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2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2042-2057, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a heterogeneous disease most frequently causing respiratory tract infection, which can induce respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in its severe forms. The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis is still unclear; we aimed to describe this in a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases were searched based on a prespecified protocol (International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews: CRD42020202018). STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosed with sepsis according to sepsis-3 or according to the presence of infection-related organ dysfunctions necessitating organ support/replacement were included in the analysis. The primary end point was prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis among adults hospitalized in the ICU and the general ward. Among secondary end points were the need for ICU admission among patients initially hospitalized in the general ward and the prevalence of new onset of organ dysfunction in the ICU. Outcomes were expressed as proportions with respective 95% CI. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened and reviewed existing literature and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Methodological index for nonrandomized studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 3,825 articles, 151 were analyzed, only five of which directly reported sepsis prevalence. Noting the high heterogeneity observed, coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis prevalence was 77.9% (95% CI, 75.9-79.8; I2 = 91%; 57 studies) in the ICU, and 33.3% (95% CI, 30.3-36.4; I2 = 99%; 86 studies) in the general ward. ICU admission was required for 17.7% (95% CI, 12.9-23.6; I2 = 100%) of ward patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common organ dysfunction in the ICU (87.5%; 95% CI, 83.3-90.7; I2 = 98%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 patients hospitalized in the ICU meet Sepsis-3 criteria and present infection-associated organ dysfunction. The medical and scientific community should be aware and systematically report viral sepsis for prognostic and treatment implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/mortality , Severity of Illness Index
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256784, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378138

ABSTRACT

Viral sepsis has been proposed as an accurate term to describe all multisystemic dysregulations and clinical findings in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. The adoption of this term may help the implementation of more accurate strategies of early diagnosis, prognosis, and in-hospital treatment. We accurately quantified 110 metabolites using targeted metabolomics, and 13 cytokines/chemokines in plasma samples of 121 COVID-19 patients with different levels of severity, and 37 non-COVID-19 individuals. Analyses revealed an integrated host-dependent dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, neutrophil activation chemokines, glycolysis, mitochondrial metabolism, amino acid metabolism, polyamine synthesis, and lipid metabolism typical of sepsis processes distinctive of a mild disease. Dysregulated metabolites and cytokines/chemokines showed differential correlation patterns in mild and critically ill patients, indicating a crosstalk between metabolism and hyperinflammation. Using multivariate analysis, powerful models for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 induced sepsis were generated, as well as for mortality prediction among septic patients. A metabolite panel made of kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, IL-6, LysoPC a C18:2, and phenylalanine discriminated non-COVID-19 from sepsis patients with an area under the curve (AUC (95%CI)) of 0.991 (0.986-0.995), with sensitivity of 0.978 (0.963-0.992) and specificity of 0.920 (0.890-0.949). The panel that included C10:2, IL-6, NLR, and C5 discriminated mild patients from sepsis patients with an AUC (95%CI) of 0.965 (0.952-0.977), with sensitivity of 0.993(0.984-1.000) and specificity of 0.851 (0.815-0.887). The panel with citric acid, LysoPC a C28:1, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio discriminated severe patients from sepsis patients with an AUC (95%CI) of 0.829 (0.800-0.858), with sensitivity of 0.738 (0.695-0.781) and specificity of 0.781 (0.735-0.827). Septic patients who survived were different from those that did not survive with a model consisting of hippuric acid, along with the presence of Type II diabetes, with an AUC (95%CI) of 0.831 (0.788-0.874), with sensitivity of 0.765 (0.697-0.832) and specificity of 0.817 (0.770-0.865).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Metabolomics , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adult , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Kynurenine/blood , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/blood
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339414

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recently, several single center studies have suggested a protective effect of the influenza vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study utilizes a continuously updated Electronic Medical Record (EMR) network to assess the possible benefits of influenza vaccination mitigating critical adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from 56 healthcare organizations (HCOs). METHODS: The de-identified records of 73,346,583 patients were retrospectively screened. Two cohorts of 37,377 patients, having either received or not received influenza vaccination six months-two weeks prior to SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnosis, were created using Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) and logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) codes. Adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis were compared between cohorts. Outcomes were assessed with stringent propensity score matching including age, race, ethnicity, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity, heart disease, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced decreased sepsis (p<0.01, Risk Ratio: 1.361-1.450, 95% CI:1.123-1.699, NNT:286) and stroke (p<0.02, RR: 1.451-1.580, 95% CI:1.075-2.034, NNT:625) across all time points. ICU admissions were lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients receiving the influenza vaccine at 30, 90, and 120 days (p<0.03, RR: 1.174-1.200, 95% CI:1.003-1.385, NNT:435), while approaching significance at 60 days (p = 0.0509, RR: 1.156, 95% CI:0.999-1.338). Patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced fewer DVTs 60-120 days after positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (p<0.02, RR:1.41-1.530, 95% CI:1.082-2.076, NNT:1000) and experienced fewer emergency department (ED) visits 90-120 days post SARS-CoV-2-positive diagnosis (p<0.01, RR:1.204-1.580, 95% CI: 1.050-1.476, NNT:176). CONCLUSION: Our analysis outlines the potential protective effect of influenza vaccination in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients against adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of a positive diagnosis. Significant findings favoring influenza vaccination mitigating the risks of sepsis, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), emergency department (ED) & Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions suggest a potential protective effect that could benefit populations without readily available access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Thus further investigation with future prospective studies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
6.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(2): 108-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in its most severe form leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation under the conditions of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The state of hypercoagulation described in COVID-19 may deepen respiratory failure, leading to increased mortality. The aim of the presented study is to characterise the haemostatic profile based on the results of clotting system parameters and risk assessment of thromboembolic complications of patients hospitalised in the ICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study covered the first 10 adult patients hospitalised in the ICU of the Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw in the second quarter of 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of the coagulation system and the risk of thromboembolic complications were assessed. Well known criteria of haemostatic disorders were used to classify the observed derangements. RESULTS: The most frequently observed deviations in the coagulation system were high concentrations of D-dimer and fibrinogen. In select cases the clotting time was prolonged. No severe thrombocytopenia was observed. All patients presented a high risk of thromboembolic complications as assesed by the Padua score. The observed clotting abnormalities did not meet the criteria for DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) and SIC (sepsis-induced coagulopathy) diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The main elements of coagulopathy that were observed in our cases differ from those usually seen in patients with recognised sepsis. The unique haemostatic profile of COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU has been described as CAC (COVID-19-associated coagulopathy).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adult , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/etiology
9.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 385-391, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155817

ABSTRACT

An increased need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is going to become evident as treatment of SARS-CoV-2 respiratory distress syndrome. This is the first report of the Italian Society for Cardiac Surgery (SICCH) on preliminary experience with COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO support. Data from 12 Italian hospitals participating in SICCH were retrospectively analyzed. Between March 1 and September 15, 2020, a veno-venous (VV) ECMO system was installed in 67 patients (94%) and a veno-arterio-venous ECMO in four (6%). Five patients required VA ECMO after initial weaning from VV ECMO. Thirty (42.2%) patients were weaned from ECMO, while 39 (54.9%) died on ECMO, and six (8.5%) died after ECMO removal. Overall hospital survival was 36.6% (n = 26). Main causes of death were multiple organ failure (n = 14, 31.1%) and sepsis (n = 11, 24.4%). On multivariable analysis, predictors of death while on ECMO support were older age (p = 0.048), elevated pre-ECMO C-reactive protein level (p = 0.048), higher positive end-expiratory pressure on ventilator (p = 0.036) and lower lung compliance (p = 0.032). If the conservative treatment is not effective, ECMO support might be considered as life-saving rescue therapy for COVID-19 refractory respiratory failure. However warm caution and thoughtful approaches for timely detection and treatment should be taken for such a delicate patients population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/etiology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136499

