Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594099

ABSTRACT

The lungs are constantly exposed to non-sterile air which carries harmful threats, such as particles and pathogens. Nonetheless, this organ is equipped with fast and efficient mechanisms to eliminate these threats from the airways as well as prevent pathogen invasion. The respiratory tract is densely innervated by sensory neurons, also known as nociceptors, which are responsible for the detection of external stimuli and initiation of physiological and immunological responses. Furthermore, expression of functional innate receptors by nociceptors have been reported; however, the influence of these receptors to the lung function and local immune response is poorly described. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown the importance of coordinated and competent pulmonary immunity for the prevention of pathogen spread as well as prevention of excessive tissue injury. New findings suggest that lung nociceptors can be a target of SARS-CoV-2 infection; what remains unclear is whether innate receptor trigger sensory neuron activation during SARS-CoV-2 infection and what is the relevance for the outcomes. Moreover, elderly individuals often present with respiratory, neurological and immunological dysfunction. Whether aging in the context of sensory nerve function and innate receptors contributes to the disorders of these systems is currently unknown. Here we discuss the expression of innate receptors by nociceptors, particularly in the lungs, and the possible impact of their activation on pulmonary immunity. We then demonstrate recent evidence that suggests lung sensory neurons as reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 and possible viral recognition via innate receptors. Lastly, we explore the mechanisms by which lung nociceptors might contribute to disturbance in respiratory and immunological responses during the aging process.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lung/immunology , Nociceptors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/innervation , Lung/virology , Nociceptors/metabolism , Nociceptors/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensory Receptor Cells/immunology , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism , Sensory Receptor Cells/virology , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551567

ABSTRACT

High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein, is a "damage-associated molecular pattern" molecule (DAMP) implicated in both stimulating and inhibiting innate immunity. As reviewed here, HMGB1 is an oxidation-reduction sensitive DAMP bearing three cysteines, and the post-translational modification of these residues establishes its proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities by binding to different extracellular cell surface receptors. The redox-sensitive signaling mechanisms of HMGB1 also occupy an important niche in innate immunity because HMGB1 may carry other DAMPs and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs). HMGB1 with DAMP/PAMP cofactors bind to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) which internalizes the HMGB1 complexes by endocytosis for incorporation in lysosomal compartments. Intra-lysosomal HMGB1 disrupts lysosomal membranes thereby releasing the HMGB1-transported molecules to stimulate cytosolic sensors that mediate inflammation. This HMGB1-DAMP/PAMP cofactor pathway slowed the development of HMGB1-binding antagonists for diagnostic or therapeutic use. However, recent discoveries that HMGB1 released from neurons mediates inflammation via the TLR4 receptor system, and that cancer cells express fully oxidized HMGB1 as an immunosuppressive mechanism, offer new paths to targeting HMGB1 for inflammation, pain, and cancer.


Subject(s)
Disulfides/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism
3.
Neurosci Lett ; 760: 136042, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262947

ABSTRACT

The airways are constantly exposed to a multitude of inhaled particles and, as such, require a finely tuned discrimination between harmful or potentially threatening stimuli, and discrete responses to maintain homeostasis. Both the immune and nervous systems have the ability to sense environmental (and internal) signals, to integrate the obtained information and to initiate a protective reaction. Lung immunity and innervation are known to be individually involved in these processes, but it is becoming clear that they can also influence one another via a multitude of complex mechanisms. Here, we specifically describe how sensory innervation affects airways immunity with a focus on pathological conditions such as asthma or infections, describing cellular and molecular mechanisms, and highlighting potentially novel therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Respiratory System/innervation
4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 559-568, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457154

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells of the airway and lungs in humans causing the disease COVID-19. This disease is characterized by cough, shortness of breath, and in severe cases causes pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which can be fatal. Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma from mild and severe cases of COVID-19 have been profiled using protein measurements and bulk and single cell RNA sequencing. Onset of pneumonia and ARDS can be rapid in COVID-19, suggesting a potential neuronal involvement in pathology and mortality. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives changes in immune cell-derived factors that then interact with receptors expressed by the sensory neuronal innervation of the lung to further promote important aspects of disease severity, including ARDS. We sought to quantify how immune cells might interact with sensory innervation of the lung in COVID-19 using published data from patients, existing RNA sequencing datasets from human dorsal root ganglion neurons and other sources, and a genome-wide ligand-receptor pair database curated for pharmacological interactions relevant for neuro-immune interactions. Our findings reveal a landscape of ligand-receptor interactions in the lung caused by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and point to potential interventions to reduce the burden of neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19 pulmonary disease. In particular, our work highlights opportunities for clinical trials with existing or under development rheumatoid arthritis and other (e.g. CCL2, CCR5 or EGFR inhibitors) drugs to treat high risk or severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/innervation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Sensory Receptor Cells/immunology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/physiopathology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Nociceptors/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Cytokine/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL