Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 121
Filter
1.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792592

ABSTRACT

Advice on dietary intake is an essential first line intervention for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Digital tools such as web-based and smartphone apps have been suggested to provide a novel way of providing information on diet for optimal glucose regulation in women with GDM. This systematic review explores the effectiveness and usability of digital tools designed to support dietary self-management of GDM. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Scopus using key search terms identified 1476 papers reporting research studies, of which 16 met the specified inclusion criteria. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the ErasmusAGE Quality Score or the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018. The findings show that the adoption of digital tools may be an effective approach to support self-management relating to healthy diet, health behaviour, and adherence to therapy in women with GDM as a usable intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of tools to support the dietary management of GDM. Consideration for ethnic specific dietary advice and evidence-based frameworks in the development of effective digital tools for dietary management of GDM should be considered as these aspects have been limited in the studies reviewed.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Diet, Diabetic/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 48(2): 146-148, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784852
3.
J Int Med Res ; 50(3): 3000605221086457, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765311

ABSTRACT

Heartburn and acid regurgitation are the typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Despite the availability of several treatment options, antacids remain the mainstay treatment for gastroesophageal reflux-related symptoms based on their efficacy, safety, and over-the-counter availability. Antacids are generally recommended for adults and children at least 12 years old, and the FDA recommends antacids as the first-line treatment for heartburn in pregnancy. This narrative review summarizes the mechanism, features, and limitations related to different antacid ingredients and techniques available to study the acid neutralization and buffering capacity of antacid formulations. Using supporting clinical evidence for different antacid ingredients, it also discusses the importance of antacids as OTC medicines and first-line therapies for heartburn, particularly in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which reliance on self-care has increased. The review will also assist pharmacists and other healthcare professionals in helping individuals with heartburn to make informed self-care decisions and educating them to ensure that antacids are used in an optimal, safe, and effective manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Antacids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Female , Heartburn/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy
4.
Health Expect ; 25(2): 721-731, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective health service solutions to provide greater structure and support for implementing evidence-based practice in back pain care. Patient involvement in developing these solutions is crucial to increase relevance, acceptability and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To determine patients' perceived needs and barriers to best-practice back pain care, and potential solutions to better address care needs. The study is the third in a series of needs assessment studies feeding into the 'idea generation' for service design in a large teaching hospital in a culturally and linguistically diverse community in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. DESIGN: We conducted a combination of focus groups and in-depth interviews using an interpretive description approach. We used inductive thematic analysis to identify the main themes. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We purposively sampled patients with diverse characteristics from the neurosurgery and physiotherapy outpatient clinics, in particular those whose primary language was English, Arabic, Persian or Mandarin. Non-English audio recordings were translated and transcribed by bilingual researchers. RESULTS: There were 24 participants (focus groups = 9; individual interviews = 15) when data saturation was reached. The analysis identified three key themes with several subthemes around what service designers needed to understand in helping people with back pain in this setting: (1) This is who I am; (2) It's not working for me; and (3) What I think I need. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study highlights that perceived unmet needs of patients are underpinned by unhelpful beliefs about the causes of and solutions for back pain, misaligned care expectations, unclear expectations of the hospital role and fragmentations in the health system. To design and implement a service that can deliver better back pain care, several solutions need to be integrated around: developing new resources that challenge unhelpful beliefs and set realistic expectations; improving access to education and self-management resources; focusing on individualized care; using a collaborative multidisciplinary approach within the hospital; and better connecting with and directing primary health care services. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: A consumer representative of the Western Sydney Local Health District provided input during study conceptualisation and is duly recognized in the Acknowledgements section.


Subject(s)
Back Pain , Self-Management , Back Pain/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Needs Assessment , Qualitative Research
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e31449, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of mobile health technologies has been necessary to deliver patient education to patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This open-label randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a diabetes educational platform-Taipei Medical University-LINE Oriented Video Education-delivered through a social media app. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a clinic through physician referral. The social media-based program included 51 videos: 10 about understanding diabetes, 10 about daily care, 6 about nutrition care, 21 about diabetes drugs, and 4 containing quizzes. The intervention group received two or three videos every week and care messages every 2 weeks through the social media platform for 3 months, in addition to usual care. The control group only received usual care. Outcomes were measured at clinical visits through self-reported face-to-face questionnaires at baseline and at 3 months after the intervention, including the Simplified Diabetes Knowledge Scale (true/false version), the Diabetes Care Profile-Attitudes Toward Diabetes Scales, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Health literacy was measured at baseline using the Newest Vital Sign tool. Differences in HbA1c levels and questionnaire scores before and after the intervention were compared between groups. The associations of knowledge, attitudes, and self-care activities with health literacy were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes completed the 3-month study, with 91 out of 181 (50.3%) patients in the intervention group and 90 (49.7%) in the control group. The change in HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups (intervention group: mean 6.9%, SD 0.8% to mean 7.0%, SD 0.9%, P=.34; control group: mean 6.7%, SD 0.6% to mean 6.7%, SD 0.7%, P=.91). Both groups showed increased mean knowledge scores at 12 weeks, increasing from 68.3% (SD 16.4%) to 76.7% (SD 11.7%; P<.001) in the intervention group and from 64.8% (SD 18.2%) to 73.2% (SD 12.6%; P<.001) in the control group. Positive improvements in attitudes and self-care activities were only observed in the intervention group (attitudes: mean difference 0.2, SD 0.5, P=.001; self-care activities: mean difference 0.3, SD 1.2, P=.03). A 100% utility rate was achieved for 8 out of 21 (38%) medication-related videos. Low health literacy was a significant risk factor for baseline knowledge scores in the intervention group, with an odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.28-6.12; P=.01); this became insignificant after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The social media-based program was effective at enhancing the knowledge, attitudes, and self-care activities of patients with diabetes. This intervention was also helpful for patients with low health literacy in diabetes knowledge. The program represents a potentially useful tool for delivering diabetes education to patients through social media, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04876274; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT04876274.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Social Media , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051180, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New-onset hypertension affects approximately 10% of pregnancies and is associated with a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, with blood pressure measured 6 weeks postpartum predictive of blood pressure 5-10 years later. A pilot trial has demonstrated that improved blood pressure control, achevied via self-management during the puerperium, was associated with lower blood pressure 3-4 years postpartum. Physician Optimised Post-partum Hypertension Treatment (POP-HT) will formally evaluate whether improved blood pressure control in the puerperium results in lower blood pressure at 6 months post partum, and improvements in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular phenotypes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: POP-HT is an open-label, parallel arm, randomised controlled trial involving 200 women aged 18 years or over, with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension, and requiring antihypertensive medication at discharge. Women are recruited by open recruitment and direct invitation around time of delivery and randomised 1:1 to, either an intervention comprising physician-optimised self-management of postpartum blood pressure or, usual care. Women in the intervention group upload blood pressure readings to a 'smartphone' app that provides algorithm-driven individualised medication-titration. Medication changes are approved by physicians, who review blood pressure readings remotely. Women in the control arm follow assessment and medication adjustment by their usual healthcare team. The primary outcome is 24-hour average ambulatory diastolic blood pressure at 6-9 months post partum. Secondary outcomes include: additional blood pressure parameters at baseline, week 1 and week 6; multimodal cardiovascular assessments (CMR and echocardiography); parameters derived from multiorgan MRI including brain and kidneys; peripheral macrovascular and microvascular measures; angiogenic profile measures taken from blood samples and levels of endothelial circulating and cellular biomarkers; and objective physical activity monitoring and exercise assessment. An additional 20 women will be recruited after a normotensive pregnancy as a comparator group for endothelial cellular biomarkers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: IRAS PROJECT ID 273353. This trial has received a favourable opinion from the London-Surrey Research Ethics Committee and HRA (REC Reference 19/LO/1901). The investigator will ensure that this trial is conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and follow good clinical practice guidelines. The investigators will be involved in reviewing drafts of the manuscripts, abstracts, press releases and any other publications arising from the study. Authors will acknowledge that the study was funded by the British Heart Foundation Clinical Research Training Fellowship (BHF Grant number FS/19/7/34148). Authorship will be determined in accordance with the ICMJE guidelines and other contributors will be acknowledged. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04273854.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Physicians , Self-Management , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(4): 1154-1165, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691540

