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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of different doses of corticosteroids on the evolution of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, based on the potential benefit of the non-genomic mechanism of these drugs at higher doses. METHODS: Observational study using data collected from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. We evaluated the epidemiological, radiological and analytical scenario between patients treated with megadoses therapy of corticosteroids vs low-dose of corticosteroids and the development of complications. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality according to use of corticosteroids megadoses. RESULTS: Of a total of 14,921 patients, corticosteroids were used in 5,262 (35.3%). Of them, 2,216 (46%) specifically received megadoses. Age was a factor that differed between those who received megadoses therapy versus those who did not in a significant manner (69 years [IQR 59-79] vs 73 years [IQR 61-83]; p < .001). Radiological and analytical findings showed a higher use of megadoses therapy among patients with an interstitial infiltrate and elevated inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19. In the univariate study it appears that steroid use is associated with increased mortality (OR 2.07 95% CI 1.91-2.24 p < .001) and megadose use with increased survival (OR 0.84 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p 0.011), but when adjusting for possible confounding factors, it is observed that the use of megadoses is also associated with higher mortality (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.80; p < .001). There is no difference between megadoses and low-dose (p .298). Although, there are differences in the use of megadoses versus low-dose in terms of complications, mainly infectious, with fewer pneumonias and sepsis in the megadoses group (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.71-0.95; p < .001 and OR 0.80 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p < .001) respectively. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in mortality with megadoses versus low-dose, but there is a lower incidence of infectious complications with glucocorticoid megadoses.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/drug therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/virology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2042-2057, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a heterogeneous disease most frequently causing respiratory tract infection, which can induce respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in its severe forms. The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis is still unclear; we aimed to describe this in a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases were searched based on a prespecified protocol (International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews: CRD42020202018). STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosed with sepsis according to sepsis-3 or according to the presence of infection-related organ dysfunctions necessitating organ support/replacement were included in the analysis. The primary end point was prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis among adults hospitalized in the ICU and the general ward. Among secondary end points were the need for ICU admission among patients initially hospitalized in the general ward and the prevalence of new onset of organ dysfunction in the ICU. Outcomes were expressed as proportions with respective 95% CI. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened and reviewed existing literature and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Methodological index for nonrandomized studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 3,825 articles, 151 were analyzed, only five of which directly reported sepsis prevalence. Noting the high heterogeneity observed, coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis prevalence was 77.9% (95% CI, 75.9-79.8; I2 = 91%; 57 studies) in the ICU, and 33.3% (95% CI, 30.3-36.4; I2 = 99%; 86 studies) in the general ward. ICU admission was required for 17.7% (95% CI, 12.9-23.6; I2 = 100%) of ward patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common organ dysfunction in the ICU (87.5%; 95% CI, 83.3-90.7; I2 = 98%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 patients hospitalized in the ICU meet Sepsis-3 criteria and present infection-associated organ dysfunction. The medical and scientific community should be aware and systematically report viral sepsis for prognostic and treatment implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/mortality , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2561-2575, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute kidney injury (AKI) to sepsis-AKI (S-AKI). The morphology and transcriptomic and proteomic characteristics of autopsy kidneys were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals 18 years of age and older who died from COVID-19 and had an autopsy performed at Mayo Clinic between April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Morphological evaluation of the kidneys of 17 individuals with COVID-19 was performed. In a subset of seven COVID-19 cases with postmortem interval of less than or equal to 20 hours, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics (targeted transcriptome and proteomics analyses of tubulointerstitium) were evaluated. Molecular characteristics were compared with archived cases of S-AKI and nonsepsis causes of AKI. RESULTS: The spectrum of COVID-19 renal pathology included macrophage-dominant microvascular inflammation (glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis), vascular dysfunction (peritubular capillary congestion and endothelial injury), and tubular injury with ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial damage. Investigation of the spatial architecture using a novel imaging mass cytometry revealed enrichment of CD3+CD4+ T cells in close proximity to antigen-presenting cells, and macrophage-enriched glomerular and interstitial infiltrates, suggesting an innate and adaptive immune tissue response. Coronavirus disease 2019 AKI and S-AKI, as compared to nonseptic AKI, had an enrichment of transcriptional pathways involved in inflammation (apoptosis, autophagy, major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and type 1 T helper cell differentiation). Proteomic pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 AKI and to a lesser extent S-AKI were enriched in necroptosis and sirtuin-signaling pathways, both involved in regulatory response to inflammation. Upregulation of the ceramide-signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in COVID-19 AKI were noted. CONCLUSION: This data highlights the similarities between S-AKI and COVID-19 AKI and suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pivotal role in COVID-19 AKI. This data may allow the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/virology
5.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1376-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510864

ABSTRACT

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Sepsis/virology
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(14): 3236-3248, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360866

ABSTRACT

Natural killer cells, one of the important types of innate immune cells, play a pivotal role in the antiviral process in vivo. It has been shown that increasing NK cell activity may promote the alleviation of viral infections, even severe infection-induced sepsis. Given the current state of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic, clarifying the anti-viral function of NK cells would be helpful for revealing the mechanism of host immune responses and decipher the progression of COVID-19 and providing important clues for combating this pandemic. In this review, we summarize the roles of NK cells in viral infection and sepsis as well as the potential possibilities of NK cell-based immunotherapy for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Sepsis/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/virology
9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L485-L489, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can progress to multisystem organ failure and viral sepsis characterized by respiratory failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications, and shock with high mortality. Autopsy and preclinical evidence implicate aberrant complement activation in endothelial injury and organ failure. Erythrocytes express complement receptors and are capable of binding immune complexes; therefore, we investigated complement activation in patients with COVID-19 using erythrocytes as a tool to diagnose complement activation. We discovered enhanced C3b and C4d deposition on erythrocytes in COVID-19 sepsis patients and non-COVID sepsis patients compared with healthy controls, supporting the role of complement in sepsis-associated organ injury. Our data suggest that erythrocytes may contribute to a precision medicine approach to sepsis and have diagnostic value in monitoring complement dysregulation in COVID-19-sepsis and non-COVID sepsis and identifying patients who may benefit from complement targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement C3b/immunology , Complement C4b/immunology , Erythrocytes/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complement C3b/metabolism , Complement C4b/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/virology
10.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is heterogenous. There are at least three subtypes: cytokine release syndrome (CRS), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective study comprising 276 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All patients were tested for ferritin, interleukin-6, D-Dimer, fibrinogen, calcitonin, and C-reactive protein. According to the diagnostic criteria, three groups of patients with different subtypes of cytokine storm syndrome were identified: MAS, CRS or sepsis. In the MAS and CRS groups, treatment results were assessed depending on whether or not tocilizumab was used. RESULTS: MAS was diagnosed in 9.1% of the patients examined, CRS in 81.8%, and sepsis in 9.1%. Median serum ferritin in patients with MAS was significantly higher (5894 vs. 984 vs. 957 ng/mL, p < 0.001) than in those with CRS or sepsis. Hypofibrinogenemia and pancytopenia were also observed in MAS patients. In CRS patients, a higher mortality rate was observed among those who received tocilizumab, 21 vs. 10 patients (p = 0.043), RR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.3). In MAS patients, tocilizumab decreased the mortality, 13 vs. 6 patients (p = 0.013), RR = 0.50 (95% CI 0.25-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab therapy in patients with COVID-19 and CRS was associated with increased mortality, while in MAS patients, it contributed to reduced mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/classification , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/mortality , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/virology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 586054, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145559

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health concern. Many inpatients with COVID-19 have shown clinical symptoms related to sepsis, which will aggravate the deterioration of patients' condition. We aim to diagnose Viral Sepsis Caused by SARS-CoV-2 by analyzing laboratory test data of patients with COVID-19 and establish an early predictive model for sepsis risk among patients with COVID-19. Methods: This study retrospectively investigated laboratory test data of 2,453 patients with COVID-19 from electronic health records. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) was employed to build four models with different feature subsets of a total of 69 collected indicators. Meanwhile, the explainable Shapley Additive ePlanation (SHAP) method was adopted to interpret predictive results and to analyze the feature importance of risk factors. Findings: The model for classifying COVID-19 viral sepsis with seven coagulation function indicators achieved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.9213 (95% CI, 89.94-94.31%), sensitivity 97.17% (95% CI, 94.97-98.46%), and specificity 82.05% (95% CI, 77.24-86.06%). The model for identifying COVID-19 coagulation disorders with eight features provided an average of 3.68 (±) 4.60 days in advance for early warning prediction with 0.9298 AUC (95% CI, 86.91-99.04%), 82.22% sensitivity (95% CI, 67.41-91.49%), and 84.00% specificity (95% CI, 63.08-94.75%). Interpretation: We found that an abnormality of the coagulation function was related to the occurrence of sepsis and the other routine laboratory test represented by inflammatory factors had a moderate predictive value on coagulopathy, which indicated that early warning of sepsis in COVID-19 patients could be achieved by our established model to improve the patient's prognosis and to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Sepsis/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/diagnosis
12.
Genomics ; 113(3): 1219-1233, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118728

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in intensive care unit worldwide, it's accompanied by immune cell dysfunction induced by multiple factors. However, little is known about the specific alterations in immune cells in the dynamic pathogenesis of sepsis secondary to bacterial pneumonia. Here, we used single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a healthy control and two patients with sepsis secondary to bacterial pneumonia, including acute, stable and recovery stage. We analyzed the quantity and function of immune cells. During disease course, interferon gamma response was upregulated; T/NK cell subtypes presented activation and exhaustion properties, which might be driven by monocytes through IL-1ß signaling pathways; The proportion of plasma cells was increased, which might be driven by NK cells through IFN signaling pathways; Additionally, interferon gamma response was upregulated to a greater degree in sepsis secondary to pneumonia induced by SARS-COV-2 compared with that induced by influenza virus and bacteria.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Bacterial , Sepsis , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/genetics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/microbiology , Sepsis/virology
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(5): 3366-3382, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107657

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has reached a pandemic level, spreading across the globe by affecting over 33 million people and causing over 1,009,270 deaths. SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious with a high basic reproduction number (R0 ) of 2.2-5.7 that has led to its exponential spread. Besides, very little is known about it in terms of immunogenicity and its molecular targets. SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome, followed by multiple organ failure and death in a small percentage of individuals. Cardiac injury has emerged as another dreaded outcome of COVID-19 complications. However, a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is lacking. In this review, we discuss the virus, possible mechanisms of COVID-19-induced cardiac injury, and potential therapeutic strategies, and we explore if exosomes could be targeted to treat symptoms of COVID-19. Furthermore, we discussed the virus-induced sepsis, which may be the cause of multiple organ failure, including myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Exosomes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Humans
15.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 91, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are a few reports of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a potential treatment for ARDS. In this phase 1 clinical trial, we present the safety, feasibility, and tolerability of the multiple infusions of high dose MSCs, which originated from the placenta and umbilical cord, in critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS patients. METHODS: A total of 11 patients diagnosed with COVID-19-induced ARDS who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two hospitals enrolled in this study. The patients were critically ill with severe hypoxemia and required mechanical ventilation. The patients received three intravenous infusions (200 × 106 cells) every other day for a total of 600 × 106 human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs; 6 cases) or placental MSCs (PL-MSCs; 5 cases). FINDINGS: There were eight men and three women who were 42 to 66 years of age. Of these, six (55%) patients had comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and cardiomyopathy (CMP). There were no serious adverse events reported 24-48 h after the cell infusions. We observed reduced dyspnea and increased SpO2 within 48-96 h after the first infusion in seven patients. Of these seven patients, five were discharged from the ICU within 2-7 days (average: 4 days), one patient who had signs of acute renal and hepatic failure was discharged from the ICU on day 18, and the last patient suddenly developed cardiac arrest on day 7 of the cell infusion. Significant reductions in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.01) were seen in all six survivors. IL-6 levels decreased in five (P = 0.06) patients and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels decreased in four (P = 0.14) patients. Four patients who had signs of multi-organ failure or sepsis died in 5-19 days (average: 10 days) after the first MSC infusion. A low percentage of lymphocytes (< 10%) and leukocytosis were associated with poor outcome (P = 0.02). All six survivors were well with no complaints of dyspnea on day 60 post-infusion. Radiological parameters of the lung computed tomography (CT) scans showed remarkable signs of recovery. INTERPRETATION: We suggest that multiple infusions of high dose allogeneic prenatal MSCs are safe and can rapidly improve respiratory distress and reduce inflammatory biomarkers in some critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS cases. Patients that develop sepsis or multi-organ failure may not be good candidates for stem cell therapy. Large randomized multicenter clinical trials are needed to discern the exact therapeutic potentials of MSC in COVID-19-induced ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Placenta/cytology , Pregnancy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Sepsis/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Umbilical Cord/cytology
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045398

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state and thrombotic events. Venous thromboembolism has been the most commonly reported type of thrombosis but also arterial thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in inpatients have been described frequently in several clinical experiences. Patients with COVID-19, because of its tendency to induce leucopenia and overlapping of bacterial infection, may experience sudden disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as in the case that we report here. However, early diagnosis and treatment may be associated with positive resolution of these severe complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Neutropenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105409, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033338

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, caused by the inappropriate host response to infection, is characterized by excessive inflammatory response and organ dysfunction, thus becomes a critical clinical problem. Commonly, sepsis may progress to septic shock and severe complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD), liver dysfunction, cerebral dysfunction, and skeletal muscle atrophy, which predominantly contribute to high mortality. Additionally, the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raised the concern of development of effectve therapeutic strategies for viral sepsis. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may represent as a potent therapeutic target for sepsis therapy. The emerging role of RAS in the pathogenesis of sepsis has been investigated and several preclinical and clinical trials targeting RAS for sepsis treatment revealed promising outcomes. Herein, we attempt to review the effects and mechanisms of RAS manipulation on sepsis and its complications and provide new insights into optimizing RAS interventions for sepsis treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sepsis/drug therapy , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/virology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1370-1372, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023693
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