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1.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(2): 129-136, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677246

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and accompanying mortality, morbidity, and financial burden. It is a major cause of admission to paediatric intensive care units; despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment, both incidence and mortality are high in low-income and middle-income countries. There are several barriers in addressing the enormous burden of paediatric sepsis in these countries, which include: lack of data of incidence and mortality; unfamiliarity of sepsis by the lay public, leading to failure to seek care early, and by health professionals, leading to failure to treat emergently; and insufficient government funding for sepsis care programmes leading to inadequate staffing, material, and financial resources, and therefore, poor health systems. Socioeconomic inequalities, such as inequity and marked variation in income and education, high rates of malnutrition, high percentage of young population, and health systems that do not meet the population's demands also represent barriers in the care of children with sepsis in Latin America. In this Viewpoint, we draw attention to the problem of paediatric sepsis in Latin America and call for action to reduce the disease burden by proposing some solutions.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Health Priorities , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/prevention & control , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Latin America/epidemiology , Social Class
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643891

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is common and represents a major public health burden with significant associated morbidity and mortality. However, despite substantial advances in sepsis recognition and management in well-resourced health systems, there remains a distinct lack of research into sepsis in Africa. The lack of evidence affects all levels of healthcare delivery from individual patient management to strategic planning at health-system level. This is particular pertinent as African countries experience some of the highest global burden of sepsis. The 2017 World Health Assembly resolution on sepsis and the creation of the Africa Sepsis Alliance provided an opportunity for change. However, progress so far has been frustratingly slow. The recurrent Ebola virus disease outbreaks and the COVID-19 pandemic on the African continent further reinforce the need for urgent healthcare system strengthening. We recommend that African countries develop national action plans for sepsis which should address the needs of all critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Africa/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of different doses of corticosteroids on the evolution of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, based on the potential benefit of the non-genomic mechanism of these drugs at higher doses. METHODS: Observational study using data collected from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. We evaluated the epidemiological, radiological and analytical scenario between patients treated with megadoses therapy of corticosteroids vs low-dose of corticosteroids and the development of complications. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality according to use of corticosteroids megadoses. RESULTS: Of a total of 14,921 patients, corticosteroids were used in 5,262 (35.3%). Of them, 2,216 (46%) specifically received megadoses. Age was a factor that differed between those who received megadoses therapy versus those who did not in a significant manner (69 years [IQR 59-79] vs 73 years [IQR 61-83]; p < .001). Radiological and analytical findings showed a higher use of megadoses therapy among patients with an interstitial infiltrate and elevated inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19. In the univariate study it appears that steroid use is associated with increased mortality (OR 2.07 95% CI 1.91-2.24 p < .001) and megadose use with increased survival (OR 0.84 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p 0.011), but when adjusting for possible confounding factors, it is observed that the use of megadoses is also associated with higher mortality (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.80; p < .001). There is no difference between megadoses and low-dose (p .298). Although, there are differences in the use of megadoses versus low-dose in terms of complications, mainly infectious, with fewer pneumonias and sepsis in the megadoses group (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.71-0.95; p < .001 and OR 0.80 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p < .001) respectively. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in mortality with megadoses versus low-dose, but there is a lower incidence of infectious complications with glucocorticoid megadoses.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/drug therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/virology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 245-249, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact leading to increases in health care-associated infections, particularly bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 in 69 US hospitals on BSIs before and during the pandemic. Events associated with 5 pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida sp.) were stratified by community onset (CO) if ≤ 3 days from admission or hospital onset (HO) if > 3 days after admission. We compared pre-pandemic CO and HO rates with pandemic periods and the rates of BSI for those with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were less likely to be admitted with COBSI compared to others (10.85 vs 22.35 per 10,000 patient days; P < .0001). There was a significant increase between pre-pandemic and pandemic HOBSI rates (2.78 vs 3.56 per 10,000 patient days; P < .0001). Also, COVID-19 infected patients were 3.5 times more likely to develop HOBSI compared to those without COVID-19 infection (9.64 vs 2.74 per 10,000 patient-days; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic period was associated with substantial increases in HOBSI and largely attributed to COVID-19 infected patients. Future research should evaluate whether such measures would be beneficial to incorporate in evaluating infection prevention trends.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 403, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence about the impact of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the incidence rates of blood cultures contaminations and bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) remains scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the nationwide epidemiology of positive blood cultures drawn in ICUs during the first two pandemic waves of COVID-19 in Switzerland. METHODS: We analyzed data on positive blood cultures among ICU patients, prospectively collected through a nationwide surveillance system (ANRESIS), from March 30, 2020, to May 31, 2021, a 14-month timeframe that included a first wave of COVID-19, which affected the French and Italian-speaking regions, an interim period (summer 2020) and a second wave that affected the entire country. We used the number of ICU patient-days provided by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as denominator to calculate incidence rates of blood culture contaminations and bloodstream infections (ICU-BSI). Incidence rate ratios comparing the interim period with the second wave were determined by segmented Poisson regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1099 blood culture contaminations and 1616 ICU-BSIs were identified in 52 ICUs during the study. Overall, more episodes of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were observed during the pandemic waves, compared to the interim period. The proportions of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were positively associated with the ICU occupancy rate, which was higher during the COVID-19 waves. During the more representative second wave (versus interim period), we observed an increased incidence of blood culture contaminations (IRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.16-2.12) and ICU-BSI (IRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSIs was observed during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave, especially in months when the ICU burden of COVID-19 patients was high.


Subject(s)
Blood Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Sepsis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Switzerland/epidemiology
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2058-2069, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide updated information on the burdens of sepsis during acute inpatient admissions for Medicare beneficiaries. DESIGN: Analysis of paid Medicare claims via the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services DataLink Project. SETTING: All U.S. acute-care hospitals, excluding federally operated hospitals (Veterans Administration and Defense Health Agency). PATIENTS: All Medicare beneficiaries, January 2012-February 2020, with an explicit sepsis diagnostic code assigned during an inpatient admission. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The count of Medicare Part A/B (fee-for-service) plus Medicare Advantage inpatient sepsis admissions rose from 981,027 (CY2012) to 1,700,433 (CY 2019). The proportion of total admissions with sepsis in the Medicare Advantage population rose from 21.43% to 35.39%, reflecting the increasing beneficiary proportion enrolled in Medicare Advantage. In CY2019, 6-month mortality rates in Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries for sepsis continued to decline, but remained high: 59.9% for septic shock, 35.5% for severe sepsis, 30.8% for sepsis attributed to a specific organism, and 26.5% for unspecified sepsis. Total fee-for-service-only inpatient hospital costs rose from $17.79B (CY2012) to $22.98B (CY2019). We estimated that the aggregate cost of sepsis hospital care for the entire U.S. population was at least $57.47B in 2019. Inclusion of 14 months' (January 2019-February 2020) newer data exposed new trends: the cost per patient, number of admissions, and fraction of patients with sepsis labeled as present on admission inflected around November 2015, coincident with the change to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, and introduction of the Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Management Bundle (SEP-1) metric. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis among Medicare beneficiaries precoronavirus disease 2019 imposed immense burdens upon patients, their families, and the taxpayers.


Subject(s)
Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/diagnosis , Fee-for-Service Plans/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Sepsis/economics , Sepsis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472229

ABSTRACT

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Biological Specimen Banks , Chromosome Aberrations , Communicable Diseases/complications , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/genetics , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mosaicism , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/genetics , Urogenital Abnormalities/microbiology , Young Adult
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(2): 853-857, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397006

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at describing potential indirect effects of pandemic-related measures on very-low-birthweight infants in four Italian NICUs. No overall change in late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis was documented. However, in the NICU where baseline LOS rate was high, a significant reduction in LOS incidence was recorded. Conclusion: COVID-19-related implementation of NICU hygiene policies is likely to reduce the occurrence of LOS in high-risk settings. What is Known: • COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), mostly by tightening infection control measures and restricting parental presence in the NICU. • Beyond the described psychological impact of COVID-19 related measures on healthcare workers and NICU families, their consequences in terms of preterm infants' clinical outcomes have not been described in detail yet. What is New: • Strengthened infection-control measures do not seem to have an overall influence on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. • However, the implementation of these measures appears to reduce the occurrence of late-onset sepsis in settings where the baseline incidence of the disease is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Sepsis , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 31-36, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Correlation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and superinfections has been investigated, but remains to be fully assessed. This multi-centre study reports the impact of the pandemic on bloodstream infections (BSIs). METHODS: This study included all patients with BSIs admitted to four Italian hospitals between 1 January and 30 June 2020. Clinical, demographic and microbiologic data were compared with data for patients hospitalized during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Among 26,012 patients admitted between 1 January and 30 June 2020, 1182 had COVID-19. Among the patients with COVID-19, 107 BSIs were observed, with an incidence rate of 8.19 episodes per 1000 patient-days. The incidence of BSI was significantly higher in these patients compared with patients without COVID-19 (2.72/1000 patient-days) and patients admitted in 2019 (2.76/1000 patient-days). In comparison with patients without COVID-19, BSI onset in patients with COVID-19 was delayed during the course of hospitalization (16.0 vs 5 days, respectively). Thirty-day mortality among patients with COVID-19 was 40.2%, which was significantly higher compared with patients without COVID-19 (23.7%). BSIs in patients with COVID-19 were frequently caused by multi-drug-resistant pathogens, which were often centre-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: BSIs are a common secondary infection in patients with COVID-19, characterized by increased risk during hospitalization and potentially burdened with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Sepsis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology
15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13582, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of concomitant arterial hypertension in COVID-19 patients and the impact of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been studied in a large multicentre cohort yet. We conducted a subanalysis from the international HOPE Registry (https://hopeprojectmd.com, NCT04334291) comparing COVID-19 in presence and absence of arterial hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 5837 COVID-19 patients, 2850 (48.8%) patients had the diagnosis arterial hypertension. 1978/2813 (70.3%) patients were already treated with ACEI or ARBs. The clinical outcome of the present subanalysis included all-cause mortality over 40 days of follow-up. RESULTS: Patients with arterial hypertension suffered significantly more from different complications including respiratory insufficiency (60.8% vs 39.5%), heart failure (9.9% vs 3.1%), acute kidney injury (25.3% vs 7.3%), pneumonia (90.6% vs 86%), sepsis (14.7% vs 7.5%), and bleeding events (3.6% vs 1.6%). The mortality rate was 29.6% in patients with concomitant arterial hypertension and 11.3% without arterial hypertension (P < .001). Invasive and non-invasive respiratory supports were significantly more required in presence of arterial hypertension as compared without it. In the multivariate cox regression analysis, while age≥65, benzodiazepine, antidepressant at admission, elevated LDH or creatinine, respiratory insufficiency and sepsis might be a positive independent predictors of mortality, antiviral drugs, interferon treatment, ACEI or ARBs at discharge or oral anticoagulation at discharge might be an independent negative predictor of the mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate and in-hospital complications might be increased in COVID-19 patients with a concomitant history of arterial hypertension. The history of ACEI or ARBs treatments does not seem to impact the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sepsis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/metabolism , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Italy/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346476

