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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1152186, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238642

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) has led to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) worldwide. we have noted that many critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. The molecular mechanisms that underlie COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to analyze potential molecular mechanisms and identify potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis using bioinformatics and a systems biology approach. Methods Three RNA-seq datasets (GSE171110, GSE76293 and GSE137342) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were employed to detect mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the patients with the COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis for functional enrichment, pathway analysis, and candidate drugs analysis. Results We obtained 110 common DEGs among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. ARG1, FCGR1A, MPO, and TLR5 are the most influential hub genes. The infection and immune-related pathways and functions are the main pathways and molecular functions of these three diseases. FOXC1, YY1, GATA2, FOXL, STAT1 and STAT3 are important TFs for COVID-19. mir-335-5p, miR-335-5p and hsa-mir-26a-5p were associated with COVID-19. Finally, the hub genes retrieved from the DSigDB database indicate multiple drug molecules and drug-targets interaction. Conclusion We performed a functional analysis under ontology terms and pathway analysis and found some common associations among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. Transcription factors-genes interaction, protein-drug interactions, and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network with common DEGs were also identified on the datasets. We believe that the candidate drugs obtained in this study may contribute to the effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics
2.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 41(5): 278-283, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our work describes the frequency of superinfections in COVID-19 ICU patients and identifies risk factors for its appearance. Second, we evaluated ICU length of stay, in-hospital mortality and analyzed a subgroup of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDROs) infections. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted between March and June 2020. Superinfections were defined as appeared ≥48h. Bacterial and fungal infections were included, and sources were ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection (VA-LRTI), primary bloodstream infection (BSI), secondary BSI, and urinary tract infection (UTI). We performed a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis of the risk factors. RESULTS: Two-hundred thirteen patients were included. We documented 174 episodes in 95 (44.6%) patients: 78 VA-LRTI, 66 primary BSI, 9 secondary BSI and 21 UTI. MDROs caused 29.3% of the episodes. The median time from admission to the first episode was 18 days and was longer in MDROs than in non-MDROs (28 vs. 16 days, p<0.01). In multivariate analysis use of corticosteroids (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-16.9, p 0.01), tocilizumab (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.9, p 0.03) and broad-spectrum antibiotics within first 7 days of admission (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.1, p<0.01) were associated with superinfections. Patients with superinfections presented respect to controls prolonged ICU stay (35 vs. 12 days, p<0.01) but not higher in-hospital mortality (45.3% vs. 39.7%, p 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Superinfections in ICU patients are frequent in late course of admission. Corticosteroids, tocilizumab, and previous broad-spectrum antibiotics are identified as risk factors for its development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Superinfection , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Superinfection/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1162721, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312110

ABSTRACT

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to public health globally. It is a slower-moving pandemic than COVID-19, so we are fast running out of treatment options. Purpose: Thus, this study was designed to search for an alternative biomaterial with broad-spectrum activity for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial and fungal pathogen-related infections. Methods: We isolated Streptomyces species from soil samples and identified the most active strains with antimicrobial activity. The culture filtrates of active species were purified, and the bioactive metabolite extracts were identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the bioactive metabolites against MDR bacteria and fungi were determined using the broth microdilution method. Results: Preliminary screening revealed that Streptomyces misakiensis and S. coeruleorubidus exhibited antimicrobial potential. The MIC50 and MIC90 of S. misakiensis antibacterial bioactive metabolite (ursolic acid methyl ester) and antifungal metabolite (tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane) against all tested bacteria and fungi were 0.5 µg/ml and 1 µg/mL, respectively, versus S. coeruleorubidus metabolites: thiocarbamic acid, N,N-dimethyl, S-1,3-diphenyl-2-butenyl ester against bacteria (MIC50: 2 µg/ml and MIC90: 4 µg/mL) and fungi (MIC50: 4 µg/ml and MIC90: 8 µg/mL). Ursolic acid methyl ester was active against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica serovars, colistin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila and K. pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane was active against azole- and amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, C. gattii, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus. Ursolic acid methyl ester was applied in vivo for treating S. aureus septicemia and K. pneumoniae pneumonia models in mice. In the septicemia model, the ursolic acid methyl ester-treated group had a significant 4.00 and 3.98 log CFU/g decrease (P < 0.05) in liver and spleen tissue compared to the infected, untreated control group. Lung tissue in the pneumonia model showed a 2.20 log CFU/g significant decrease in the ursolic acid methyl ester-treated group in comparison to the control group. The haematological and biochemical markers in the ursolic acid methyl ester-treated group did not change in a statistically significant way. Moreover, no abnormalities were found in the histopathology of the liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen of ursolic acid methyl ester-treated mice in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: S. misakiensis metabolite extracts are broad-spectrum antimicrobial biomaterials that can be further investigated for the potential against MDR pathogen infections. Hence, it opens up new horizons for exploring alternative drugs for current and reemerging diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia , Sepsis , Mice , Animals , Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Fungi , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Sepsis/drug therapy
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7832, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320255

