality is unclear because few head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted. Objective: To compare the efficacy of psychotherapies for the treatment of self-harm and suicidality among children and adolescents. Data Sources: Four major bibliographic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase) were searched for clinical trials comparing psychotherapy with control conditions from inception to September 2020. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials comparing psychotherapies for suicidality and/or self-harm with control conditions among children and adolescents were included after a blinded review by 3 independent reviewers (A.B., M.P., and J.W.). Data Extraction and Synthesis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed for data abstraction, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate study-level risk of bias. Data abstraction was performed by 1 reviewer (A.B.) and confirmed by 2 independent blinded reviewers (J.W. and M.P.). Data were analyzed from October 15, 2020, to February 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were dichotomized self-harm and retention in treatment. The secondary outcomes were dichotomized all-cause treatment discontinuation and scores on instruments measuring suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were pooled using frequentist random-effects network meta-analysis models to generate summary odds ratios (ORs) and Cohen d standardized mean differences (SMDs). Negative Cohen d SMDs or ORs less than 1 indicated that the treatment reduced the parameter of interest relative to the control condition (eg, signifying a beneficial association with suicidal ideation). Results: The systematic search generated 1272 unique records. Of those, 44 randomized clinical trials (5406 total participants; 4109 female participants [76.0%]) from 49 articles were selected (5 follow-up studies were merged with their primary clinical trials to avoid publication bias). The selected clinical trials spanned January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2020. The median duration of treatment was 3 months (range, 0.25-12.00 months), and the median follow-up period was 12 months (range, 1-36 months). None of the investigated psychotherapies were associated with increases in study withdrawals or improvements in retention in treatment compared with treatment as usual. Dialectical behavioral therapies were associated with reductions in self-harm (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64) and suicidal ideation (Cohen d SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.23) at the end of treatment, while mentalization-based therapies were associated with decreases in self-harm (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.97) and suicidal ideation (Cohen d SMD, -1.22; 95% CI, -2.18 to -0.26) at the end of follow-up. The quality of evidence was downgraded because of high risk of bias overall, heterogeneity, publication bias, inconsistency, and imprecision. Conclusions and Relevance: Although some psychotherapeutic modalities appear to be acceptable and efficacious for reducing self-harm and suicidality among children and adolescents, methodological issues and high risk of bias prevent a consistent estimate of their comparative performance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Child Health , Psychotherapy/methods , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , Adolescent , Behavior Therapy , Child , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression/therapy , Family Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Suicidal Ideation
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(2): e124-e135, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected population mental health. We aimed to assess temporal trends in primary care-recorded common mental illness, episodes of self-harm, psychotropic medication prescribing, and general practitioner (GP) referrals to mental health services during the COVID-19 emergency in the UK. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study using primary care electronic health records from general practices registered on the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We included patient records from Jan 1, 2010, to Sept 10, 2020, to establish long-term trends and patterns of seasonality, but focused primarily on the period January, 2019-September, 2020. We extracted data on clinical codes entered into patient records to estimate the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders, self-harm, prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines, and GP referrals to mental health services, and assessed event rates of all psychotropic prescriptions and self-harm. We used mean-dispersion negative binomial regression models to predict expected monthly incidence and overall event rates, which were then compared with observed rates to assess the percentage reduction in incidence and event rates after March, 2020. We also stratified analyses by sex, age group, and practice-level Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles. FINDINGS: We identified 14 210 507 patients from 1697 UK general practices registered in the CPRD databases. In April, 2020, compared with expected rates, the incidence of primary care-recorded depression had reduced by 43·0% (95% CI 38·3-47·4), anxiety disorders by 47·8% (44·3-51·2), and first antidepressant prescribing by 36·4% (33·9-38·8) in English general practices. Reductions in first diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders were largest for adults of working age (18-44 and 45-64 years) and for patients registered at practices in more deprived areas. The incidence of self-harm was 37·6% (34·8-40·3%) lower than expected in April, 2020, and the reduction was greatest for women and individuals aged younger than 45 years. By September, 2020, rates of incident depression, anxiety disorder, and self-harm were similar to expected levels. In Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, rates of incident depression and anxiety disorder remained around a third lower than expected to September, 2020. In April, 2020, the rate of referral to mental health services was less than a quarter of the expected rate for the time of year (75·3% reduction [74·0-76·4]). INTERPRETATION: Consequences of the considerable reductions in primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm could include more patients subsequently presenting with greater severity of mental illness and increasing incidence of non-fatal self-harm and suicide. Addressing the effects of future lockdowns and longer-term impacts of economic instability on mental health should be prioritised. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research and Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(6): 663-664, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947949

ABSTRACT

This editorial considers whether the quality of care for people who present to clinical services in the UK following self-harm has improved or stagnated. Some real progress has been made in the areas of service provision and research, and self-harm has never had a higher priority in policy terms. However, major gaps remain. We need to enhance people's experience of services and improve access to high-quality assessment and aftercare.


Subject(s)
Self-Injurious Behavior , Humans , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy
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