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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760652

ABSTRACT

The presence of co-infections or superinfections with bacterial pathogens in COVID-19 patients is associated with poor outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 and its components interact with the biofilms generated by commensal bacteria, which may contribute to co-infections. This study employed crystal violet staining and particle-tracking microrheology to characterize the formation of biofilms by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus that commonly cause secondary bacterial pneumonia. Microrheology analyses suggested that these biofilms were inhomogeneous soft solids, consistent with their dynamic characteristics. Biofilm formation by both bacteria was significantly inhibited by co-incubation with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit and both S1 + S2 subunits, but not with S2 extracellular domain nor nucleocapsid protein. Addition of spike S1 and S2 antibodies to spike protein could partially restore bacterial biofilm production. Furthermore, biofilm formation in vitro was also compromised by live murine hepatitis virus, a related beta-coronavirus. Supporting data from LC-MS-based proteomics of spike-biofilm interactions revealed differential expression of proteins involved in quorum sensing and biofilm maturation, such as the AI-2E family transporter and LuxS, a key enzyme for AI-2 biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that these opportunistic pathogens may egress from biofilms to resume a more virulent planktonic lifestyle during coronavirus infections. The dispersion of pathogens from biofilms may culminate in potentially severe secondary infections with poor prognosis. Further detailed investigations are warranted to establish bacterial biofilms as risk factors for secondary pneumonia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , Biofilms , Coronavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/physiology , Animals , Coinfection , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Humans , Mice , Microbial Interactions , Serogroup , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification
2.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(4): 187-188, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751730
3.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0082621, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691430

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) is used as a gene-based vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV-1. However, its primary receptor portfolio remains controversial, potentially including sialic acid, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), integrins, and CD46. We and others have shown that Ad26 can use CD46, but these observations were questioned on the basis of the inability to cocrystallize Ad26 fiber with CD46. Recent work demonstrated that Ad26 binds CD46 with its hexon protein rather than its fiber. We examined the functional consequences of Ad26 for infection in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of human CD46 on Chinese hamster ovary cells increased Ad26 infection significantly. Deletion of the complement control protein domain CCP1 or CCP2 or the serine-threonine-proline (STP) region of CD46 reduced infection. Comparing wild-type and sialic acid-deficient CHO cells, we show that the usage of CD46 is independent of its sialylation status. Ad26 transduction was increased in CD46 transgenic mice after intramuscular (i.m.) injection but not after intranasal (i.n.) administration. Ad26 transduction was 10-fold lower than Ad5 transduction after intratumoral (i.t.) injection of CD46-expressing tumors. Ad26 transduction of liver was 1,000-fold lower than that ofAd5 after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These data demonstrate the use of CD46 by Ad26 in certain situations but also show that the receptor has little consequence by other routes of administration. Finally, i.v. injection of high doses of Ad26 into CD46 mice induced release of liver enzymes into the bloodstream and reduced white blood cell counts but did not induce thrombocytopenia. This suggests that Ad26 virions do not induce direct clotting side effects seen during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with this serotype of adenovirus. IMPORTANCE The human species D Ad26 is being investigated as a low-seroprevalence vector for oncolytic virotherapy and gene-based vaccination against HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. However, there is debate in the literature about its tropism and receptor utilization, which directly influence its efficiency for certain applications. This work was aimed at determining which receptor(s) this virus uses for infection and its role in virus biology, vaccine efficacy, and, importantly, vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/metabolism , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Cofactor Protein/metabolism , Adenoviruses, Human/ultrastructure , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , CHO Cells , Cell Line , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/chemistry , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Membrane Cofactor Protein/chemistry , Membrane Cofactor Protein/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Serogroup , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Sialic Acids/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0063921, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593211

ABSTRACT

Recent efforts have reported numerous variants that influence severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral characteristics, including pathogenicity, transmission rate, and detectability by molecular tests. Whole-genome sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technologies is the method of choice to identify all viral variants; however, the resources needed to use these techniques for a representative number of specimens remain limited in many low- and middle-income countries. To decrease sequencing costs, we developed a primer set allowing partial sequences to be generated in the viral S gene, enabling rapid detection of numerous variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs); whole-genome sequencing is then performed on a selection of viruses based on partial sequencing results. Two hundred one nasopharyngeal specimens collected during the decreasing phase of a high-transmission COVID-19 wave in Tunisia were analyzed. The results reveal high genetic variability within the sequenced fragment and allow the detection of first introductions in the country of already-known VOCs and VOIs, as well as other variants that have interesting genomic mutations and need to be kept under surveillance. IMPORTANCE The method of choice for SARS-CoV-2 variant detection is whole-genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Resources for this technology remain limited in many low- and middle-income countries, where it is not possible to perform whole-genome sequencing for representative numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases. In the present work, we developed a novel strategy based on a first partial Sanger screening in the S gene, which includes key mutations of the already known VOCs and VOIs, for rapid identification of these VOCs and VOIs and to help better select specimens that need to be sequenced by NGS technologies. The second step consists of whole-genome sequencing to allow a holistic view of all variants within the selected viral strains and confirm the initial classification of the strains based on partial S gene sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Base Sequence , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Serogroup , Tunisia , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 240-249, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe COVID-19 pandemic and measures against it provided a unique opportunity to understand the transmission of other infectious diseases and to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures on them. Here we show a dengue epidemic in Yunnan, China, during the pandemic of COVID-19 was dramatically reduced compared to non-pandemic years and, importantly, spread was confined to only one city, Ruili. Three key features characterized this dengue outbreak: (i) the urban-to-suburban spread was efficiently blocked; (ii) the scale of epidemic in urban region was less affected; (iii) co-circulation of multiple strains was attenuated. These results suggested that countermeasures taken during COVID-19 pandemic are efficient to prevent dengue transmission between cities and from urban to suburban, as well to reduce the co-circulation of multiple serotypes or genotypes. Nevertheless, as revealed by the spatial analysis, once the dengue outbreak was established, its distribution was very stable and resistant to measures against COVID-19, implying the possibility to develop a precise prediction method.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dengue Virus , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genotype , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Spatial Analysis , Vero Cells
7.
J Infect ; 84(3): 289-296, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536660

ABSTRACT

This review article incorporates information from the 4th Global Meningococcal Initiative summit meeting. Since the introduction of stringent COVID-19 infection control and lockdown measures globally in 2020, there has been an impact on IMD prevalence, surveillance, and vaccination compliance. Incidence rates and associated mortality fell across various regions during 2020. A reduction in vaccine uptake during 2020 remains a concern globally. In addition, several Neisseria meningitidis clonal complexes, particularly CC4821 and CC11, continue to exhibit resistance to antibiotics, with resistance to ciprofloxacin or beta-lactams mainly linked to modifications of gyrA or penA alleles, respectively. Beta-lactamase acquisition was also reported through horizontal gene transfer (blaROB-1) involving other bacterial species. Despite the challenges over the past year, progress has also been made on meningococcal vaccine development, with several pentavalent (serogroups ABCWY and ACWYX) vaccines currently being studied in late-stage clinical trial programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/microbiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Neisseria meningitidis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3126-3135, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532919

ABSTRACT

The presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e sublineage within Pakistan was initially detected in two samples collected during 2019. Analysis of further serotype O FMDVs responsible for disease outbreaks in 2019-2020 in the country has now identified the spread of this sublineage to 10 districts within two separate provinces in North-Eastern and North-Western Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these viruses are closely related to those circulating in Bhutan, Nepal and India. The VP1 coding sequences of these viruses from Pakistan belong to three distinct clusters, which may indicate multiple introductions of this virus sublineage, although the routes of introduction are unknown. Vaccine matching studies against O1 Manisa, O 3039 and O TUR/5/2009 support the suitability of existing vaccine strains to control current field outbreaks, but further studies are warranted to monitor the spread and evolution of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e sublineage in the region. (145 words).


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Serogroup
9.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0082621, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522911

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) is used as a gene-based vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV-1. However, its primary receptor portfolio remains controversial, potentially including sialic acid, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), integrins, and CD46. We and others have shown that Ad26 can use CD46, but these observations were questioned on the basis of the inability to cocrystallize Ad26 fiber with CD46. Recent work demonstrated that Ad26 binds CD46 with its hexon protein rather than its fiber. We examined the functional consequences of Ad26 for infection in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of human CD46 on Chinese hamster ovary cells increased Ad26 infection significantly. Deletion of the complement control protein domain CCP1 or CCP2 or the serine-threonine-proline (STP) region of CD46 reduced infection. Comparing wild-type and sialic acid-deficient CHO cells, we show that the usage of CD46 is independent of its sialylation status. Ad26 transduction was increased in CD46 transgenic mice after intramuscular (i.m.) injection but not after intranasal (i.n.) administration. Ad26 transduction was 10-fold lower than Ad5 transduction after intratumoral (i.t.) injection of CD46-expressing tumors. Ad26 transduction of liver was 1,000-fold lower than that ofAd5 after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These data demonstrate the use of CD46 by Ad26 in certain situations but also show that the receptor has little consequence by other routes of administration. Finally, i.v. injection of high doses of Ad26 into CD46 mice induced release of liver enzymes into the bloodstream and reduced white blood cell counts but did not induce thrombocytopenia. This suggests that Ad26 virions do not induce direct clotting side effects seen during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with this serotype of adenovirus. IMPORTANCE The human species D Ad26 is being investigated as a low-seroprevalence vector for oncolytic virotherapy and gene-based vaccination against HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. However, there is debate in the literature about its tropism and receptor utilization, which directly influence its efficiency for certain applications. This work was aimed at determining which receptor(s) this virus uses for infection and its role in virus biology, vaccine efficacy, and, importantly, vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/metabolism , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Cofactor Protein/metabolism , Adenoviruses, Human/ultrastructure , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , CHO Cells , Cell Line , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/chemistry , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Membrane Cofactor Protein/chemistry , Membrane Cofactor Protein/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Serogroup , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Sialic Acids/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e234, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492957

ABSTRACT

Poultry contact is a risk factor for zoonotic transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. Salmonella illness outbreaks in the United States are identified by PulseNet, the national laboratory network for enteric disease surveillance. During 2020, PulseNet observed a 25% decline in the number of Salmonella clinical isolates uploaded by state and local health departments. However, 1722 outbreak-associated Salmonella illnesses resulting from 12 Salmonella serotypes were linked to contact with privately owned poultry, an increase from all previous years. This report highlights the need for continued efforts to prevent backyard poultry-associated outbreaks of Salmonella as ownership increases in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/transmission , Serogroup , United States/epidemiology , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/transmission
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 363-367, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374605

ABSTRACT

The risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue coinfection is increased in tropical countries; however, the extrapulmonary clinical manifestations have not been fully characterized. We report a 42-year-old woman whose clinical manifestations began with fever, diarrhea, headache, chest pain, myalgia, odynophagia, and arthralgia. Despite mild respiratory symptoms and normal chest computed tomography scan results, she was diagnosed with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Because she had erythema and petechiae with a decreased platelet count, the dengue NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM/IgG test were performed, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention RT-PCR assay detected the dengue virus serotype 1 infection. Additionally, increased liver enzyme serum levels were found in the patient, who later developed hepatomegaly. Hence, the mechanism of hepatic pathology associated with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection needs further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Female , Fever , Hematology/methods , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serogroup , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(4): 115517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347571

ABSTRACT

Dengue and COVID-19 cocirculation presents a diagnostic conundrum for physicians evaluating patients with acute febrile illnesses, both in endemic regions and among returning travelers. We present a case of a returning traveler from Pakistan who, following repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 tests, was found to have a Dengue virus serotype 2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Travel
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6073-6076, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318724

ABSTRACT

The Cook Island government has made several efforts to ensure zero confirmed cases and transmission of COVID-19, especially among visiting travelers. However, the Cook Island ministry of health has to deal with the new strain of dengue fever outbreak, known as dengue fever type 2 (DEN-2), by adopting several measures to control its spread, especially in the affected parts of the subtropical country. This paper aims to describe the dengue fever response taken in Cook Island and suggest recommendations to control the risk of transmission in endemic parts of the world.