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the association between antivirals (Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir) and all-cause and respiratory mortality and organ dysfunction among high-risk COVID-19 patients during an Omicron outbreak. Two cohorts, Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir versus control and Molnupiravir versus control, were constructed with inverse probability treatment weighting to balance baseline characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association of their use with all-cause mortality, respiratory mortality, and all-cause sepsis (a composite of circulatory shock, respiratory failure, acute liver injury, coagulopathy, and acute liver impairment). Patients recruited were hospitalized and diagnosed with the COVID-19 Omicron variant between February 22, 2022 and April 15, 2022, and followed up until May 15, 2022. The study included 17,704 patients. There were 4.67 and 22.7 total mortalities per 1000 person-days in the Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio, - 18.1 [95% CI - 23.0 to - 13.2]; hazard ratio, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.11-0.29]). There were 6.64 and 25.9 total mortalities per 1000 person-days in the Molnupiravir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio per 1000 person-days, - 19.3 [95% CI - 22.6 to - 15.9]; hazard ratio, 0.23 [95% CI 0.18-0.30]). In all-cause sepsis, there were 13.7 and 35.4 organ dysfunction events per 1000 person-days in the Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence rate ratio per 1000 person-days, - 21.7 [95% CI - 26.3 to - 17.1]; hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI 0.38-0.52]). There were 23.7 and 40.8 organ dysfunction events in the Molnupiravir and control groups respectively before adjustment (weighted incidence ratio per 1000 person-days, - 17.1 [95% CI, - 20.6 to - 13.6]; hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI 0.58-0.69]). Among COVID-19 hospitalized patients, use of either Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir or Molnupiravir compared with no antiviral use was associated with a significantly lower incidence of 28-days all-cause and respiratory mortality and sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Multiple Organ Failure , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J Trop Pediatr ; 69(1)2022 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a higher burden from the low- and middle-income countries. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic has impacted healthcare in various ways including healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The objective of the present study was to determine changes in organism profile and incidence rates of HAI in neonates admitted to the index hospital during the pandemic and compared it with the data from the pre-pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was a retrospective, observational analysis of data from neonates with culture-positive sepsis, in a tertiary care children's hospital, between January 2018 and December 2021. Pre-Covid (January 2018 to December 2019) and Covid period data (January 2020 to December 2021) were analyzed for the significance of change. RESULTS: The prevalence of culture-positive sepsis, in pre-Covid and Covid periods, was 19.55% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.13-21.52)] and 18.36% (CI 16.05-20.74), respectively. HAI rates/1000 patient days increased slightly during the Covid pandemic [7.2% (95% CI 6.98-10.08) to 9.8% (95% CI 9.78-13.67)] mainly due to an increase in fungal HAI (26% pre- vs. 41.5% Covid period). However, the proportion of Gram-negative (GN) infections fell significantly (70.5% vs. 48.6%) during the same period. In the pre-Covid period, Klebsiella followed by Burkholderia cepacia, Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas, were the major HAI isolates. During the Covid period, there was a decline in these isolates and Burkholderia spp was not detected. All fungal isolates were Candida species. The case fatality ratio (CFR) from HAI decreased significantly from 38% to 15.45%, mainly due to a decrease in GN HAI. CONCLUSION: During Covid pandemic, there was a significant decline in GN HAI and CFR from HAI, due to improved compliance with infection control measures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). At the same time, there was a rise in the fungal HAI, possibly because of a higher proportion of premature, and sick neonates with longer hospital stay and more invasive procedures. Consolidations of gains in infection control and restriction of invasive procedures could help to minimize HAI in NICUs.


Blood stream infections in children less than 4 weeks old are known as neonatal sepsis. Several predisposing factors can make a neonate (less than 4 weeks) more prone to sepsis, such as prematurity, male gender, cultural practices, presence of underlying medical or surgical conditions, hospitalization, antibiotic use and invasive treatment. Neonatal sepsis in a hospitalized child can be either­pre-harbored infection (PHI), which means infection acquired prior to hospital admission or it could be healthcare-associated infection (HAI), where the infection is acquired during the hospital stay. Organisms causing neonatal sepsis in hospitalized neonates include bacteria and fungi. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic impacted all aspects of life including healthcare. The investigators conducted the present study to look into the changes in the incidence rate as well as in the type of organisms causing healthcare-associated blood stream infections in neonates in the pre-Covid and during the Covid period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Neonatal Sepsis , Sepsis , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/drug therapy
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291041

ABSTRACT

Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies cause an alteration in the immune response which can increase the rate of infectious diseases and worsened prognoses. They can also alter the immune response, thus, making the infection even worse. Curcumin is the most biologically active component of the turmeric root and appears to be an antimicrobial agent. Curcumin cooperates with various cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, B, T, and natural killer cells to modify the body's defence capacity. Curcumin also inhibits inflammatory responses by suppressing different metabolic pathways, reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, and increases the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Curcumin may also affect oxidative stress and the non-coding genetic material. This review analyses the relationships between immunodeficiency and the onset of infectious diseases and discusses the effects of curcumin and its derivatives on the immune response. In addition, we analyse some of the preclinical and clinical studies that support its possible use in prophylaxis or in the treatment of infectious diseases. Lastly, we examine how nanotechnologies can enhance the clinical use of curcumin.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Curcumin , Sepsis , Humans , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Sepsis/drug therapy , Immunity , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(5): 701-717, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290833

ABSTRACT

In 2022, COVID-19 remained the infectious disease at the top of most internal medicine physicians' minds. However, it was not the only infectious disease that was the topic of clinically relevant research that year. This article highlights some important infectious disease evidence unrelated to COVID-19 that was published in 2022. The literature was screened for sound new evidence relevant to internal medicine specialists and subspecialists whose focus of practice is not infectious diseases. The publications highlighted relate to various organisms in different patient populations. One article provides insight into the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. The descriptive epidemiology of bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) and viral (mpox) infections are the focus of 2 other articles. Several articles address the management of resistant and difficult-to-treat infections: multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections, resistant HIV-1, rifampin-resistant tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and invasive fungal infection in the setting of neutropenia. Another article provides data on effective HIV preexposure prophylaxis in women, an understudied population. Finally, given the urgent need to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics, an article on antibiotic stewardship for hospitalized patients with presumed sepsis in a non-intensive care unit setting is also included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Sepsis , Staphylococcal Infections , Humans , Female , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy
8.
J Control Release ; 352: 931-945, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300493

