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1.
J Virol ; 95(19): e0086121, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486519

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the viral pathogen causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. No effective treatment for COVID-19 has been established yet. The serine protease transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for viral spread and pathogenicity by facilitating the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. The protease inhibitor camostat, an anticoagulant used in the clinic, has potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities against COVID-19. However, the potential mechanisms of viral resistance and antiviral activity of camostat are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate high inhibitory potencies of camostat for a panel of serine proteases, indicating that camostat is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of serine proteases. In addition, we determined the crystal structure of camostat in complex with a serine protease (uPA [urokinase-type plasminogen activator]), which reveals that camostat is inserted in the S1 pocket of uPA but is hydrolyzed by uPA, and the cleaved camostat covalently binds to Ser195. We also generated a homology model of the structure of the TMPRSS2 serine protease domain. The model shows that camostat uses the same inhibitory mechanism to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2, subsequently preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread. IMPORTANCE Serine proteases are a large family of enzymes critical for multiple physiological processes and proven diagnostic and therapeutic targets in several clinical indications. The serine protease transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) was recently found to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host. Camostat mesylate (FOY 305), a serine protease inhibitor active against TMPRSS2 and used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lung cells. However, the direct inhibition mechanism of camostat mesylate for TMPRSS2 is unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that camostat uses the same inhibitory mechanism to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2 as uPA, subsequently preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Esters/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Serine Proteases/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esters/chemistry , Esters/metabolism , Guanidines/chemistry , Guanidines/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mouth Neoplasms , Protein Domains , Sequence Alignment , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12686-12696, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387615

ABSTRACT

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes. Some members of the TTSP family are implicated in viral infection. TMPRSS11A is a TTSP expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which has been shown to cleave and activate spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (CoVs). In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the activation cleavage of TMPRSS11A that converts the one-chain zymogen to a two-chain enzyme. By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis. Moreover, we found that TMPRSS11A activation cleavage occurred before the protein reached the cell surface, as indicated by studies with trypsin digestion to remove cell surface proteins, treatment with cell organelle-disturbing agents to block intracellular protein trafficking, and analysis of a soluble form of TMPRSS11A without the transmembrane domain. We also showed that TMPRSS11A was able to cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results reveal an intracellular autocleavage mechanism in TMPRSS11A zymogen activation, which differs from the extracellular zymogen activation reported in other TTSPs. These findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms in regulating TTSP activation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Serine Proteases/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cells, Cultured , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
3.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 8): 1040-1049, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341166

ABSTRACT

The ß-link is a composite protein motif consisting of a G1ß ß-bulge and a type II ß-turn, and is generally found at the end of two adjacent strands of antiparallel ß-sheet. The 1,2-positions of the ß-bulge are also the 3,4-positions of the ß-turn, with the result that the N-terminal portion of the polypeptide chain is orientated at right angles to the ß-sheet. Here, it is reported that the ß-link is frequently found in certain protein folds of the SCOPe structural classification at specific locations where it connects a ß-sheet to another area of a protein. It is found at locations where it connects one ß-sheet to another in the ß-sandwich and related structures, and in small (four-, five- or six-stranded) ß-barrels, where it connects two ß-strands through the polypeptide chain that crosses an open end of the barrel. It is not found in larger (eight-stranded or more) ß-barrels that are straightforward ß-meanders. In some cases it initiates a connection between a single ß-sheet and an α-helix. The ß-link also provides a framework for catalysis in serine proteases, where the catalytic serine is part of a conserved ß-link, and in cysteine proteases, including Mpro of human SARS-CoV-2, in which two residues of the active site are located in a conserved ß-link.


Subject(s)
Protein Structure, Secondary , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Databases, Protein , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Structural Homology, Protein
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 179: 601-609, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131358

ABSTRACT

Proteinases with the (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold comprise a large superfamily performing their function through the Acid - Base - Nucleophile catalytic triad. In our previous work (Denesyuk AI, Johnson MS, Salo-Ahen OMH, Uversky VN, Denessiouk K. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;153:399-411), we described a universal three-dimensional (3D) structural motif, NBCZone, that contains eleven amino acids: dipeptide 42 T-43 T, pentapeptide 54 T-55 T-56 T-57 T(base)-58 T, tripeptide 195 T(nucleophile)-196 T-197 T and residue 213 T (T - numeration of amino acids in trypsin). The comparison of the NBCZones among the members of the (chymo)trypsin-like protease family suggested the existence of 15 distinct groups. Within each group, the NBCZones incorporate an identical set of conserved interactions and bonds. In the present work, the structural environment of the catalytic acid at the position 102 T and the fourth member of the "catalytic tetrad" at the position 214 T was analyzed in 169 3D structures of proteinases with the (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold. We have identified a complete Structural Catalytic Core (SCC) consisting of two classes and four groups. The proteinases belonging to different classes and groups differ from each other by the nature of the interaction between their N- and C-terminal ß-barrels. Comparative analysis of the 3CLpro(s) from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, used as an example, showed that the amino acids at positions 103 T and 179 T affect the nature of the interaction of the "catalytic acid" core (102 T-Core, N-terminal ß-barrel) with the "supplementary" core (S-Core, C-terminal ß-barrel), which ultimately results in the modulation of the enzymatic activity. The reported analysis represents an important standalone contribution to the analysis and systematization of the 3D structures of (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold proteinases. The use of the developed approach for the comparison of 3D structures will allow, in the event of the appearance of new representatives of a given fold in the PDB, to quickly determine their structural homologues with the identification of possible differences.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
5.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 14(4): 509-519, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737628

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, it is a potentially fatal disease and is of great global public health concern. The pathophysiological understanding of the mode of transmission of COVID-9 and the possible molecular targets are exploring successively to fight against this contagious disease. In this pandemic situation, a large number of countries have been forced to do social distancing and lockdown. The two main pathways of SARS-CoV-2 transmission include (1) droplet infection via the respiratory secretions or by close person to person contact, whereas (2) faecal to oral route transmission is also possible. Thus, the route of entry of SARS-CoV-2 is through the nasal and or oral cavity. Here, we briefly reviewed the current knowledge about COVID-19, considering the potential explanation of the mode of transmission and the different possible molecular drug targets. We highlighted potential approaches to address the antiviral therapy inhibiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the host targeting (a.) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (b.) serine protease and (c.) proteolytic activation pathways or the cell membrane receptor called the angiotensin- converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). The recently exercised immuno-enhancement therapy to fight against SARS-CoV-2 and treatment strategy using drug combination are also explored here in this review.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunotherapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 153: 105495, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676726

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus was identified in the Hubei province of central china and named SARS-CoV-2. This new virus induces COVID-19, a severe respiratory disease with high death rate. A putative target to interfere with the virus is the host transmembrane serine protease family member II (TMPRSS2). This enzyme is critical for the entry of coronaviruses into human cells by cleaving and activating the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2. Repositioning approved, investigational and experimental drugs on the serine protease domain of TMPRSS2 could thus be valuable. There is no experimental structure for TMPRSS2 but it is possible to develop quality structural models for the serine protease domain using comparative modeling strategies as such domains are highly structurally conserved. Beside the TMPRSS2 catalytic site, we predicted on our structural models a main exosite that could be important for the binding of protein partners and/or substrates. To block the catalytic site or the exosite of TMPRSS2 we used structure-based virtual screening computations and two different collections of approved, investigational and experimental drugs. We propose a list of 156 molecules that could bind to the catalytic site and 100 compounds that may interact with the exosite. These small molecules should now be tested in vitro to gain novel insights over the roles of TMPRSS2 or as starting point for the development of second generation analogs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Catalysis , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
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