Subject(s)
Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Mosquito Control , Polynesia/epidemiology , Serogroup
16.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lipoglycopeptides , Oxazolidinones , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Taiwan/epidemiology , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Tetracyclines , Tetrazoles
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 130-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296656

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a life-threatening mosquito borne viral disease. We are still in the era of supportive treatment where morbidity and mortality are a major concern. Dengue infection in presence of other co-infections makes this scenario rather worse. Timely recognition and raising alarm to be intensive is the need of the hour for primary care physicians practicing in the community and indoors. This review provides a comprehensive knowledge about the recent trends of coinfection in dengue as well as their management consideration which will be particularly helpful for physicians practicing in rural and remote areas of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Dengue Virus , Malaria/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Reinfection , Serogroup , Virulence , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286940

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever, caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), has been endemic in Myanmar since 1970 and it has become a significant public health burden. It is crucial that circulating DENV strains are identified and monitored, and that their transmission efficiency and association with disease severity is understood. In this study, we analyzed DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 serotypes in 1235 serum samples collected in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Whole-genome sequencing of DENV-1-4 demonstrated that most DENV-1-4 strains had been circulating in Myanmar for several years. We also identified the emergence of DENV-3 genotype-I in 2017 samples, which persisted through 2018 and 2019. The emergence of the strain coincided with a period of increased DENV-3 cases and marked changes in the serotype dynamics. Nevertheless, we detected no significant differences between serum viral loads, disease severity, and infection status of individuals infected with different DENV serotypes during the 3-year study. Our results not only identify the spread of a new DENV-3 genotype into Yangon, Myanmar, but also support the importance of DENV evolution in changing the epidemic dynamics in endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Genotype , Adolescent , Amino Acid Substitution , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/history , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , History, 21st Century , Humans , Myanmar , Phylogeny , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serogroup , Whole Genome Sequencing
19.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282633

ABSTRACT

Human astroviruses are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis globally, yet few studies have investigated the serostatus of adults to establish rates of previous infection. Here, we applied biolayer interferometry immunosorbent assay (BLI-ISA), a recently developed serosurveillance technique, to measure the presence of blood plasma IgG antibodies directed towards the human astrovirus capsid spikes from serotypes 1-8 in a cross-sectional sample of a United States adult population. The seroprevalence rates of IgG antibodies were 73% for human astrovirus serotype 1, 62% for serotype 3, 52% for serotype 4, 29% for serotype 5, 27% for serotype 8, 22% for serotype 2, 8% for serotype 6, and 8% for serotype 7. Notably, seroprevalence rates for capsid spike antigens correlate with neutralizing antibody rates determined previously. This work is the first seroprevalence study evaluating all eight classical human astrovirus serotypes.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Astroviridae Infections/virology , Mamastrovirus , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Capsid/immunology , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunosorbent Techniques , Mamastrovirus/classification , Population Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serogroup , United States/epidemiology
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 487-489, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175672

ABSTRACT

We report a 50-year-old Thai woman with recent travel to Denmark who presented with acute high-grade fever, vomiting, and myalgia for 1 day. Initial laboratory results revealed leukopenia, elevated aspartate transaminase, and elevated alanine transaminase. Chest radiograph showed no pulmonary infiltration. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) of the nasopharyngeal swab detected SARS-CoV-2, and RT-PCR of the blood detected dengue virus serotype 2. COVID-19 with dengue fever co-infection was diagnosed. Her symptoms were improved with supportive treatment. Integration of clinical manifestations, history of exposure, laboratory profiles, and dynamic of disease progression assisted the physicians in precise diagnosis. Co-circulating and nonspecific presentations of dengue infection and COVID-19 challenge the healthcare system in tropical countries. To solve this threat, multi-sector strategies are required, including public health policy, development of accurate point-of-care testing, and proper prevention for both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/diagnosis , Travel , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serogroup , Thailand
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