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1.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
2.
Curr Oncol ; 29(10): 7379-7387, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065745

ABSTRACT

Program ROSE (removing obstacles to cervical screening) is a primary HPV-based cervical screening program that incorporates self-sampling and digital technology, ensuring that women are linked to care. It was developed based on the principles of design thinking in the context of Malaysia. The program illustrates the importance of collaborative partnerships and addressing the multi-faceted barriers from policy changes, and infrastructure readiness to the implementation of a radically new cervical screening program in communities. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer requires a monumental and concerted effort in educating both the healthcare providers and the general public. In this short review, we highlight how Pilot Project ROSE incorporated evidence-based tools that rapidly scaled up to Program ROSE. These ideas and solutions can be adapted and adopted by other countries. Notwithstanding the impact of COVID-19, it is incumbent on countries to pave the road towards the elimination of cervical cancer with pre-existing footpaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Self-Testing , Pilot Projects , Malaysia
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054352

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the feasibility of TESTA'T COVID strategy among healthcare and education professionals.in Spain during the peak of the 6th wave caused by Omicron variant. Kits were ordered online and sent by mail, participants answered an online acceptability/usability survey and uploaded the picture of results. 492 participants ordered a test, 304 uploaded the picture (61.8%). Eighteen positive cases were detected (5.9%). 92.2% were satisfied/very satisfied with the intervention; and 92.5% found performing the test easy/very easy. We demonstrated that implementing online COVID-19 self-testing in schools and healthcare settings in Spain is feasible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Self-Testing , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023042

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To understand the public's perceptions around rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen self-testing in Kenya, including the drivers of acceptability, willingness to pay, and adherence to hygiene and prevention recommendations following a positive self-test. Methods: A household-based, cross-sectional survey, using a 35-item questionnaire, was conducted in Mombasa and Taita-Taveta counties, Kenya, during August 2021. Individuals aged ≥18 years were enrolled using a stratified sampling approach. Results: There were 419 participants (mean age 35.7 years). A minority (10.5%) had ever tested for SARS-CoV-2. If SARS-CoV-2 self-testing were available, 39.9% and 41.5% would be likely and very likely, respectively, to use it. If unavailable free-of-charge, 63.01% would pay for it. Multivariate analyses suggested that people in rural areas (Coefficient 0.30, 95%CI: 0.11-0.48, p = 0.002), aged 36-55 (Coefficient 0.21, 95%CI: 0.03-0.40, p = 0.023), and employed full time (Coefficient 0.32, 95%CI: 0.06-0.58, p = 0.016) would have more odds to adhere to recommended hygiene and prevention actions. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 self-testing was considered acceptable. Availability of self-testing could expand access to COVID-19 testing in Kenya, particularly among rural communities who have limited access to testing, and among mildly symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kenya , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2228885, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013234

ABSTRACT

Importance: Widespread distribution of rapid antigen tests is integral to the US strategy to address COVID-19; however, it is estimated that few rapid antigen test results are reported to local departments of health. Objective: To characterize how often individuals in 6 communities throughout the United States used a digital assistant to log rapid antigen test results and report them to their local departments of health. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study is based on anonymously collected data from the beneficiaries of the Say Yes! Covid Test program, which distributed more than 3 000 000 rapid antigen tests at no cost to residents of 6 communities (Louisville, Kentucky; Indianapolis, Indiana; Fulton County, Georgia; O'ahu, Hawaii; Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti, Michigan; and Chattanooga, Tennessee) between April and October 2021. A descriptive evaluation of beneficiary use of a digital assistant for logging and reporting their rapid antigen test results was performed. Interventions: Widespread community distribution of rapid antigen tests. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number and proportion of tests logged and reported to the local department of health through the digital assistant. Results: A total of 313 000 test kits were distributed, including 178 785 test kits that were ordered using the digital assistant. Among all distributed kits, 14 398 households (4.6%) used the digital assistant, but beneficiaries reported three-quarters of their rapid antigen test results to their state public health departments (30 965 tests reported of 41 465 total test results [75.0%]). The reporting behavior varied by community and was significantly higher among communities that were incentivized for reporting test results vs those that were not incentivized or partially incentivized (90.5% [95% CI, 89.9%-91.2%] vs 70.5%; [95% CI, 70.0%-71.0%]). In all communities, positive tests were less frequently reported than negative tests (60.4% [95% CI, 58.1%-62.8%] vs 75.5% [95% CI, 75.1%-76.0%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that application-based reporting with incentives may be associated with increased reporting of rapid tests for COVID-19. However, increasing the adoption of the digital assistant may be a critical first step.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection , Georgia , Humans , Prospective Studies , Self-Testing , United States
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 720, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the countries in South America where the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the general population hardest. Self-testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection is one of the community-based strategies that could help asymptomatic individuals at-risk of COVID-19, as well as those living in areas that are difficult for health personnel to reach, to know their infectious status and contribute to impeding further transmission of the virus. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in November 2021, to assess the acceptability of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen self-testing among the population of São Paulo. Survey respondents were approached at more than 400 different street-points that were randomly selected using a five-stage randomization process. A 35-item structured questionnaire was used. Dependent variables for our analyses were the likelihood to use and willingness to pay for self-testing, and the likelihood of taking preventive measures to prevent onward transmission of SARS-CoV-2 following a reactive self-test result. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 417 respondents (44.12% female) participated; 19.66% had previously had COVID-19 disease. A minority (9.59%) felt at high-risk of COVID-19. The majority of both females and males (73.91% and 60.09%, respectively) were in favor of the idea of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing. Overall, if self-tests were available, almost half of the sample would be very likely (n = 54, 12.95%) or likely (n = 151, 36.21%) to use one if they felt they needed to. Upon receiving a positive self-test result, the majority of respondents would communicate it (88.49%), request facility-based post-test counseling (98.32%), self-isolate (97.60%), and warn their close contacts (96.64%). CONCLUSION: Rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen self-testing could be an acceptable screening tool in São Paulo. The population would be empowered by having access to a technology that would allow them to test, even if asymptomatic, when traveling, or going to work or school. If there is a surge in the incidence of cases, self-testing could be a good approach for mass case detection by Brazil's already overstretched Unified Health System.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Attitude , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Self-Testing , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(32): 1005-1010, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994633

ABSTRACT

Self-tests* to detect current infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are valuable tools that guide individual decision-making and risk reduction† (1-3). Increased self-test use (4) has likely contributed to underascertainment of COVID-19 cases (5-7), because unlike the requirements to report results of laboratory-based and health care provider-administered point-of-care COVID-19 tests,§ public health authorities do not require reporting of self-test results. However, self-test instructions include a recommendation that users report results to their health care provider so that they can receive additional testing and treatment if clinically indicated.¶ In addition, multiple manufacturers of COVID-19 self-tests have developed websites or companion mobile applications for users to voluntarily report self-test result data. Federal agencies use the data reported to manufacturers, in combination with manufacturing supply chain information, to better understand self-test availability and use. This report summarizes data voluntarily reported by users of 10.7 million self-tests from four manufacturers during October 31, 2021-June 11, 2022, and compares these self-test data with data received by CDC for 361.9 million laboratory-based and point-of-care tests performed during the same period. Overall trends in reporting volume and percentage of positive results, as well as completeness of reporting demographic variables, were similar across test types. However, the limited amount and quality of data reported from self-tests currently reduces their capacity to augment existing surveillance. Self-tests provide important risk-reduction information to users, and continued development of infrastructure and methods to collect and analyze data from self-tests could improve their use for surveillance during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , United States/epidemiology
10.
Can J Urol ; 29(4): 11224-11230, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989837

ABSTRACT

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains the mainstay for early detection of prostate cancer. Although PSA is a nonspecific prostate cancer biomarker, its specificity for high grade prostate cancer can be enhanced by pre-biopsy liquid biomarkers including the Exosome Dx Prostate IntelliScore (EPI) test. EPI is a stand-alone urine genomic test that measures 3 exosome-derived gene expression signatures without the need for digital rectal examination (DRE) or inclusion of standard of care parameters in the test algorithm. EPI has broad clinical utility as a risk stratification tool for clinically significant high grade prostate cancer in men considering diagnostic prostate biopsy (MRI-targeted and systematic biopsy). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the EPI At-Home Collection Kit was introduced and quickly became an important component of tele-urology. The EPI test has emerged as a prioritization tool for primary care referral to urologists and for prostate biopsy scheduling. EPI provides an objective and actionable genomic risk assessment tool for high grade prostate cancer and is a critical part of the informed decision-making regarding biopsy (targeted, systematic or both) in both urology and primary care practices.


Subject(s)
Exosomes , Primary Health Care , Prostatic Neoplasms , Self-Testing , Urology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/pathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
11.
ACS Sens ; 7(8): 2370-2378, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972519

ABSTRACT

Regular, accurate, rapid, and inexpensive self-testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to quell pandemic propagation. The existing at-home nucleic acid testing (NAT) test has high sensitivity and specificity, but it requires users to mail the sample to the central lab, which often takes 3-5 days to obtain the results. On the other hand, rapid antigen tests for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen provide a fast sample to answer the test (15 min). However, the sensitivity of antigen tests is 30 to 40% lower than nucleic acid testing, which could miss a significant portion of infected patients. Here, we developed a fully integrated SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) device using a self-collected saliva sample. This platform can automatically handle the complexity and can perform the functions, including (1) virus particles' thermal lysis preparation, (2) sample dispensing, (3) target sequence RT-LAMP amplification, (4) real-time detection, and (5) result report and communication. With a turnaround time of less than 45 min, our device achieved the limit of detection (LoD) of 5 copies/µL of the saliva sample, which is comparable with the LoD (6 copies/µL) using FDA-approved quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays with the same heat-lysis saliva sample preparation method. With clinical samples, our platform showed a good agreement with the results from the gold-standard RT-PCR method. These results show that our platform can perform self-administrated SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing by laypersons with noninvasive saliva samples. We believe that our self-testing platform will have an ongoing benefit for COVID-19 control and fighting future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computers, Handheld , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Self-Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 104(3): 115786, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965608

ABSTRACT

The gold standard test available for detecting COVID-19 patients is Real Time RT-PCR. However, this method is expensive, needing special equipment and skilled laboratory staff. Recently, less expensive antigen tests have become available, that could easily and rapidly identify new COVID-19 cases. Our objective was to evaluate the Boson Rapid Antigen Test Card versus the RT-rtPCR, using samples taken both by laymen (self-testing) and professionals. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates were, 98.18%, 100.00%, and 99.28%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 100.00% and 98.82%, respectively. The detection rate for asymptomatic patients was 90.48%, and detection rate for Ct values ≥30 was 91.67%. Our results indicate a high coincidence rate between the Boson and the referencing RT-rtPCR method, meeting the performance standards recommended by the WHO. Therefore, this test could facilitate a fast self-testing screening method, for the detection of infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Self-Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1220, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration's free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. RESULTS: Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 Testing , Self-Testing , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(4): 408-417, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV self-testing (HIVST) remains unclear. We aimed to quantify the impact of COVID restrictions on HIVST kit purchasing behaviors in mainland China. METHODS: Deidentified transaction data were retrieved from a large online shopping platform. An interrupted time series model was constructed to examine the impact of COVID restrictions on the weekly number of anonymous customers purchasing HIVST kits, online orders, and purchased kits. RESULTS: A total of 2.32 million individuals submitted 4.46 million orders for 4.84 million HIVST kits between January 7, 2016, and April 22, 2020. Compared with expected levels, assuming COVID-19 epidemic and related restrictions had not happened, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits decreased by an estimated 10,500 (51.7%), 18,000 (55.3%), and 18,500 (54.9%) in the first week (January 23, 2020, to January 29, 2020) after COVID restrictions were implemented, respectively. As restrictions eased, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits increased by an average of 7.4%, 4.8%, and 4.9% per week, respectively. In the first week after COVID restrictions were lifted (April 9, 2020, to April 15, 2020), the number of purchasers returned to expected levels, whereas the number of orders and kits were still lower than expected levels. The impact of COVID restrictions on outcomes at the beginning of COVID restrictions and the increasing trends of outcomes were larger among those living in regions with higher COVID-19 incidence (eg, Wuhan city and Hubei province). CONCLUSIONS: Online sales of HIVST kits were significantly impacted by COVID restrictions, and HIVST kit purchasing patterns returned to expected levels after restrictions were lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Self-Testing
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2206521119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908387

ABSTRACT

We have developed a DNA aptamer-conjugated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensor platform to detect receptor-binding domain (RBD), nucleocapsid (N), and spike (S) proteins, as well as viral particles of original Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus and its variants in saliva samples. The GFET biosensor is a label-free, rapid (≤20 min), ultrasensitive handheld wireless readout device. The limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantitation (LoQ) of the sensor are 1.28 and 3.89 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL for S protein and 1.45 and 4.39 PFU/mL for N protein, respectively. Cognate spike proteins of major variants of concern (N501Y, D614G, Y453F, Omicron-B1.1.529) showed sensor response ≥40 mV from the control (aptamer alone) for fM to nM concentration range. The sensor response was significantly lower for viral particles and cognate proteins of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) compared to SARS-CoV-2, indicating the specificity of the diagnostic platform for SARS-CoV-2 vs. MERS viral proteins. During the early phase of the pandemic, the GFET sensor response agreed with RT-PCR data for oral human samples, as determined by the negative percent agreement (NPA) and positive percent agreement (PPA). During the recent Delta/Omicron wave, the GFET sensor also reliably distinguished positive and negative clinical saliva samples. Although the sensitivity is lower during the later pandemic phase, the GFET-defined positivity rate is in statistically close alignment with the epidemiological population-scale data. Thus, the aptamer-based GFET biosensor has a high level of precision in clinically and epidemiologically significant SARS-CoV-2 variant detection. This universal pathogen-sensing platform is amenable for a broad range of public health applications and real-time environmental monitoring.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , SARS-CoV-2 , Wireless Technology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Self-Testing
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(6): e25950, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) increases HIV testing uptake among men; however, the linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIVST users is low. Innovative strategies for ART initiation are needed, yet little is known about the unique barriers to care experienced by male HIVST users, and what ART-related interventions men desire. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with cisgender men (≥15 years) in Malawi who tested HIV positive using HIVST between 2018 and 2020, as well as interviews with their female partners (≥15 years) who distributed the HIVST kits. Medical records from seven facilities were used to identify respondents. We included men who received HIVST from a health facility (primary distribution) and from sexual partners (secondary distribution). Interview guides focused on unique barriers to ART initiation following HIVST and desired interventions to improve linkage and initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, translated and transcribed to English, and analysed using constant comparison methods in Atlas.ti v.8.4. Themes were compared by HIVST distribution strategy. Data were collected between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-seven respondents were interviewed: eight male/female dyads (16 respondents), eight men without a female partner and three women who represented men who did not participate in the study. Among the 19 men represented (16 men interviewed in person, three represented by secondary report from female partners), seven received HIVST through primary distribution, 12 through secondary distribution. Six men never initiated ART (all secondary HIVST distribution). Barriers to ART initiation centred on the absence of healthcare workers at the time of diagnosis and included lack of external motivation for linkage to care (men had to motivate themselves) and lack of counselling before and after testing (leaving ART-related fears and misconceptions unaddressed)--the latter was especially true for secondary HIVST distribution. Desired interventions were similar across distribution strategies and included ongoing peer mentorship for normalizing treatment adherence, counselling messages tailored to men, outside-facility services for convenience and privacy, and facility navigation to help men understand how to navigate ART clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Male HIVST users face unique challenges to ART initiation, especially those receiving HIVST through secondary distribution. Male-tailored interventions are desired by men and may help overcome barriers to care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Testing , Humans , Malawi , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Self-Testing , Sexual Partners
17.
Am J Audiol ; 31(3S): 923-935, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the uptake and scope of telehealth. This study determined the accuracy and reliability of a smartphone digits-in-noise (DIN) test when conducted by adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients in a simulated home environment compared with a clinic setup. Perceptions of remote monitoring using speech-in-noise (SIN) testing were also explored. METHOD: Thirty-three adult CI recipients between 18 and 78 years of age (M = 46.7, SD = ±20.4) conducted the DIN test in a simulated home environment and a clinic setup. Test-retest reliability across the two environments and comparisons between test settings were evaluated. A survey explored the perceptions of adult CI recipients regarding remote monitoring and use of the DIN self-test. RESULTS: Mean-aided speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the clinic and simulated home environment test conditions and clinic and simulated home environment retest conditions did not differ significantly. Mean test-retest SRTs in the clinic and simulated home environment were significantly different (p < .05). High intraclass correlation coefficient and low standard error of measurement scores reflected good and excellent reliability between test-retest measures and between clinic and simulated home environment measures. Most participants were positive about the possibility of using the DIN test at home to self-assess speech perception, although some test adjustments such as including training items and a less adverse starting signal-to-noise ratio may be required. CONCLUSION: Adult CI recipients can use the smartphone DIN test to self-assess aided SIN performance in a home environment with accuracy and reliability relatively similar to clinic testing. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20044418.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cochlear Implants , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Testing
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(S1): S105-S113, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and implementation of a HIV self-test (HIVST) program through PrEP clients' social and sexual networks. BACKGROUND: HIV testing is critical for treatment and prevention engagement. HIVST kits can overcome barriers to testing. A negative result is an opportunity to provide PrEP information. We describe implementation factors associated with engaging current Mobile PrEP (MP) clients to distribute HIVST kits and PrEP information through their networks. SETTING: Community venues in Miami-Dade County, Florida. METHODS: A baseline survey collected network information and explored distribution plans for offering HIVST kits. A follow-up survey evaluated use and distribution. A logic model describes the process of implementation and evaluation. Up to 4 Ora-Quick HIV ST kits were offered to 81 MP clients. A brief training included resources for posttest engagement. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of the kits were reported as distributed. Of 81 MP clients offered kits, 50 (62%) accepted. In a follow-up survey, 77% of MP clients distributed at least 1 kit. Fifty-six (86%) social network members were Latino, and 9 (14%) were Black. Three of 4 MP clients engaged in PrEP discussions (77%) with SN members. Reported reasons for HIVST kit use included convenience, confidentiality, privacy concerns, and discomfort with going to a testing site. MP clients reported that kit distribution was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: HIV ST kits allowed PrEP users to engage others in their social and sexual networks for HIV testing and information regarding PrEP. Work to scale-up this intervention is underway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Feasibility Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Self-Testing
19.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(4): 871-880, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, the rapid antigen test (RAT) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are considered the main stakeholders in COVID-19 diagnosis. In RT-PCR, any of at least 2 evolutionary conserved genes (RdRP, E-, N-, ORF1ab gene) and S-gene of SARS-CoV-2 are endorsed, and in RAT, the nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag) of SARS-CoV-2 is considered due to its stability and fewer chances of mutation effects. In the present work, we evaluated the performance of the AG-Q COVID-19 N-Ag self-test kit and conducted a validation study in comparison with the RT-PCR. METHODS: AG-Q COVID-19 N-Ag rapid test kit is an Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) approved product developed and marketed by Agappe Diagnostics Limited. The RT-PCR assay was performed with a COVIPATH COVID-19 RT-PCR kit from Thermo Fisher Scientific. RESULTS: We observed 19 false-negative results in antigen self-tests, including samples of threshold cycle (Ct) values 22/22 (N-gene/ORF1ab-gene) in RT-PCR, indicating inadequate sampling by the patients in self-tests, leading to false-negative results and increased chances of the disease spreading. Based on the RT-PCR Ct value vs antigen self-test comparison, it is evident that proper sampling is crucial in performing antigen self-tests. Also, there were weak positive results in antigen self-tests with a Ct value of 18/19 in RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy offered by the AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen self-test in comparison with RT-PCR fulfills the ICMR tenets for RAT, this study recommends the laboratory/hospital-based RAT execution would be appropriate, rather than the self-test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nucleocapsid/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Self-Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 48(4): 204-212, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of implementing A1C self-testing at home using the A1CNow® Self Check and to compare the accuracy of the A1CNow to a reference standard in African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: African American adults with T2D were recruited from 13 different churches (N = 123). Phase 1, conducted during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, examined the feasibility of A1C assessment using the A1CNow performed at home by untrained participants. Phase 2, conducted when in-person research resumed, compared A1C values concurrently measured using the A1CNow and the DCA Vantage™ Analyzer (reference standard) collected by research staff at church testing sites. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 98.8% of participants successfully completed at least 1 at-home A1C test; the overall failure rate was 24.7%. In Phase 2, the failure rate of staff-performed A1CNow testing was 4.4%. The Bland-Altman plot reveals that A1CNow values were 0.68% lower than DCA values, and the mean differences (A1CNow minus DCA) ranged from -2.6% to 1.2% with a limit of agreement between -1.9% to 0.5%. CONCLUSIONS: A1C self-testing is feasible for use in community settings involving African American adults with T2D. The A1CNow Self-Check underestimated A1C values when compared with the reference standard. Ongoing improvements in point-of-care devices have the potential to expand research and clinical care, especially in underserved communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Testing
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