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1.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 46, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on semen parameters and investigate the impact of the infection on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled couples undergoing IVF cycles between May 2020 and February 2021 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Baseline characteristics were matched using propensity score matching. Participants were categorized into an unexposed group (SARS-COV-2 negative) and exposed group (SARS-COV-2 positive) based on a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the populations were 148 and 50 after matching, respectively. IVF data were compared between the matched cohorts. Moreover, semen parameters were compared before and after infection among the infected males. The main measures were semen parameters and IVF outcomes, including laboratory and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Generally, the concentration and motility of sperm did not significantly differ before and after infection. Infected males seemed to have fewer sperm with normal morphology, while all values were above the limits. Notably, the blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate in the exposed group were lower than those in the control group, despite similar mature oocytes rates, normal fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and high-quality embryo rates. Moreover, no significant differences were exhibited between the matched cohorts regarding the implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, or early miscarriage rate. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective cohort study suggested that the semen quality and the chance of pregnancy in terms of IVF outcomes were comparable between the males with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and controls, although a decreased blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate was observed in the exposed group, which needs to be reinforced by a multicenter long-term investigation with a larger sample size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Semen/physiology , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Sperm Motility/physiology , Adult , Blastocyst/cytology , Blastocyst/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Embryo Implantation , Embryo Transfer , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Semen/cytology , Sperm Count , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(5): 973-980, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650656

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We performed a survey among European semen banks enquiring safety protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic. We report the experience from a center searching SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in semen of patients undergoing cryopreservation from May 2020 to January 2021. METHODS: A questionnaire was submitted to accredited semen banks of the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine (SIAMS). A total of 22 centers answered to the survey. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in semen was evaluated by RT-PCR in 111 subjects banking in the Semen Bank of Careggi University Hospital (Florence, Italy). RESULTS: No particularly drastic safety measures were adopted by the majority of the centers to prevent the risk of contamination or transmission of the virus. The most common strategy (77.3%) was the administration of an anamnestic questionnaire. About half of the centers request a negative nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) before cryopreservation. Few centers use a quarantine tank, in case of late response of NPS, and only 4 store in a dedicated tank in case of infection. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA was not found in 111 semen samples cryopreserved in the Florentine bank. CONCLUSIONS: European semen banks use different measures to handle semen samples for cryopreservation during COVID-19 pandemic. The request of NPS is advised to better manage couples undergoing ART and to protect the personnel operating in the bank/ART center. Finally, due to the areas of uncertainties of an almost unknown virus, it is absolutely recommended the use of safe devices for sample handling and storage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649122

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a condition that affects 0.1% to 0.5% of the adult population. The aim of this case report was to investigate the possible effects of the drugs taken for treatment of AS as well as mRNA vaccination for COVID-19 on semen quality by performing a highly detailed analysis. Materials and Methods: Sperm characteristics were examined by light microscopy, DNA fragmentation (DFI) was analysed by flow cytometry and morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Semen analysis under therapy with (1) celecoxib and sulphasalazine showed: concentration 47 million/mL, 53% progressive motility, 7% normal morphology and 9.6% DFI, (2) Golimumab and before mRNA Vaccination showed: concentration 108 million/mL, 82% progressive motility, 1% normal morphology and 7.6% DFI, and (3) Golimumab and after 3 doses of mRNA Vaccination showed: concentration 142 million/mL, 85% progressive motility, 1% normal morphology and 6.8% DFI. TEM revealed head, neck and tail abnormalities, as well as the presence of cells with incomplete spermiogenesis white cells and phagocytes in the sample under therapy with celecoxib and sulphasalazine. Golimumab treatment lead to an increased incidence of elongated heads but in general reduced inflammation as no white cells were evident in TEM. Conclusion: The anti-inflamatory drugs celecoxib and sulphasalazine had no adverse effect on sperm quality as all parameters were within normal limits and the patient achieved under that treatment 2 pregnancies following natural conception that lead to the birth of a healthy boy and girl respectively. Anti-TNFa treatment with Golimumab exerted a negative effect on morphology but not on concentration, motility and DFI. After 3 doses of mRNA Vaccination, sperm concentration increased while motility, morphology and DFI remained similar to the values before vaccination suggesting no negative effect of the mRNA vaccine for COVID-19 on sperm quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Male , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infertility, Male/genetics , Male , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
Asian J Androl ; 24(2): 135-138, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622695

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has been identified in the human testis, but the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through sexual intercourse still needs to be defined. The goal of our study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in the semen of patients suffering or recovering from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), still testing positive at nasopharyngeal swabs but showing mild or no symptoms at the time of sampling. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in semen was performed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1ab. Medical history of the enrolled patients was taken, including COVID-19-correlated symptoms, both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of interview. Results of real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR in semen showed no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 36 patients suffering or recovering from COVID-19 but still positive in a nasopharyngeal swab, from over 116 patients enrolled in the study. SARS-CoV-2 detection and persistence in semen would have an impact on both clinical practice and public health strategies, but our results would suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is not present in the semen of men recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Semen
5.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 93(4): 465-467, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597211

ABSTRACT

Male infertility is an important factor accounting for 40-50% of infertility cases that may be due to disturbance in one of the parameters as concentration, motility and morphology observed in one or two semen analysis with an interval of 1 and 4 weeks. COVID-19 may affect male fertility through virus division, cytotoxic effects on testicular tissue and immunopathological effect. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) improved sperm concentration and acrosome reaction while reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of sperm DNA. This interventional study was conducted on 200 men who were referred to private infertility clinics for female factor (their previous semen analysis was normal) and got COVID-19 infection in the last 3 months showing an impairment of the latest semen analysis due to COVID. Men were placed in two groups of control (n = 100) and intervention (NAC consumption). Subjects who got COVID-19 infection had a significant impairment of sperm quality (sperm concentration, sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology) compared to their semen analysis evaluated before the COVID-19 infection. NAC consumption significantly improved sperm total motility, sperm morphology and sperm concentration. COVID-19 infection has a negative effect on sperm parameters. NAC supplementation may have positive effect on sperm parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infertility, Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Infertility, Male/drug therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
6.
Fertil Steril ; 117(2): 287-296, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the contagiousness of sperm and its influence on fertility after recovery from COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University medical center. PATIENT(S): One hundred twenty Belgian men who had recovered from proven COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTION(S): No intervention was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen quality was assessed using the World Health Organisation criteria. DNA damage to sperm cells was assessed by quantifying the DNA fragmentation index and the high density stainability. Finally antibodies against SARS-CoV2 spike-1 antigen, nuclear and S1-receptor binding domain were measured by Elisa and chemilumenscent microparticle immunoassays, respectively. RESULT(S): SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in semen during the period shortly after infection nor at a later time. Mean progressive motility was reduced in 60% of men tested shortly (<1 month) after COVID-19 infection, 37% of men tested 1 to 2 months after COVID-19 infection, and 28% of men tested >2 months after COVID-19 infection. Mean sperm count was reduced in 37% of men tested shortly (<1 month) after COVID-19 infection, 29% of men tested 1 to 2 months after COVID-19 infection, and 6% of men tested >2 months after COVID-19 infection. The severity of COVID-19 infection and the presence of fever were not correlated with sperm characteristics, but there were strong correlations between sperm abnormalities and the titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody against spike 1 and the receptor- binding domain of spike 1, but not against nucleotide, in serum. High levels of antisperm antibodies developed in three men (2.5%). CONCLUSION(S): Semen is not infectious with SARS-CoV-2 at 1 week or more after COVID-19 infection (mean, 53 days). However, couples with a desire for pregnancy should be warned that sperm quality after COVID-19 infection can be suboptimal. The estimated recovery time is 3 months, but further follow-up studies are under way to confirm this and to determine if permanent damage occurred in a minority of men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Semen/virology , Spermatozoa/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , DNA Damage , DNA Fragmentation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infertility, Male/virology , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/abnormalities , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571986

ABSTRACT

To date, there is limited information about the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen especially in the acute phase of the infection. While available data from cohort studies including a total of 342 patients in the acute or recovery phase of the infection are reassuring, one study mentioned detecting virus in the semen of 6/38 COVID-19 patients. Here we assessed SARS-CoV-2 presence in the semen of COVID-19 positive patients in the acute stage of infection, within 24 hours of the positive nasopharyngeal swabs. Semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa pellet were screened for SARS-CoV-2 and manual or airborne contamination during semen sampling. Among the 32 COVID-19 volunteers, the median interval from the onset of symptoms to semen collection was 4 days [IQR: 0-8]. Only one presented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR in semen and seminal plasma fractions, although the spermatozoa pellet was negative. Viral cultures were all negative. We observed slightly higher concentrations of bacterial DNA in the SARS-CoV-2 positive specimen than in all negative samples. The bacteria identified neither confirm nor rule out contamination by oropharyngeal secretions during collection. SARS-CoV-2 was rarely present in semen during the acute phase of the disease. This very rare situation could be connected to oral or manual contamination during semen collection. The possible presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen calls for nasopharyngeal viral testing and strict hygiene protocols during semen collection before assisted reproductive attempts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/chemistry , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Semen/virology , Specimen Handling , Spermatozoa/virology
8.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512693

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Equine arteritis virus (EAV) infection causes reproductive losses and systemic vasculitis in susceptible equidae. The intact male becomes the virus' reservoir upon EAV infection, as it causes a chronic-persistent infection of the accessory sex glands. Infected semen is the main source of virus transmission. (2) Here, we describe acute EAV infection and spread in a stallion population after introduction of new members to the group. (3) Conclusions: acute clinical signs, acute phase detection of antigen via (PCR) nasal swabs or (EDTA) blood, and seroconversion support the idea of transmission via seminal fluids into the respiratory tract(s) of others. This outbreak highlights EAV's horizontal transmission via the respiratory tract. This route should be considered in a chronic-persistently infected herd, when seronegative animals are added to the group.


Subject(s)
Arterivirus Infections/epidemiology , Arterivirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Equartevirus , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Arterivirus Infections/transmission , Arterivirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses , Male , Masturbation , Respiratory System/virology , Semen/virology
9.
Hum Reprod ; 37(2): 235-241, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506258

ABSTRACT

STUDY QUESTION: Can severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA be detected in the reproductive tract of asymptomatic patients undergoing ART? SUMMARY ANSWER: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA is not detectable in semen, follicular fluid, vaginal secretions or residual medulla from ovarian tissue cryopreservation procedures in asymptomatic patients who undergo ART, irrespective of the results of a triage questionnaire and a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection test. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a huge impact on the activities of fertility clinics. Although some studies reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in the reproductive system during or after acute COVID-19 symptomatic infections, uncertainties remain regarding the presence of viral mRNA in the reproductive material and follicular fluid of asymptomatic patients undergoing ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: An observational cohort trial of residual material samples including semen, follicular fluid, vaginal secretions and ovarian medulla was conducted during the second pandemic wave in Brussels from September 2020 to April 2021. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All patients who underwent ART (IUI, IVF/ICSI, oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) responded to a triage questionnaire at the beginning and end of the cycle and underwent nasopharyngeal swab collection for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by RT-PCR before the procedure according to standard recommendations. For semen analysis, only the questionnaire was requested the day before the sample collection. The ART cycles of patients with positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection tests and/or questionnaires were cancelled except for those that could not be postponed. After providing informed consent, swabs on residual materials were collected the day of the oocyte, ovarian tissue or semen collection and were processed for RT-qPCR. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 394 samples from 291 patients were analysed. Amongst them, 20 samples were obtained from patients with a positive questionnaire but negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 test and 20 others were from patients with a positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 test. The remaining samples were collected from patients with a negative or unknown nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 test and/or a negative or unknown triage questionnaire. Viral RNA for SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable in all of the samples. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Considering the cancellation policy, only a limited number of samples from patients with positive triage questionnaires or nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 tests were included in the analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The study suggested that there was no risk of reproductive tract contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic patients, irrespective of the results from a triage questionnaire or nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 test. The results suggested that no additional measures to prevent staff or cross-patient contamination need to be implemented in the IVF and andrology laboratories. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was funded by the Université Libre de Bruxelles and by a grant from Ferring. A.D. and I.D. received a grant from Ferring for the study. The authors have no other conflict of interest to declare related to this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Follicular Fluid , Humans , RNA, Viral , Semen
10.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(12): 2675-2684, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504521

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Due to relevant repercussions on reproductive medicine, we aimed to evaluate feasibility of RT-PCR as a detection method of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in seminal fluid. METHODS: A qualitative determination of the RT-PCR assays in semen was performed through different approaches: (1) efficiency of RNA extraction from sperm and seminal plasma was determined using PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA and a heterologous system as control; (2) samples obtained by diluting viral preparation from a SARS-CoV-2 panel (virus cultured in Vero E6 cell lines) were tested; (3) viral presence in different fractions of seminal fluid (whole sample, seminal plasma and post-centrifugation pellet) was evaluated. Semen samples from mild and recovered COVID-19 subjects were collected by patients referring to the Infectious Disease Department of the Policlinico Umberto I Hospital - "Sapienza" University of Rome. Control subjects were recruited at the Laboratory of Seminology-Sperm Bank "Loredana Gandini'' of the same hospital. RESULTS: The control panel using viral preparations diluted in saline and seminal fluid showed the capability to detect viral RNA presence with Ct values depending on the initial viral concentration. All tested semen samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the nasopharyngeal swab result or seminal fluid fraction. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data show that RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing appears to be a feasible method for the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in seminal fluid, supported by results of the control panel. The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in semen is extremely important for reproductive medicine, especially in assisted reproductive technology and sperm cryopreservation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Semen/virology , Adult , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproductive Techniques , Vero Cells
11.
Andrologia ; 54(2): e14295, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488172

ABSTRACT

Revealing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on semen quality is a dynamic priority for many healthcare providers in the field as well as subfertile patients. Therefore, the collective summary in this research approach is still highly needed, especially with the continuous increase in original publications. Here, we provide an up-to-date review and discussion to collectively reveal the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human semen quality. To do this, we reviewed all articles and abstracts published in Scopus and PubMed using the keywords 'SARS-CoV-2' and 'COVID' versus 'sperm' and 'semen'. In summary, it can be revealed that, at both symptomatic and recovery stages of infection, no investigational evidence of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in human semen. Also, the mainstream of the up-to-date published work reveals a negative impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on semen quality parameters, particularly sperm count and motility. However, long-term post-recovery comparative studies seem very important in this particular setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Semen Analysis , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen
12.
Andrologia ; 54(1): e14286, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480090

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the seminal sample of men during the acute phase of COVID-19. A prospective study was performed with inclusion of twenty-two men diagnosed with COVID-19 through RT-PCR from pharyngeal smear samples and who were in the acute phase of infection. These men were evaluated regarding medical history and physical examination. Furthermore, seminal samples of each men were collected 7, 14 and 21 days after the infection was confirmed. The sample were used for seminal analysis, as well as for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR technique. In addition, cell culture was performed with subsequent repetition of the analysis of viral presence. None of the semen samples collected was positive for the detection of the virus that causes COVID-19. Most of the men evaluated had a mild condition and the loss of smell was the most frequent symptom. There were no significant changes in seminal parameters within the period of study. Based on our pilot data, patients with a mild form of COVID-19 in the acute stage of the disease are unlikely to have SARS-CoV-2 in semen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Semen
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 196-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468315

ABSTRACT

We report severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in semen by using quantitative reverse transcription PCR during the late convalescent phase. Virus was associated with adequate humoral and cell-mediated responses, suggesting possible seeding of the immune-privileged testes. We provide longitudinal semen quality data for 6 other men, including 3 who had oligozoospermia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oligospermia , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Virus Shedding
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410289

ABSTRACT

Cryopreservation of human gametes and embryos as well as human reproductive tissues has been characterized as an essential process and aspect of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Notably, sperm cryopreservation is a fundamental aspect of cryopreservation in oncological patients or patients undergoing gonadotoxic treatment. Given that there is a risk of contamination or cross-contamination, either theoretical or real, during the procedures of cryopreservation and cryostorage, both the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) have provided updated guidelines for preventing or reducing the contamination risk of sexually transmitted viruses. Given the ongoing and worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, there is considerable interest in what measures should be taken to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 contamination during cryopreservation and cryostorage of semen samples. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the virus that causes COVID-19, and whose transmission and infection is mainly aerosol-mediated. Several ART professional societies, including ESHRE and ASRM have proposed measures to mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Whether the proposed safety directives are enough to mitigate the possible SARS-CoV-2-contamination of sperm samples during cryopreservation or whether the policies should be re-evaluated will be discussed in this review. Additionally, insights regarding the possible impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the safety of sperm cryopreservation will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryopreservation , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen Preservation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Risk Factors , Semen/virology , Specimen Handling , Spermatozoa
15.
Urol Int ; 104(11-12): 1000, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388566
16.
Andrology ; 9(1): 39-41, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent report of SARS-CoV-2 presence in semen samples of six patients, including two subjects who were recovering from the clinical disease, re-opened the discussion on possible male genital tract infection, virus shedding in semen, sexual transmission and safety of fertility treatments during the pandemic period. OBJECTIVES: To explore current data and hypothesis on the possible sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the male reproduction system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the current literature to describe: a) the evidences on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (AC2E) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) expression in the testes, accessory glands (including prostate) and the urinary tract; b) other coronaviruses' (SARS and MERS) ability to infect these sites. RESULTS: The co-expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes was reported in spermatogonial stem cells, elongated spermatids, in at least a small percentage of prostate hillock cells and in renal tubular cells. Testicular damage was described in autopsies of SARS patients, without evidence of the virus in the specimens. Prostate is a known infection site for MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in urines. DISCUSSION: There are still al lot of open questions on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproductive tract. The presence of receptors is not a proof that the testis provides a site for viral infection and it is still unknown if SARS-CoV-2 is capable to pass the blood-testis barrier. The possibility of a prostate involvement has not been investigated yet: we have no data, but theoretically it cannot be excluded. Moreover, the RNA detected in semen could have been just a residual of urinary shedding. CONCLUSION: Opening our prospective beyond the testis could be the key to better understand the possibility of a semen-related viral transmission as well as COVID19 short and long-term effects on male reproductive function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/virology , Testis/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Male , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Virus Internalization , Virus Shedding
17.
Urol Int ; 105(11-12): 944-948, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted primarily via respiratory droplets and enters host cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors. ACE-2 receptors have been identified in many tissues including testes. The aim of the study has been to investigate the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and its relative treatment on male reproductive health. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis has been performed on 49 recovered COVID-19 patients who had semen analysis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who had a recovery time lag of at least 3 months have been re-examined, and 29 eligible patients with no andrological problems have been enrolled in the study. Following a detailed physical examination and retrieval of medical history, the values of semen analysis and serum sex hormone parameters have been collected and compared before and after COVID-19 infection. The p value of <0.05 has been considered significant. RESULTS: The average age of the 29 patients has been 31.21 ± 5.48 (range: 18-41) years. Favipiravir has been co-administered with hydroxychloroquine in 17 patients, while the remaining 12 received favipiravir treatment without hydroxychloroquine. The average time between clinical recovery from COVID-19 and collection of semen has been 4.52 ± 1.36 (range: 3-8) months. Before and after COVID-19, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and prolactin levels, as well as all semen parameters, have been comparable. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that COVID-19 and its treatment with favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine did not affect spermatogenesis and serum androgen levels in the long-term period. Further clinical studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm and support our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Semen/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Young Adult
18.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 47(7): 731-737, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341041

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given the important role of sexual activity in most people's lives, in response to the question of whether the coronavirus is transmitted through sexual contact, this study was conducted to investigate the association of coronavirus transition with sexual contact. METHODS: Based on the PRISMA checklist, we review published articles on sexual contact with the Corona virus until 15 February 2021. Electronic databases based on search strategy including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science was searched to identify relevant papers in English language. RESULTS: Retrieved from 4671, 29 titles and abstracts articles screened, eight were excluded. There were 21 articles in the selection criteria. Of the 21 studies whose full text was read, only 5 studies stated that coronavirus was not transmitted through sexual contact, and 16 articles argued that sexual transmission of the virus could not be ignored. Most studies have confirmed the transmission of the virus through semen, but its transmission through vaginal secretions is unknown. CONCLUSION: Transmission of the virus through semen should be taken seriously in patients and the necessary education should be given to men and their sexual partners. Health care providers need to increase their knowledge and awareness to provide the best practices to reduction the risks related to Covid-19 sexual transmission through counseling and appropriate approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Coitus , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/virology , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Safe Sex , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Vagina/metabolism , Vagina/virology
19.
F S Sci ; 2(4): 355-364, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340890

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate transcriptional alterations in human semen samples associated with COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: City hospital. PATIENTS: Ten patients who had recovered from mild COVID-19 infection. Eight of these patients had different sperm abnormalities that were diagnosed before infection. The control group consisted of 5 healthy donors without known abnormalities and no history of COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTIONS: We used RNA sequencing to determine gene expression profiles in all studied biosamples. Original standard bioinformatic instruments were used to analyze activation of intracellular molecular pathways. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Routine semen analysis, gene expression levels, and molecular pathway activation levels in semen samples. RESULTS: We found statistically significant inhibition of genes associated with energy production pathways in the mitochondria, including genes involved in the electron transfer chain and genes involved in toll-like receptor signaling. All protein-coding genes encoded by the mitochondrial genome were significantly down-regulated in semen samples collected from patients after recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may provide a molecular basis for the previously observed phenomenon of decreased sperm motility associated with COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the data will be beneficial for the optimization of preconception care for men who have recently recovered from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Semen/physiology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Motility/genetics
20.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 33(12): 683-690, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331436

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Because COVID-19 is a multisystem infection, there are some concerns regarding its possible effects on male fertility. This study aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on semen oxidative status and parameters 14 and 120 days after diagnosis in patients presenting with moderate infection (defined as respiratory symptoms, with or without fever, with Spo2 <93% and >90% and lung involvement <50%). Semen samples were obtained from 20 participants at two time points: the first sample on Day 14 and the second on Day 120 after diagnosis. Semen parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and viability) were evaluated, as were levels of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and sperm DNA fragmentation. Semen parameters, including sperm motility and DNA integrity, improved at 120 days after the COVID-19 diagnosis relative to values at 14 days. In addition, ROS and MDA levels were significantly reduced in patients 120 days after infection, and TAC increased at 120 days compared with 14 days (during the acute stage of infection). In conclusion, the present study shows that the detrimental effects of COVID-19 on sperm properties caused by oxidative stress decrease up to Day 120 after diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Semen/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA Fragmentation , Humans , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Middle Aged , Oxidation-Reduction , Prospective Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Semen Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/pathology , Time Factors , Young Adult
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