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality across the world, with no current effective treatments available. Recent studies suggest the possibility of a cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19, similar to the biochemical profile seen in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), raising the question of possible benefits that could be derived from targeted immunosuppression in severe COVID-19 patients. We reviewed the literature regarding the diagnosis and features of HLH, particularly secondary HLH, and aimed to identify gaps in the literature to truly clarify the existence of a COVID-19 associated HLH. Diagnostic criteria such as HScore or HLH-2004 may have suboptimal performance in identifying COVID-19 HLH-like presentations, and criteria such as soluble CD163, NK cell activity, or other novel biomarkers may be more useful in identifying this entity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-2/metabolism , Sepsis/etiology
12.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(3): 275-280, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been described as a protective factor in cardiovascular and other diseases being expressed as 'obesity paradox'. However, the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes including mortality in COVID-19 has been poorly systematically investigated until now. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients divided into three groups according to the body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data up to May 31st, 2020. 3635 patients were divided into three groups of BMI (<25 kg/m2; n = 1110, 25-30 kg/m2; n = 1464, and >30 kg/m2; n = 1061). Demographic, in-hospital complications, and predictors for mortality, respiratory insufficiency, and sepsis were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of respiratory insufficiency was more recorded in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 (22.8% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.001), and in BMI > 30 kg/m2 than BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (22.8% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). Sepsis was more observed in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (25.1% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.02) and (25.1% vs. 32.5%; p = 0.006). The mortality rate was higher in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (27.2% vs. 39.2%; p = 0.31) (27.2% vs. 33.5%; p = 0.004). In the Cox multivariate analysis for mortality, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 did not impact the mortality rate (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.889-1.508; p = 0.27) (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.893-1.479; p = 0.27). In multivariate logistic regression analyses for respiratory insufficiency and sepsis, BMI < 25 kg/m2 is determined as an independent predictor for reduction of respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.538-1.004; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HOPE COVID-19-Registry revealed no evidence of obesity paradox in patients with COVID-19. However, Obesity was associated with a higher rate of respiratory insufficiency and sepsis but was not determined as an independent predictor for a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Obesity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Protective Factors , Registries , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology
14.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(2): 63-68, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093003

ABSTRACT

Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and patients taking anticoagulant drugs) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or in intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Pandemics , Public Health , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Community Networks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/therapy , Time Factors , Wounds and Injuries/complications
15.
Seizure ; 84: 66-68, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065590

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , De Lange Syndrome/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/complications , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 113, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at the Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020, and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. The epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases, laboratory test results, and disease outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of all enrolled patients was 66 years. At least one underlying disease was identified in 101 COVID-19 patients, with hypertension being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. Compared to survival cases, patients who died during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received antibiotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroids, and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Forty-four patients received noninvasive ventilation and 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]), and septic shock (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.098, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.006-1.199, P = 0.037), shorter duration from onset to admission (OR = 0.853, 95% CI: 0.750-0.969, P = 0.015) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR = 2.689, 95% CI: 1.044-6.926, P = 0.040) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR = 0.787, 95% CI: 0.686-0.903, P = 0.001) indicated a better prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we discovered that age, duration from onset to admission, LYM (%), and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that affecting the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Shock, Septic/etiology , Young Adult
17.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 481-488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was high. We aimed to assess the association between prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) and mortality in patients with COVID-19 undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation between February 12 and March 2, 2020. All patients were followed until death or March 28, and all survivors were followed for at least 30 days. RESULTS: For 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, the mean age was 69.4 (±10.8) years, and 30 patients (83.3%) were men. Twenty-two (61.1%) patients received PIRRT (PIRRT group), and 14 cases (38.9%) were managed with conventional strategy (non-PIRRT group). There were no differences in age, sex, comorbidities, complications, treatments, and most of the laboratory findings. During the median follow-up period of 9.5 (interquartile range 4.3-33.5) days, 13 of 22 (59.1%) patients in the PIRRT group and 11 of 14 (78.6%) patients in the non-PIRRT group died. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated prolonged survival in patients in the PIRRT group compared with that in the non-PIRRT group (p = 0.042). The association between PIRRT and a reduced risk of mortality remained significant in 3 different models, with adjusted hazard ratios varying from 0.332 to 0.398. Increased IL-2 receptor, TNF-α, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, and NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with PIRRT. CONCLUSION: PIRRT may be beneficial for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Further prospective multicenter studies with larger sample sizes are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/mortality
18.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967092

