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1.
J Virol ; 95(19): e0086121, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486519

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the viral pathogen causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. No effective treatment for COVID-19 has been established yet. The serine protease transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for viral spread and pathogenicity by facilitating the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. The protease inhibitor camostat, an anticoagulant used in the clinic, has potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities against COVID-19. However, the potential mechanisms of viral resistance and antiviral activity of camostat are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate high inhibitory potencies of camostat for a panel of serine proteases, indicating that camostat is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of serine proteases. In addition, we determined the crystal structure of camostat in complex with a serine protease (uPA [urokinase-type plasminogen activator]), which reveals that camostat is inserted in the S1 pocket of uPA but is hydrolyzed by uPA, and the cleaved camostat covalently binds to Ser195. We also generated a homology model of the structure of the TMPRSS2 serine protease domain. The model shows that camostat uses the same inhibitory mechanism to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2, subsequently preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread. IMPORTANCE Serine proteases are a large family of enzymes critical for multiple physiological processes and proven diagnostic and therapeutic targets in several clinical indications. The serine protease transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) was recently found to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host. Camostat mesylate (FOY 305), a serine protease inhibitor active against TMPRSS2 and used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lung cells. However, the direct inhibition mechanism of camostat mesylate for TMPRSS2 is unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that camostat uses the same inhibitory mechanism to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2 as uPA, subsequently preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Esters/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Serine Proteases/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esters/chemistry , Esters/metabolism , Guanidines/chemistry , Guanidines/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mouth Neoplasms , Protein Domains , Sequence Alignment , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
3.
Elife ; 102021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389777

ABSTRACT

Virus propagation methods generally use transformed cell lines to grow viruses from clinical specimens, which may force viruses to rapidly adapt to cell culture conditions, a process facilitated by high viral mutation rates. Upon propagation in VeroE6 cells, SARS-CoV-2 may mutate or delete the multibasic cleavage site (MBCS) in the spike protein. Previously, we showed that the MBCS facilitates serine protease-mediated entry into human airway cells (Mykytyn et al., 2021). Here, we report that propagating SARS-CoV-2 on the human airway cell line Calu-3 - that expresses serine proteases - prevents cell culture adaptations in the MBCS and directly adjacent to the MBCS (S686G). Similar results were obtained using a human airway organoid-based culture system for SARS-CoV-2 propagation. Thus, in-depth knowledge on the biology of a virus can be used to establish methods to prevent cell culture adaptation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Cultivation/methods , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Proteolysis , Respiratory System/cytology , Respiratory System/virology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
5.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12686-12696, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387615

ABSTRACT

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes. Some members of the TTSP family are implicated in viral infection. TMPRSS11A is a TTSP expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which has been shown to cleave and activate spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (CoVs). In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the activation cleavage of TMPRSS11A that converts the one-chain zymogen to a two-chain enzyme. By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis. Moreover, we found that TMPRSS11A activation cleavage occurred before the protein reached the cell surface, as indicated by studies with trypsin digestion to remove cell surface proteins, treatment with cell organelle-disturbing agents to block intracellular protein trafficking, and analysis of a soluble form of TMPRSS11A without the transmembrane domain. We also showed that TMPRSS11A was able to cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results reveal an intracellular autocleavage mechanism in TMPRSS11A zymogen activation, which differs from the extracellular zymogen activation reported in other TTSPs. These findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms in regulating TTSP activation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Serine Proteases/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cells, Cultured , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
6.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 8): 1040-1049, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341166

ABSTRACT

The ß-link is a composite protein motif consisting of a G1ß ß-bulge and a type II ß-turn, and is generally found at the end of two adjacent strands of antiparallel ß-sheet. The 1,2-positions of the ß-bulge are also the 3,4-positions of the ß-turn, with the result that the N-terminal portion of the polypeptide chain is orientated at right angles to the ß-sheet. Here, it is reported that the ß-link is frequently found in certain protein folds of the SCOPe structural classification at specific locations where it connects a ß-sheet to another area of a protein. It is found at locations where it connects one ß-sheet to another in the ß-sandwich and related structures, and in small (four-, five- or six-stranded) ß-barrels, where it connects two ß-strands through the polypeptide chain that crosses an open end of the barrel. It is not found in larger (eight-stranded or more) ß-barrels that are straightforward ß-meanders. In some cases it initiates a connection between a single ß-sheet and an α-helix. The ß-link also provides a framework for catalysis in serine proteases, where the catalytic serine is part of a conserved ß-link, and in cysteine proteases, including Mpro of human SARS-CoV-2, in which two residues of the active site are located in a conserved ß-link.


Subject(s)
Protein Structure, Secondary , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Databases, Protein , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Structural Homology, Protein
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 179: 601-609, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131358

ABSTRACT

Proteinases with the (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold comprise a large superfamily performing their function through the Acid - Base - Nucleophile catalytic triad. In our previous work (Denesyuk AI, Johnson MS, Salo-Ahen OMH, Uversky VN, Denessiouk K. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;153:399-411), we described a universal three-dimensional (3D) structural motif, NBCZone, that contains eleven amino acids: dipeptide 42 T-43 T, pentapeptide 54 T-55 T-56 T-57 T(base)-58 T, tripeptide 195 T(nucleophile)-196 T-197 T and residue 213 T (T - numeration of amino acids in trypsin). The comparison of the NBCZones among the members of the (chymo)trypsin-like protease family suggested the existence of 15 distinct groups. Within each group, the NBCZones incorporate an identical set of conserved interactions and bonds. In the present work, the structural environment of the catalytic acid at the position 102 T and the fourth member of the "catalytic tetrad" at the position 214 T was analyzed in 169 3D structures of proteinases with the (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold. We have identified a complete Structural Catalytic Core (SCC) consisting of two classes and four groups. The proteinases belonging to different classes and groups differ from each other by the nature of the interaction between their N- and C-terminal ß-barrels. Comparative analysis of the 3CLpro(s) from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, used as an example, showed that the amino acids at positions 103 T and 179 T affect the nature of the interaction of the "catalytic acid" core (102 T-Core, N-terminal ß-barrel) with the "supplementary" core (S-Core, C-terminal ß-barrel), which ultimately results in the modulation of the enzymatic activity. The reported analysis represents an important standalone contribution to the analysis and systematization of the 3D structures of (chymo)trypsin-like serine/cysteine fold proteinases. The use of the developed approach for the comparison of 3D structures will allow, in the event of the appearance of new representatives of a given fold in the PDB, to quickly determine their structural homologues with the identification of possible differences.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
8.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122331

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes host proteases, including a plasma membrane-associated transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) to cleave and activate the virus spike protein to facilitate cellular entry. Although TMPRSS2 is a well-characterized type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP), the role of other TTSPs on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. Here, we have screened 12 TTSPs using human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-expressing HEK293T (293T-ACE2) cells and Vero E6 cells and demonstrated that exogenous expression of TMPRSS11D and TMPRSS13 enhanced cellular uptake and subsequent replication of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 share the same TTSPs in the viral entry process. Our study demonstrates the impact of host TTSPs on infection of SARS-CoV-2, which may have implications for cell and tissue tropism, for pathogenicity, and potentially for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization
9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L670-L674, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798131

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is linked to an increasing number of risk factors, including exogenous (environmental) stimuli such as air pollution, nicotine, and cigarette smoke. These three factors increase the expression of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key receptor involved in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-the etiological agent of COVID-19-into respiratory tract epithelial cells. Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D. To address this, steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding these SARS-CoV-2 receptors were assessed in the lungs of mouse pups chronically exposed to elevated FiO2, and in the lungs of preterm-born human infants chronically managed with an elevated FiO2. These two scenarios served as models of chronic elevated FiO2 exposure. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression was assessed in primary human nasal, tracheal, esophageal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as primary mouse alveolar type II cells exposed to elevated oxygen concentrations. While gene expression of ACE2 was unaffected, gene and protein expression of TMPRSS11D was consistently upregulated by exposure to an elevated FiO2. These data highlight the need for further studies that examine the relative contribution of the various viral co-receptors on the infection cycle, and point to oxygen supplementation as a potential risk factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/analysis , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Proteases/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
10.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759876

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome that may progress to cytokine storm syndrome, organ dysfunction, and death. Considering that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been described as important mediators of tissue damage in inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether NETs would be involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology. A cohort of 32 hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and healthy controls were enrolled. The concentration of NETs was augmented in plasma, tracheal aspirate, and lung autopsies tissues from COVID-19 patients, and their neutrophils released higher levels of NETs. Notably, we found that viable SARS-CoV-2 can directly induce the release of NETs by healthy neutrophils. Mechanistically, NETs triggered by SARS-CoV-2 depend on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, serine protease, virus replication, and PAD-4. Finally, NETs released by SARS-CoV-2-activated neutrophils promote lung epithelial cell death in vitro. These results unravel a possible detrimental role of NETs in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Therefore, the inhibition of NETs represents a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , A549 Cells , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cell Death , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Neutrophil Activation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Suction , Trachea/immunology
11.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 14(4): 509-519, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737628

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, it is a potentially fatal disease and is of great global public health concern. The pathophysiological understanding of the mode of transmission of COVID-9 and the possible molecular targets are exploring successively to fight against this contagious disease. In this pandemic situation, a large number of countries have been forced to do social distancing and lockdown. The two main pathways of SARS-CoV-2 transmission include (1) droplet infection via the respiratory secretions or by close person to person contact, whereas (2) faecal to oral route transmission is also possible. Thus, the route of entry of SARS-CoV-2 is through the nasal and or oral cavity. Here, we briefly reviewed the current knowledge about COVID-19, considering the potential explanation of the mode of transmission and the different possible molecular drug targets. We highlighted potential approaches to address the antiviral therapy inhibiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the host targeting (a.) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (b.) serine protease and (c.) proteolytic activation pathways or the cell membrane receptor called the angiotensin- converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). The recently exercised immuno-enhancement therapy to fight against SARS-CoV-2 and treatment strategy using drug combination are also explored here in this review.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunotherapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1229, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612918

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (Cov)-2, an enveloped virus with a positive-polarity, single-stranded RNA genome. The initial outbreak of the pandemic began in December 2019, and it is affecting the human health of the global community. In common with previous pandemics (Influenza H1N1 and SARS-CoV) and the epidemics of Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, CoVs target bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. Virus protein ligands (e.g., haemagglutinin or trimeric spike glycoprotein for Influenza and CoV, respectively) interact with cellular receptors, such as (depending on the virus) either sialic acids, Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Host proteases, e.g., cathepsins, furin, or members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) family, such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), are involved in virus entry by proteolytically activating virus ligands. Also involved are Toll Like Receptor (TLR) family members, which upregulate anti-viral and pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and type I and type III Interferons among others], through the activation of Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB. When these events (virus cellular entry and innate immune responses) are uncontrolled, a deleterious systemic response is sometimes encountered in infected patients, leading to the well-described "cytokine storm" and an ensuing multiple organ failure promoted by a downregulation of dendritic cell, macrophage, and T-cell function. We aim to describe how the lung and systemic host innate immune responses affect survival either positively, through downregulating initial viral load, or negatively, by triggering uncontrolled inflammation. An emphasis will be put on host cellular signaling pathways and proteases involved with a view on tackling these therapeutically.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice , Myeloid Cells/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343433

ABSTRACT

Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2') cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. The exact nature of these cleavage sites, and their respective processing proteases, can determine whether the virus can cross species and the level of pathogenicity. Recent comparisons of the genomes of the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV2 and MERS-CoV, with less pathogenic strains (e.g., Bat-RaTG13, the bat homologue of SARS-CoV2) identified possible mutations in the receptor binding domain and in the S1 and S2' cleavage sites of their spike glycoprotein. However, there remains some confusion on the relative roles of the possible serine proteases involved for priming. Using anthrax toxin as a model system, we show that in vivo inhibition of priming by pan-active serine protease inhibitors can be effective at suppressing toxicity. Hence, our studies should encourage further efforts in developing either pan-serine protease inhibitors or inhibitor cocktails to target SARS-CoV2 and potentially ward off future pandemics that could develop because of additional mutations in the S-protein priming sequence in coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/toxicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Toxins/toxicity , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Furin/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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