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 acquired symptoms have affected the worldwide population and increased the load of Intensive care unit (ICU) patient admissions. A large number of patients admitted to ICU end with a deadly fate of mortality. A high mortality rate of patients was reported with hospital-acquired septic shock that leads to multiple organ failures and ultimately ends with death. The patients who overcome this septic shock suffer from morbidity that also affects their caretakers. To overcome these situations, scientists are exploring progressive theragnostic techniques with advanced techniques based on biosensors, biomarkers, biozymes, vesicles, and others. These advanced techniques pave the novel way for early detection of sepsis-associated symptoms and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics and immunomodulators and prevent the undue effect on other parts of the body. There are other techniques like externally modulated electric-based devices working on the principle of piezoelectric mechanism that not only sense the endotoxin levels but also target them with a loaded antibiotic to neutralize the onset of inflammatory response. Recently researchers have developed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralizing cartridge that not only senses the LPS but also appropriately neutralizes with dual mechanistic insights of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This review will highlight recent developments in the new nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis and therapeutics of sepsis that is responsible for the high number of deaths of patients suffering from this critical disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Humans , Shock, Septic/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Lipopolysaccharides , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
PLoS Med ; 20(1): e1004174, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is characterised by dysregulated, life-threatening immune responses, which are thought to be driven by cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). Genetic variants in IL6R known to down-regulate IL-6 signalling are associated with improved Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, a finding later confirmed in randomised trials of IL-6 receptor antagonists (IL6RAs). We hypothesised that blockade of IL6R could also improve outcomes in sepsis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and near IL6R to evaluate the likely causal effects of IL6R blockade on sepsis (primary outcome), sepsis severity, other infections, and COVID-19 (secondary outcomes). We weighted SNPs by their effect on CRP and combined results across them in inverse variance weighted meta-analysis, proxying the effect of IL6RA. Our outcomes were measured in UK Biobank, FinnGen, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (HGI), and the GenOSept and GainS consortium. We performed several sensitivity analyses to test assumptions of our methods, including utilising variants around CRP and gp130 in a similar analysis. In the UK Biobank cohort (N = 486,484, including 11,643 with sepsis), IL6R blockade was associated with a decreased risk of our primary outcome, sepsis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.96, per unit of natural log-transformed CRP decrease). The size of this effect increased with severity, with larger effects on 28-day sepsis mortality (OR = 0.74; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.15); critical care admission with sepsis (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78) and critical care death with sepsis (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.98). Similar associations were seen with severe respiratory infection: OR for pneumonia in critical care 0.69 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.97) and for sepsis survival in critical care (OR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.04 to 1.31) in the GainS and GenOSept consortium, although this result had a large degree of imprecision. We also confirm the previously reported protective effect of IL6R blockade on severe COVID-19 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84) in the COVID-19 HGI, which was of similar magnitude to that seen in sepsis. Sensitivity analyses did not alter our primary results. These results are subject to the limitations and assumptions of MR, which in this case reflects interpretation of these SNP effects as causally acting through blockade of IL6R, and reflect lifetime exposure to IL6R blockade, rather than the effect of therapeutic IL6R blockade. CONCLUSIONS: IL6R blockade is causally associated with reduced incidence of sepsis. Similar but imprecisely estimated results supported a causal effect also on sepsis related mortality and critical care admission with sepsis. These effects are comparable in size to the effect seen in severe COVID-19, where IL-6 receptor antagonists were shown to improve survival. These data suggest that a randomised trial of IL-6 receptor antagonists in sepsis should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Hospitalization , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
10.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e065613, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276463

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis, the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an endogenous detoxifying enzyme. A recombinant human ALP compound, ilofotase alfa, showed no safety or tolerability concerns in a phase 2 trial. Renal function improvement over 28 days was significantly greater in the ilofotase alfa group. Moreover, a significant relative reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality of >40% was observed. A follow-up trial has been designed to confirm these findings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a phase 3, global, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential design trial in which patients are randomly assigned to either placebo or 1.6 mg/kg ilofotase alfa. Randomisation is stratified by baseline modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mSOFA) score and trial site. The primary objective is to confirm the survival benefit with ilofotase alfa by demonstrating a reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality in patients with sepsis-associated AKI requiring vasopressors. A maximum of 1400 patients will be enrolled at ∼120 sites in Europe, North America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Up to four interim analyses will take place. Based on predefined decision rules, the trial may be stopped early for futility or for effectiveness. In addition, patients with COVID-19 disease and patients with 'moderate to severe' chronic kidney disease are analysed as 2 separate cohorts of 100 patients each. An independent Data Monitoring Committee evaluates safety data at prespecified intervals throughout the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial is approved by relevant institutional review boards/independent ethics committees and is conducted in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, guidelines of Good Clinical Practice, Code of Federal Regulations and all other applicable regulations. Results of this study will determine the potential of ilofotase alfa to reduce mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated AKI and will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT CT Number 2019-0046265-24. US IND Number 117 605 Pre-results. CLINICALTRIALS: gov number: NCT04411472.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Alkaline Phosphatase/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 184, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in Klebsiella variicola as a causative pathogen in humans, though its clinical features and the impact of co-infection or secondary infection with COVID-19 remain unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man presented with fever, altered mental status and generalized weakness and was admitted to ICU due to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was newly diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus upon admission. On hospital day 3, his respiratory status deteriorated, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. On hospital day 10, superimposed bacterial pneumonia was suspected and subsequently, broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for the associated bloodstream infection. On hospital day 13, despite administration of active antibiotics and appropriate source control, he decompensated and died. The causative organism isolated from blood cultures was initially reported as K. pneumoniae, but it was identified as K. variicola by a genetic analysis. A representative isolate (FUJ01370) had a novel multilocus sequence typing allelic profile (gapA-infB-mdh-pgi-phoE-rpoB-tonB: 16-24-21-27-52-17-152), to which sequence type 5794 was assigned (GenBank assembly accession: GCA_019042755.1). CONCLUSIONS: We report a fatal case of respiratory and bloodstream infection due to K. variicola complicating severe COVID-19. Co-infection or secondary infection of K. variicola in COVID-19 is likely under-recognized and can be fulminant as in this case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Klebsiella Infections , Sepsis , Male , Humans , Aged , Coinfection/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy
12.
Nutrition ; 109: 112000, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274462

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiorgan dysfunction due to an exaggerated host response to infection associated with a homeostatic failure. In sepsis, different interventions, aimed at improving clinical outcomes, have been tested over the past decades. Among these most recent strategies, intravenous high-dose micronutrients (vitamins and/or trace elements) have been investigated. According to current knowledge, sepsis is characterized by low thiamine levels, which are associated with illness severity, hyperlactatemia, and poor clinical outcomes. However, caution is needed about the clinical interpretation of thiamine blood concentration in critically ill patients, and the inflammatory status, based on C-reactive protein levels, should always be measured. In sepsis, parenteral thiamine has been administered as monotherapy or in combination with vitamin C and corticosteroids. Nevertheless, most of those trials failed to report clinical benefits with high-dose thiamine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the biological properties of thiamine and to examine current knowledge regarding the safety and efficacy of high-dose thiamine as pharmaconutrition strategy when administering singly or in combination with other micronutrients in critically ill adult patients with sepsis or septic shock. Our examination of the most up-to-date evidence concludes that Recommended Daily Allowance supplementation is relatively safe for thiamine-deficient patients. However, current evidence does not support pharmaconutrition with high-dose thiamine as a single therapy or as combination therapy aimed at improving clinical outcomes in critically ill septic patients. The best nutrient combination still needs to be determined, based on the antioxidant micronutrient network and the multiple interactions among different vitamins and trace elements. In addition, a better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of intravenous thiamine is needed. Future well-designed and powered clinical trials are urgently warranted before any specific recommendations can be made regarding supplementation in the critical care setting.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Trace Elements , Adult , Humans , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/diagnosis , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 117: 109952, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270754

ABSTRACT

Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is a highly conserved 28 amino-acid peptide naturally occurring in the thymus and plays critical roles in T cell maturity and differentiation. Its synthetic form, thymalfasin, has been approved by various regulatory agencies in the treatment of hepatitis B viral infection and as an enhancer of vaccine response in immune-compromised populations. In China, it has also widely utilized in patients with cancer and severe infections, as well as the emergency use during (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)SARS and COVID-19 pandemic as an immune-regulator. Recent studies showed that Tα1 could significantly improve overall survival (OS) in patients with surgically resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and liver cancers in the adjuvant setting. For patients with locally advanced, unresectable NSCLC, Tα1 could significantly reduce chemoradiation-induced lymphopenia, pneumonia, and trending improvement of OS. Preclinical evidence are emerging to demonstrate that Tα1 may augment efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by reversing efferocytosis-induced M2 polarization of macrophages via activation of a TLR7/SHIP1 axis and enhancing anti-tumor immunity by turning "cold-tumors" to "hot-tumors"; a protective role in reducing colitis caused by immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs). Potential enhancement of ICIs' clinical efficacies has also been indicated. ICIs have transformed ways treating patients with cancer but limitations such as relatively low response rates and certain safety issues remains. Given the roles of Tα1 in regulating cellular immunities and exceptional safety profiles demonstrated in decades clinical uses, we believe that it is plausible to explore implications of Tα1 the immune-oncology setting by combining with ICI-based therapeutic strategies. Background Activities of Tα1. Tα1 is a biological response modifier which activates various cells in the immune system [1-3]. Tα1 is therefore expected to have clinical benefits in disorders where immune responses are impaired or ineffective. These disorders include acute and chronic infections, cancers, and vaccine non-responsiveness. In severe sepsis, for example, sepsis-induced immunosuppression is increasingly recognized as the overriding immune dysfunction in these vulnerable patients [4] and there is now agreement that many patients with severe sepsis survive the first critical hours of the syndrome but eventually die later due to patients' immunosuppression which make the system difficulty to fight the primary bacterial infection, decreased resistance to secondary nosocomial infections, and reactivation of viral infections [5]. Tα1 has been shown to restore immune functions and help to reduce mortality in patients with severe sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Sepsis , Thymosin , Humans , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , Thymosin/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy
14.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(6): 101151, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259718
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(12): 4496-4500, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253756

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), whose major vasopressor effector is angiotensin II (ATII), has multiple activities and regulates sodium-water homeostasis and fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. RAAS plays a crucial role in cardiocirculatory shock because it counteracts hypotension and hypovolemia by activating different physiologic responses. Based on the encouraging results of the ATHOS-3 trial, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the use of ATII for catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock. More recently, ATII was used for the compassionate treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Beyond its vasopressor properties, ATII was hypothesized to have antiviral activity because it induces internalization and degradation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors used by SARS-Cov-2 to infect cells. Overall, the use of ATII in patients with COVID-19 showed promising results because its administration was associated with the achievement and maintenance of target mean arterial pressure, increased PaO2/FIO2 ratio, and decreased FIO2. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available knowledge on the use of ATII in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin II/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Sepsis/drug therapy
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e066496, 2023 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Corticosteroids affect variably survival in sepsis trials, suggesting heterogeneity in patients' response to corticosteroids. The RECORDS (Rapid rEcognition of COrticosteRoiD resistant or sensitive Sepsis) trial aimed at defining endotypes associated with adults with sepsis responsiveness to corticosteroids. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: RECORDS, a multicentre, placebo-controlled, biomarker-guided, adaptive Bayesian design basket trial, will randomly assign to a biomarker stratum 1800 adults with community-acquired pneumonia, vasopressor-dependent sepsis, septic shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In each stratum, patients will be randomly assigned to receive a 7-day course of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone or their placebos. Patients with COVID-19 will be treated with a 10-day standard course of dexamethasone and randomised to fludrocortisone or its placebo. Primary outcome will be 90-day death or persistent organ dysfunction. Large simulation study will be performed across a range of plausible scenarios to foresee power to detect a 5%-10% absolute difference with corticosteroids. We will assess subset-by-treatment interaction by estimating in a Bayesian framework two quantities: (1) measure of influence, relying on the value of the estimation of corticosteroids' effect in each subset, and (2) measure of interaction. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Dijon, France), on 6 April 2020. Trial results will be disseminated at scientific conferences and results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04280497).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Adult , Humans , Fludrocortisone/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
17.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 25(1): e13961, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is an intervention, which ensures the appropriateness of antimicrobial use to avoid in part the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance and negative effects of inappropriate antimicrobial use. In the solid organ transplant (SOT) population, which is prone to a particularly high risk of infection resulting from immunosuppression and anatomical issues with each type of SOT, the need for good stewardship has never been more important. This article looks at current AMS practice in SOT units in the United Kingdom and how things could be improved in the future. METHODS: The current practice of AMS alongside national antimicrobial resistance rates were reviewed using national mandatory reporting data. The background to the current practice and policies in place in the National Health Service (NHS) were also reviewed and possibilities for future approaches explored. RESULTS: AMS is a requirement within all NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom as per government policy. Mandatory reporting of specific bloodstream infections (BSIs) and antimicrobial consumption alongside financial incentives has been the approach nationwide. Gram-negative resistance rates in BSIs have been increasing prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Little SOT-specific data on antimicrobial resistance exists, and the general approach to AMS in SOT units has generally modeled the national approach. CONCLUSION: Although there is a good, standardized approach to AMS in the NHS, there is a need for SOT-specific AMS approaches to be developed in the United Kingdom. More data is required on antimicrobial resistance rates, and studies are needed to investigate optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens for each solid organ group. Tools to aid AMS efforts and novel treatment options for complex multiresistant infection must also be explored amongst transplant centers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Sepsis , Humans , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , State Medicine , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
J Immunol Res ; 2023: 4452414, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232785

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is defined as a dysregulated immune response to infection that leads to multiple organ dysfunction. To date, though a growing body of knowledge has gained insight into the clinical risk factors, pathobiology, treatment response, and recovery methods, sepsis remains a significant concern and clinical burden. Therefore, further study is urgently needed to alleviate the acute and chronic outcomes. Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese medicine with multiple actions and mechanisms, has been investigated in cellular and rodent animal models of sepsis mainly based on its anti-inflammatory effect. However, the practical application of BBR in sepsis is still lacking, and it is imperative to systematically summarize the study of BBR in sepsis. This review summarized its pharmacological activities and mechanisms in septic-related organ injuries and the potential BBR-based therapeutic strategies for sepsis, which will provide comprehensive references for scientific research and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Sepsis , Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Berberine/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sepsis/drug therapy
19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 64: 150-154, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of death in hospitals requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The sepsis bundle is the cornerstone of sepsis treatment. Studies have evaluated the impact of a sepsis huddle on sepsis bundle compliance but not in sepsis identification. OBJECTIVE: Measure the effect of a multidisciplinary sepsis bedside huddle in the Emergency Department (ED) on sepsis identification and sepsis bundle compliance. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Pre-huddle patients were identified via Best Practice Advisory (BPA) alert on the electronic medical record from 11/01/2019-3/31/2020. The post-huddle group were patients for whom a sepsis huddle was activated from 11/01/2020-3/31/2021. RESULTS: 116 patients met inclusion criteria and 15 were determined to not have sepsis for a total of 21 pre-huddle and 80 post-huddle patients. Comparing pre-post results, sepsis huddle increased code sepsis activation (10% vs 91%, p < 0.001); sepsis bundle compliance (24% vs 80%, p < 0.001); antibiotics within one hour (33% vs 90%, p < 0.001); culture within one hour (67% vs 95%, p < 0.001), order entry <30 min. (29% vs 86%, p < 0.001); and median order entry time (48 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001). Post-huddle, 80% of order entries were ≤ 20 min. Logistic regression predicting sepsis code found huddle to be the first predictor, (p < 0.0000005). Hour-1 bundle compliance was predicted by physician/physician assistant order ≤30 min (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.0000005). CONCLUSION: Sepsis bedside huddle in the ED improves identification and sepsis bundle compliance. Results suggest increased order entry speed caused bundle improvement.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Guideline Adherence
20.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 27, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224124

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a more severe form of ALI, are life-threatening clinical syndromes observed in critically ill patients. Treatment methods to alleviate the pathogenesis of ALI have improved to a great extent at present. Although the efficacy of these therapies is limited, their relevance has increased remarkably with the ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated the preventive and therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen in the various diseases. The biological effects of molecular hydrogen mainly involve anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and autophagy and cell death modulation. This review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen on ALI and its underlying mechanisms and aims to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of ALI and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Humans , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology
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