ABSTRACT

There are limited proven therapies for COVID-19. Vitamin C's antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects make it a potential therapeutic candidate, both for the prevention and amelioration of COVID-19 infection, and as an adjunctive therapy in the critical care of COVID-19. This literature review focuses on vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections, including COVID-19, and the mechanisms of action in infectious disease, including support of the stress response, its role in preventing and treating colds and pneumonia, and its role in treating sepsis and COVID-19. The evidence to date indicates that oral vitamin C (2-8 g/day) may reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections and intravenous vitamin C (6-24 g/day) has been shown to reduce mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays, and time on mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory infections. Further trials are urgently warranted. Given the favourable safety profile and low cost of vitamin C, and the frequency of vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections, it may be worthwhile testing patients' vitamin C status and treating them accordingly with intravenous administration within ICUs and oral administration in hospitalised persons with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/drug therapy , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/virology
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 451-457, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe the incidence and predictive factors of secondary infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between 25th February and 6th April 2020 (NCT04318366). We considered secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) or possible lower respiratory tract infections (pLRTIs) occurring 48 hours after hospital admission until death or discharge. We calculated multivariable Fine-Gray models to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. RESULTS: Among 731 patients, a secondary infection was diagnosed in 68 patients (9.3%); 58/731 patients (7.9%) had at least one BSI and 22/731 patients (3.0%) at least one pLRTI. The overall 28-day cumulative incidence was 16.4% (95%CI 12.4-21.0%). Most of the BSIs were due to Gram-positive pathogens (76/106 isolates, 71.7%), specifically coagulase-negative staphylococci (53/76, 69.7%), while among Gram-negatives (23/106, 21.7%) Acinetobacter baumanii (7/23, 30.4%) and Escherichia coli (5/23, 21.7%) predominated. pLRTIs were caused mainly by Gram-negative pathogens (14/26, 53.8%). Eleven patients were diagnosed with putative invasive aspergillosis. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with secondary infections were low baseline lymphocyte count (≤0.7 versus >0.7 per 109/L, subdistribution hazard ratios (sdHRs) 1.93, 95%CI 1.11-3.35), baseline PaO2/FiO2 (per 100 points lower: sdHRs 1.56, 95%CI 1.21-2.04), and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission in the first 48 hours (sdHR 2.51, 95%CI 1.04-6.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had a high incidence of secondary infections. At multivariable analysis, early need for ICU, respiratory failure, and severe lymphopenia were identified as risk factors for secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/microbiology
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 140S-147S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. To date, the analysis of fatal cases and the risk factors for death have rarely been reported. METHODS: In this study, 220 adult patients with confirmed and suspected COVID-19 were enrolled. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatments, and complications were compared between 168 survivors and 52 nonsurvivors. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 220 patients (168 were discharged and 52 died in the hospital) were enrolled in the study. The median age of all patients was 59.5 (47.0-69.0) years, and the median age of patients who died was significantly older than that of patients who survived (70.5 vs 56.0 years, respectively; P < .001). According to multivariate logistic regression, older age (odds ratio: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15; P = .001), initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >2 (37.4, 9.4-148.0; P = .011), and respiratory rate >24 per minute (10.89, 1.47-80.67; P = .019) were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory parameters predicting poor prognosis including older age, baseline SOFA score >2, and respiratory rate >24 per minute were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Respiratory Rate , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , China , Comorbidity , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy
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