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme (NSSMP) on improving self-efficacy, promoting diabetes self-care, increasing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and decreasing HbA1c, acute complications and unplanned medical consultation for people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes compared with a nurse-led diabetic service (NDS). DESIGN: A two-arm randomized controlled trial with repeated measures was conducted. METHODS: Participants were recruited from June 2018 to September 2020. Eligible participants were assigned to either the intervention or control group randomly. Participants assigned to intervention group received the 6-month NSSMP, while those in the control group received existing NDS provided by the study hospital. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months from baseline. RESULTS: A total of 114 participants were recruited. There were no significant interactions between group and time for all the outcomes except for blood glucose testing activities (F = 4.742, p = .015). Both groups had reduced HbA1c over 6 months. The intervention group had a lower HbA1c than the control group at follow-ups, but the differences were not statistically significant. None of the participants had acute diabetes complications at follow-up. Similarly, the differences in the number of unplanned medical consultation at 6-month follow-up between two groups were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: The NSSMP is as effective as existing NDS provided by the study hospital in improving most of the outcomes. NSSMP can liberate valuable time for nurses to provide care to critically ill patients and supports healthcare resource constraints in the current COVID-19 pandemic. IMPACT: The existing diabetes service is labour intensive as nurses are required to deliver education, follow-up telephone calls to trace blood sugar monitoring and provide therapeutic consultations and necessary referrals. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has added further strain on the overworked professionals. NSSMP provides an alternative programme that is just as effective, to reduce nurses' workload by delegating them back to the individuals through self-management strategies. This enables nurses to increase contact time with patients, and individuals to take onus of their disease through increased self-efficacy, facilitated by technology. CLINICAL TRIAL: This study is registered under clinical registration number NCT03088475.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Nurse's Role , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the impact of a group-based weight management programme on symptoms of depression and anxiety compared with self-help in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHOD: People with overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI]≥28kg/m2) were randomly allocated self-help (n = 211) or a group-based weight management programme for 12 weeks (n = 528) or 52 weeks (n = 528) between 18/10/2012 and 10/02/2014. Symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, at baseline, 3, 12 and 24 months. Linear regression modelling examined changes in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between trial arms. RESULTS: At 3 months, there was a -0.6 point difference (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1, -0.1) in depression score and -0.1 difference (95% CI, -0.7, 0.4) in anxiety score between group-based weight management programme and self-help. At subsequent time points there was no consistent evidence of a difference in depression or anxiety scores between trial arms. There was no evidence that depression or anxiety worsened at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of harm to depression or anxiety symptoms as a result of attending a group-based weight loss programme. There was a transient reduction in symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, compared to self-help. This effect equates to less than 1 point out of 21 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and is not clinically significant.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Depression/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Self-Management/methods , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , United Kingdom
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627443

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Exercise is important in the postoperative management of lung cancer, yet no strong evidence exists for delivery of home-based programmes. Our feasibility (phase I) study established feasibility of a home-based exercise and self-management programme (the programme) delivered postoperatively. This efficacy (phase II) study aims to determine whether the programme, compared with usual care, is effective in improving physical function (primary outcome) in patients after lung cancer surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a prospective, multisite, two-arm parallel 1:1, randomised controlled superiority trial with assessors blinded to group allocation. 112 participants scheduled for surgery for lung cancer will be recruited and randomised to usual care (no exercise programme) or, usual care plus the 12-week programme. The primary outcome is physical function measured with the EORTC QLQ c30 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life (HRQoL); exercise capacity; muscle strength; physical activity levels and patient reported outcomes. HRQoL and patient-reported outcomes will be measured to 12 months, and survival to 5 years. In a substudy, patient experience interviews will be conducted in a subgroup of intervention participants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was gained from all sites. Results will be submitted for publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617001283369.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Self-Management , Exercise , Exercise Therapy/methods , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052495, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms during the first surge of COVID-19 in the USA, and their associations with COVID-19-related emotional distress, health self-management and healthcare utilisation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 (1-22 May 2020) survey data from the ongoing Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) study. SETTING: Seven academic and community health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: 565 adults aged 23-88 with one or more chronic conditions completing at least one prior C3 study wave. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically relevant anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms. Self-reported emotional and health-related responses to COVID-19 were measured through a combination of single-item questions and validated measures. RESULTS: Rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 14% (81/563) and 15% (84/563), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were then each separately associated with greater worry about contracting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR) 2.32, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.53; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.54), greater stress (RR 4.93, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.59; RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.61) and loneliness (RR 3.82, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.60; RR 5.37, 95% CI 3.21 to 8.98), greater avoidance of the doctor (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.49; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36) and difficulty managing health (least square means (LS Means) 6.09, 95% CI 5.25 to 6.92 vs 4.23, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75; LS Means 5.85, 95% CI 5.04 to 6.65 vs 4.22, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75) and medications (LS Means 3.71, 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43 vs 2.47, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.92) due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and addressing mental health concerns may be an important factor to consider in COVID-19 prevention and management among high-risk medical populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Complement Ther Med ; 64: 102792, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study was initiated to determine consultations with health care providers and use of self-management strategies for prevention or treatment of COVID-19 related symptoms in countries with a full lockdown (Norway), a partial lockdown (the Netherlands) and no lockdown (Sweden) during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and if such use correlates with worries of being infected by COVID-19 disease. DESIGN: Data were collected in collaboration with Ipsos A/S in April-June 2020. An adapted version of the International Questionnaire to measure use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (I-CAM-Q) was used with the categories "for prevention of COVID-19" and "to treat COVID-19-related symptoms" added. Data were collected among a representative sample in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands using data assisted telephone interviews (Norway, n=990 and Sweden, n=500), and an online survey (the Netherlands, n=1004). Total response rate was 30%. RESULTS: Very few consulted a health care provider with the intention to treat or prevent COVID-19 (1.2% and 1.0% respectively) with medical doctors mostly visited (1.0% and 0.9% respectively). Similarly, the use of self-management strategies to prevent or treat COVID-19 was low (3.4% and 0.2% respectively); most commonly used for prevention of COVID-19 were vitamins and minerals (2.8%). Consultations with health care providers and use of self-management strategies for prevention of COVID-19 were positively associated with worries of being infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic does not seem to have evoked a large-scale difference in behavior related to consultations with health care providers or the use of self-management strategies in any of the three countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e105-e113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established the high effectiveness and safety of medication abortion in clinical settings. However, barriers to clinical abortion care have shifted most medication abortion use to out-of-clinic settings, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this shift, we aimed to estimate the effectiveness of self-managed medication abortion (medication abortion without clinical support), and to compare it to effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion. METHODS: For this prospective, observational cohort study, we recruited callers from two safe abortion accompaniment groups in Argentina and Nigeria who requested information on self-managed medication abortion. Before using one of two medication regimens (misoprostol alone or in combination with mifepristone), participants completed a baseline survey, and then two follow-up phone surveys at 1 week and 3 weeks after taking pills. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants reporting a complete abortion without surgical intervention. Legal restrictions precluded enrolment of a concurrent clinical control group; thus, a non-inferiority analysis compared abortion completion among those in our self-managed medication abortion cohort with abortion completion reported in historical clinical trials using the same medication regimens, restricted to participants with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation. This study was registered with ISCRTN, ISRCTN95769543. FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2019, and April 27, 2020, we enrolled 1051 participants. We analysed abortion outcomes for 961 participants, with an additional 47 participants reached after the study period. Most pregnancies were less than 12 weeks' duration. Participants in follow-up self-managed their abortions using misoprostol alone (593 participants) or the combined regimen of misoprostol plus mifepristone (356 participants). At last follow-up, 586 (99%) misoprostol alone users and 334 (94%) combined regimen users had a complete abortion without surgical intervention. For those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, both regimens were non-inferior to medication abortion effectiveness in clinical settings. INTERPRETATION: Findings from this prospective cohort study show that self-managed medication abortion with accompaniment group support is highly effective and, for those with pregnancies of less than 9 weeks' gestation, non-inferior to the effectiveness of clinician-managed medication abortion administered in a clinical setting. These findings support the use of remote self-managed models of early abortion care, as well as telemedicine, as is being considered in several countries because of the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: David and Lucile Packard Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Arabic, French, Bahasa Indonesian, Spanish and Yoruba translations of the Article see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Self Administration , Self-Management/methods , Abortifacient Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Nigeria , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E100, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To address the global diabetes epidemic, lifestyle counseling on diet, physical activity, and weight loss is essential. This study assessed the implementation of a diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) intervention using a mixed-methods evaluation framework. METHODS: We implemented a culturally adapted, home-based DSMES intervention in rural Indigenous Maya towns in Guatemala from 2018 through 2020. We used a pretest-posttest design and a mixed-methods evaluation approach guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. Quantitative data included baseline characteristics, implementation metrics, effectiveness outcomes, and costs. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews with 3 groups of stakeholders. RESULTS: Of 738 participants screened, 627 participants were enrolled, and 478 participants completed the study. Adjusted mean change in glycated hemoglobin A1c was -0.4% (95% CI, -0.6% to -0.3%; P < .001), change in systolic blood pressure was -5.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.4 to -3.7 mm Hg; P < .001), change in diastolic blood pressure was -2.6 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.4 to -1.9 mm Hg; P < .001), and change in body mass index was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6; P < .001). We observed improvements in diabetes knowledge, distress, and most self-care activities. Key implementation factors included 1) recruitment barriers for men, 2) importance of patient-centered care, 3) role of research staff in catalyzing health worker involvement, 4) tradeoffs between home and telephone visits, and 5) sustainability challenges. CONCLUSION: A community health worker-led DSMES intervention was successfully implemented in the public health system in rural Guatemala and resulted in significant improvements in most clinical and psychometric outcomes. Scaling up sustainable DSMES in health systems in rural settings requires careful consideration of local barriers and facilitators.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Self-Management , Community Health Workers , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Guatemala , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Rural Population
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557551

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, particularly among South Asian (SA) communities. Previous research has highlighted the heterogeneous nature of SA ethnicity and the need to consider culture in SA patients' self-management of T2D. We conducted a critical interpretative synthesis (CIS) which aimed to a) develop a new and comprehensive insight into the psychology which underpins SA patients' T2D self-management behaviours and b) present a conceptual model to inform future T2D interventions. A systematic search of the literature retrieved 19 articles, including 536 participants. These were reviewed using established CIS procedures. Analysis identified seven constructs, from which an overarching synthesizing argument 'Cultural Conflict' was derived. Our findings suggest that patients reconstruct knowledge to manage their psychological, behavioural, and cultural conflicts, impacting decisional conflicts associated with T2D self-management and health professional advice (un)consciously. Those unable to resolve this conflict were more likely to default towards cultural identity, continue to align with cultural preferences rather than health professional guidance, and reduce engagement with self-management. Our synthesis and supporting model promote novel ideas for self-management of T2D care for SA patients. Specifically, health professionals should be trained and supported to explore and mitigate negative health beliefs to enable patients to manage social-cultural influences that impact their self-management behaviours.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
18.
Diabet Med ; 39(4): e14755, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid implementation of remote care delivery in type 1 diabetes. We studied current modes of care delivery, healthcare professional experiences and impact on insulin pump training in type 1 diabetes care in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: The UK Diabetes Technology Network designed a 48-question survey aimed at healthcare professionals providing care in type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-three healthcare professionals (48% diabetes physicians, 52% diabetes educators and 88% working in adult services) from approximately 75 UK centres (52% university hospitals, 46% general and community hospitals), responded to the survey. Telephone consultations were the main modality of care delivery. There was a higher reported time taken for video consultations versus telephone (p < 0.001). Common barriers to remote consultations were patient familiarity with technology (72%) and access to patient device data (67%). We assessed the impact on insulin pump training. A reduction in total new pump starts (73%) and renewals (61%) was highlighted. Common barriers included patient digital literacy (61%), limited healthcare professional experience (46%) and time required per patient (44%). When grouped according to size of insulin pump service, pump starts and renewals in larger services were less impacted by the pandemic compared to smaller services. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights UK healthcare professional experiences of remote care delivery. While supportive of virtual care models, a number of factors highlighted, especially patient digital literacy, need to be addressed to improve virtual care delivery and device training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Health Personnel , Self-Management/education , Telemedicine , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Biomedical Technology/education , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Patient Education as Topic/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Self-Management/methods , Self-Management/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e28322, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present the results of a feasibility, randomized waitlist control group (CG) parallel design study with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) or a waitlist CG. The intervention was a 6-week digital self-management program, Help to Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE), for people with cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the feasibility of a digitally delivered self-management program for people with cancer. This will inform the design of a definitive randomized controlled trial. In addition, a preliminary assessment of the impact of the HOPE program via secondary outcomes will be used to assess signals of efficacy in a trial context. METHODS: Participants were drawn from an opportunity sample, referred by Macmillan Cancer Support, and were invited via email to participate in the study (N=61). Primary outcomes were rates of recruitment, retention, follow-up, completion and adherence, sample size and effect size estimation, and assessment of progression criteria for a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes were self-report measures of participants' positive mental well-being, depression, anxiety, and patient activation (ie, confidence in managing their cancer). The intervention and data collection took place on the web. RESULTS: The recruitment rate was 77% (47/61). A total of 41 participants completed the baseline questionnaires and were randomized to either the IG (n=21) or the waitlist CG (n=20). The retention rate (attending all program sessions) was greater than 50% (all: 21/41, 51%, IG: 10/21, 48%; and CG: 11/20, 55%). The follow-up rate (completing all questionnaires) was greater than 80% (all: 33/41, 80%; IG: 16/21, 76%; and CG: 17/20, 85%). The completion rate (attending ≥3 sessions and completing all questionnaires) was greater than 60% (all: 25/41, 61%; IG: 13/21, 62%; and CG: 12/20, 60%). Engagement data showed that participants viewed between half (5.1/10, 51%) and three-quarters (12.2/16, 76%) of the pages in each session. CONCLUSIONS: All progression criteria for a definitive trial were met, as supported by the primary outcome data. The IG showed improved postprogram scores on measures of positive mental well-being, depression, anxiety, and patient activation. A full-scale trial of the digital HOPE program for people with cancer will allow us to fully evaluate the efficacy of the intervention relative to a CG. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN79623250; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN79623250. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/24264.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Self-Management , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 856, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc) is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease. We completed an initial feasibility trial of an online self-administered version of the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Self-Management (SPIN-SELF) Program using the cohort multiple randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. Due to low intervention offer uptake, we will conduct a new feasibility trial with progression to full-scale trial, using a two-arm parallel, partially nested RCT design. The SPIN-SELF Program has also been revised to include facilitator-led videoconference group sessions in addition to online material. We will test the group-based intervention delivery format, then evaluate the effect of the SPIN-SELF Program on disease management self-efficacy (primary) and patient activation, social appearance anxiety, and functional health outcomes (secondary). METHODS: This study is a feasibility trial with progression to full-scale RCT, pending meeting pre-defined criteria, of the SPIN-SELF Program. Participants will be recruited from the ongoing SPIN Cohort ( http://www.spinsclero.com/en/cohort ) and via social media and partner patient organizations. Eligible participants must have SSc and low to moderate disease management self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease (SEMCD) Scale score ≤ 7.0). Participants will be randomized (1:1 allocation) to the group-based SPIN-SELF Program or usual care for 3 months. The primary outcome in the full-scale trial will be disease management self-efficacy based on SEMCD Scale scores at 3 months post-randomization. Secondary outcomes include SEMCD scores 6 months post-randomization plus patient activation, social appearance anxiety, and functional health outcomes at 3 and 6 months post-randomization. We will include 40 participants to assess feasibility. At the end of the feasibility portion, stoppage criteria will be used to determine if the trial procedures or SPIN-SELF Program need important modifications, thereby requiring a re-set for the full-scale trial. Otherwise, the full-scale RCT will proceed, and outcome data from the feasibility portion will be utilized in the full-scale trial. In the full-scale RCT, 524 participants will be recruited. DISCUSSION: The SPIN-SELF Program may improve disease management self-efficacy, patient activation, social appearance anxiety, and functional health outcomes in people with SSc. SPIN works with partner patient organizations around the world to disseminate its programs free-of-charge. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04246528 . Registered on 27 January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scleroderma, Systemic , Self-Management , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Patient-Centered Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL