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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 384, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are among high-risk groups for COVID-19. Africa is the continent with the lowest number of cases in the general population but we have little information about the disease burden in dialysis patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the hemodialysis population of Senegal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional survey, between June and September 2020 involving 10 public dialysis units randomly selected in eight regions of Senegal. After seeking their consent, we included 303 patients aged ≥ 18 years and hemodialysis for ≥ 3 months. Clinical symptoms and biological parameters were collected from medical records. Patients' blood samples were tested with Abbott SARS-CoV-2 Ig G assay using an Architect system. Statistical tests were performed with STATA 12.0. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 21.1% (95% CI = 16.7-26.1%). We noticed a wide variability in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence between regions ranging from 5.6 to 51.7%. Among the 38 patients who underwent nasal swab testing, only six had a PCR-confirmed infection and all of them did seroconvert. Suggestive clinical symptoms were reported by 28.1% of seropositive patients and the majority of them presented asymptomatic disease. After multivariate analysis, a previous contact with a confirmed case and living in a high population density region were associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: This study presents to our knowledge the first seroprevalence data in African hemodialysis patients. Compared to data from other continents, we found a higher proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but a lower lethality rate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Geography, Medical , Health Surveys , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Population Density , Prevalence , Senegal/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 1250129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398741

ABSTRACT

We formulate and theoretically analyze a mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission mechanism incorporating vital dynamics of the disease and two key therapeutic measures-vaccination of susceptible individuals and recovery/treatment of infected individuals. Both the disease-free and endemic equilibrium are globally asymptotically stable when the effective reproduction number R 0(v) is, respectively, less or greater than unity. The derived critical vaccination threshold is dependent on the vaccine efficacy for disease eradication whenever R 0(v) > 1, even if vaccine coverage is high. Pontryagin's maximum principle is applied to establish the existence of the optimal control problem and to derive the necessary conditions to optimally mitigate the spread of the disease. The model is fitted with cumulative daily Senegal data, with a basic reproduction number R 0 = 1.31 at the onset of the epidemic. Simulation results suggest that despite the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination and treatment to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, when R 0(v) > 1, additional efforts such as nonpharmaceutical public health interventions should continue to be implemented. Using partial rank correlation coefficients and Latin hypercube sampling, sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the relative importance of model parameters to disease transmission. Results shown graphically could help to inform the process of prioritizing public health intervention measures to be implemented and which model parameter to focus on in order to mitigate the spread of the disease. The effective contact rate b, the vaccine efficacy ε, the vaccination rate v, the fraction of exposed individuals who develop symptoms, and, respectively, the exit rates from the exposed and the asymptomatic classes σ and ϕ are the most impactful parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 653565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346426

ABSTRACT

Background: The ATLAS program promotes and implements HIVST in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. Priority groups include members of key populations-female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD)-and their partners and relatives. HIVST distribution activities, which began in mid-2019, were impacted in early 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This article, focusing only on outreach activities among key populations, analyzes quantitative, and qualitative program data collected during implementation to examine temporal trends in HIVST distribution and their evolution in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis. Specifically, we investigated the impact on, the adaptation of and the disruption of field activities. Results: In all three countries, the pre-COVID-19 period was marked by a gradual increase in HIVST distribution. The period corresponding to the initial emergency response (March-May 2020) witnessed an important disruption of activities: a total suspension in Senegal, a significant decline in Côte d'Ivoire, and a less pronounced decrease in Mali. Secondary distribution was also negatively impacted. Peer educators showed resilience and adapted by relocating from public to private areas, reducing group sizes, moving night activities to the daytime, increasing the use of social networks, integrating hygiene measures, and promoting assisted HIVST as an alternative to conventional rapid testing. From June 2020 onward, with the routine management of the COVID-19 pandemic, a catch-up phenomenon was observed with the resumption of activities in Senegal, the opening of new distribution sites, a rebound in the number of distributed HIVST kits, a resurgence in larger group activities, and a rebound in the average number of distributed HIVST kits per primary contact. Conclusions: Although imperfect, the program data provide useful information to describe changes in the implementation of HIVST outreach activities over time. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIVST distribution among key populations was visible in the monthly activity reports. Focus groups and individual interviews allowed us to document the adaptations made by peer educators, with variations across countries and populations. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and learning capacities of peer educators and key populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cote d'Ivoire/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Mali/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Senegal/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1490, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. RESULTS: Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. CONCLUSION: Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Benin , Burkina Faso , Communicable Disease Control , Cote d'Ivoire , Guinea , Humans , Mali/epidemiology , Niger , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiology
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112880

ABSTRACT

Les maladies respiratoires particulièrement le COVID-19 constituent un problème majeur de santé publique dans le monde. Depuis mars 2020, le Sénégal a enregistré 299 cas de COVID-19 dont 183 guéris et seulement deux cas sévères. Aussi environ 20000 personnes en contact étroit avec les malades ont été testés négatifs. Ces résultats sur l´absence de cas sévère, le taux élevé de guérison et la négativité des tests chez les personnes en contact étroit avec les malades pourraient s´expliquer par un portage de coronavirus non viable ou à charge virale très faible (non détectable). En effet, certains facteurs tels que le climat, les prédispositions génétiques pourraient jouer un rôle très important sur la viabilité de SARS CoV-2. Les autres virus respiratoires tels qu´Influenza virus, VRS, rhinovirus, entérovirus, métapneumovirus, para influenza virus causant les mêmes symptômes que le SARS CoV-2, leur détection devrait être faite ensemble pour l´imputabilité de la maladie à un tel virus respiratoire. En conclusion, au Sénégal, le nombre de personnes supposées malades de COVID-19 est très faible et le taux de guérison très élevé. Ainsi, les efforts déployés contre le COVID-19 devraient être réorientés vers la prise en charge des autres pathologies prioritaires des sénégalais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Senegal/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 23, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032982

ABSTRACT

Introduction: health care systems in West Africa have been under strain since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposure of health personnel to infection during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported in several studies. The purpose of this study was to analyze health workers' actual and perceived risk in the first hospital faced with managing a community-acquired COVID-19 case in Senegal. Methods: we conducted an exploratory descriptive study of health care providers' perception about their own risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. Forty-seven health-care providers were interviewed in personal, extensive interviews in this hospital. Results: the fear of disease was present among the health staff. This fear was caused by several exogenous and endogenous factors, including the lack of knowledge of the virus and COVID-19 disease, the feeling of vulnerability due to insufficient availability of personal protective equipment, healthcare professionals' position in relation to the priesthood from the medical profession and the real and perceived risk of putting their family and their entourage in potentially dangerous situations. Conclusion: this study highlights the need for psycho-affective management of health care workers during this pandemic by taking the gender dimension into account. The provision of personal adequate protective equipment and stress management measures could enable front-line workers to cope with this pandemic in complete serenity.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Risk , Senegal/epidemiology
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 470-471, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014555

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all mass gathering (MG) events have been cancelled. The Grand Magal took place on October 6, 2020, in Touba, Senegal, which was the only MG event organized in 2020. This Muslim pilgrimage gathers about four million Muslim Mourides from Senegal and beyond. No significant increase in COVID-19 cases was therefore observed at the national level in the weeks following the Grand Magal. This successful strategy is an invitation to better promote community commitments by public authorities in their various strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Islam , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Crowding , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiology , Travel
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 5, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966340

ABSTRACT

Senegal, like many countries in the world, has been facing the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2, 2020. Psychosocial care for people who are victims of this unexpected and potentially fatal event is essential. As soon as the first cases were registered in Senegal with the announcement of the first cluster in the town of Touba, 150km from Dakar, on March 12, 2020, the country's health authorities set up a multidisciplinary team on the spot with a cell operational psychosocial. This unit has set up for a hundred direct and indirect victims immediate and post-immediate individual and/or group care with home visits. Beyond the therapeutic and support aspect of the psychosocial care of these victims of COVID-19, this intervention allowed the decision-making level to have feedback from the field on certain actions that posed more problems than they did not resolve. The psychosocial field work made it possible to model and adjust the interventions in a particular context of denial by the local population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Psychosocial Support Systems , Quarantine/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Senegal/epidemiology
13.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(4): 247-249, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789162

ABSTRACT

The Grand Magal is a religious pilgrimage that takes place in Senegal. An estimated 4-5 million individuals yearly gather in the holy city of Touba. Pilgrims comes from the whole Senegal and surrounding countries and from countries outside of Africa where Mouride Senegalese emigrated. It is the largest Mass Gathering (MG) event of the Mouride community and the largest Muslim religious MG in West Africa. The context of the Grand Magal MG is unique given its location in a tropical developing country and its international component which may favour the globalization of local endemic diseases and warrants investment in modern methods for public health surveillance and planning of the event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiological Monitoring , Islam , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Public Health , Senegal/epidemiology
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 162, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the purpose of our study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on health care activities and prescriptions at the Albert Royer National Children´s Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study comparing outpatient activity, hospitalizations and prescriptions over the first-quarter of 2019 and 2020. Results: an average drop in external consultations of 33% was reported in the first quarter of 2020 (the pandemic period) compared to the first quarter of 2019. An increase in hospitalizations was observed mainly in the months of January and February. However, a drop of 11% was reported in the month of March. The same is true for prescriptions, for which a drop of 10% was reported only in the month of March.Conclusion: the current COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on outpatients´ consultations, health care activities and prescriptions at the Albert Royer National Children´s Hospital. Effective measures should be taken to prevent effects on mortality and Hospital activities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Senegal/epidemiology
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