ABSTRACT

Deep vein thrombosis causes several acute and chronic vessel complications and puts patients at risk of subsequent sepsis development. This unique study aimed to estimate the risk of sepsis development in DVT patients compared with non-DVT patients. This population-based cohort study used records of a longitudinal health insurance database containing two million patients defined in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Our study included patients aged over 20 years with a new diagnosis of DVT with at least two outpatient department visits or an admission between 2001 and 2014. Patients with a diagnosis of sepsis before the index date were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to homogenize the baseline characteristics between the two groups. To define the independent risk of the DVT group, a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios. After PSM, the DVT group (n = 5753) exhibited a higher risk of sepsis (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.59-1.90) compared with non-DVT group (n = 5753). Patients with an increased risk of sepsis were associated with being elderly aged, male, having diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, malignancy, and use of antibiotics. In conclusion, this population-based cohort study demonstrated an increased risk of sepsis in DVT patients compared with non-DVT patients. Thus, early prevention and adequate treatment of DVT is necessary in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Sepsis , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339414

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recently, several single center studies have suggested a protective effect of the influenza vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study utilizes a continuously updated Electronic Medical Record (EMR) network to assess the possible benefits of influenza vaccination mitigating critical adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from 56 healthcare organizations (HCOs). METHODS: The de-identified records of 73,346,583 patients were retrospectively screened. Two cohorts of 37,377 patients, having either received or not received influenza vaccination six months-two weeks prior to SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnosis, were created using Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) and logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) codes. Adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis were compared between cohorts. Outcomes were assessed with stringent propensity score matching including age, race, ethnicity, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity, heart disease, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced decreased sepsis (p<0.01, Risk Ratio: 1.361-1.450, 95% CI:1.123-1.699, NNT:286) and stroke (p<0.02, RR: 1.451-1.580, 95% CI:1.075-2.034, NNT:625) across all time points. ICU admissions were lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients receiving the influenza vaccine at 30, 90, and 120 days (p<0.03, RR: 1.174-1.200, 95% CI:1.003-1.385, NNT:435), while approaching significance at 60 days (p = 0.0509, RR: 1.156, 95% CI:0.999-1.338). Patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced fewer DVTs 60-120 days after positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (p<0.02, RR:1.41-1.530, 95% CI:1.082-2.076, NNT:1000) and experienced fewer emergency department (ED) visits 90-120 days post SARS-CoV-2-positive diagnosis (p<0.01, RR:1.204-1.580, 95% CI: 1.050-1.476, NNT:176). CONCLUSION: Our analysis outlines the potential protective effect of influenza vaccination in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients against adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of a positive diagnosis. Significant findings favoring influenza vaccination mitigating the risks of sepsis, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), emergency department (ED) & Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions suggest a potential protective effect that could benefit populations without readily available access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Thus further investigation with future prospective studies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288965

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the relationships among hyperglycemia (HG), the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the outcomes of COVID-19. Demographic data, blood glucose levels (BG) measured on admission, and hospital outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Boston University Medical Center from 1 March to 4 August 2020 were extracted from the hospital database. HG was defined as BG > 200 mg/dL. Patients with type 1 diabetes or BG < 70 mg/dL were excluded. A total of 458 patients with T2D and 976 patients without T2D were included in the study. The mean ± SD age was 56 ± 17 years and 642 (45%) were female. HG occurred in 193 (42%) and 42 (4%) of patients with and without T2D, respectively. Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 9%. Among patients without T2D, HG was statistically significantly associated with mortality, ICU admission, intubation, acute kidney injury, and severe sepsis/septic shock, after adjusting for potential confounders (p < 0.05). However, only ICU admission and acute kidney injury were associated with HG among patients with T2D (p < 0.05). Among the 235 patients with HG, the presence of T2D was associated with decreased odds of mortality, ICU admission, intubation, and severe sepsis/septic shock, after adjusting for potential confounders, including BG (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HG in the subset of patients without T2D could be a strong indicator of high inflammatory burden, leading to a higher risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(7): 733-736, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270502
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