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1.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(Suppl 1): i17-i25, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the levels of MDR in the predominant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Canada over a 10 year period. METHODS: All isolates were serotyped and had antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed, in accordance with CLSI guidelines (M07-11 Ed., 2018). Complete susceptibility profiles were available for 13 712 isolates. MDR was defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents (penicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L defined as resistant). Serotypes were determined by Quellung reaction. RESULTS: In total, 14 138 invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae were tested in the SAVE study (S. pneumoniae Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility: Assessment for Vaccine Efficacy in Canada), a collaboration between the Canadian Antimicrobial Resistance Alliance and Public Health Agency of Canada-National Microbiology Laboratory. The rate of MDR S. pneumoniae in SAVE was 6.6% (902/13 712). Annual rates of MDR S. pneumoniae decreased between 2011 and 2015 (8.5% to 5.7%) and increased between 2016 and 2020 (3.9% to 9.4%). Serotypes 19A and 15A were the most common serotypes demonstrating MDR (25.4% and 23.5% of the MDR isolates, respectively); however, the serotype diversity index increased from 0.7 in 2011 to 0.9 in 2020 with a statistically significant linear increasing trend (P < 0.001). In 2020, MDR isolates were frequently serotypes 4 and 12F in addition to serotypes 15A and 19A. In 2020, 27.3%, 45.5%, 50.5%, 65.7% and 68.7% of invasive MDR S. pneumoniae were serotypes included in the PCV10, PCV13, PCV15, PCV20 and PPSV23 vaccines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although current vaccine coverage of MDR S. pneumoniae in Canada is high, the increasing diversity of serotypes observed among the MDR isolates highlights the ability of S. pneumoniae to rapidly evolve.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Serogroup , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Canada/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Serotyping , Pneumococcal Vaccines
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1110652, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261575

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to analyze the serotype distribution and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children aged 8 days to 7 years in Urumqi, China, between 2014 to 2021, during which PCV13 was introduced in the private sector's immunization program and COVID-19 control was administrated in the last 2 years. Methods: Serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolates were determined by Quellung reaction, and their susceptibility against 14 antimicrobials were tested. According to the start year of PCV13 administration (2017) and COVID-19 control (2020), the study period was divided into three stages: 2014-2015, 2018-2019, and 2020-2021. Results: A total of 317 isolates were involved in this study. The most common serotypes were type 19F (34.4%), followed by 19A (15.8%), 23F (11.7%), 6B (11.4%), and 6A(5.0%). The coverage rate of both PCV13 and PCV15 was 83.0%. The coverage of PCV20 was a little higher at 85.2%. The resistance rate against penicillin was 28.6% according to the breakpoints of oral penicillin, which would reach up to 91.8% based on the breakpoints of parenteral penicillin for meningitis. The resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were 95.9%, 90.2%, 88.9%, and 78.8%, respectively. The PCV13 isolate was more resistant to penicillin than the non-PCV13 ones. There was not any significant change found in the serotype distribution since the PCV13 introduction and the COVID-19 control. The resistance rate against oral penicillin slightly elevated to 34.5% in 2018-2019 from 30.7% in 2014-2015 and then decreased significantly to 18.1% in 2020-2021 (χ 2 = 7.716, P < 0.05), while the resistance rate to ceftriaxone (non-meningitis) continuously declined from 16.0% in 2014-2015 to 1.4% in 2018-2019 and 0% in 2020-2021 (Fisher = 24.463, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The common serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolated from children in Urumqi were types 19F, 19A, 23F, 6B, and 6A, which we found to have no marked change since the PCV13 introduction and the COVID-19 control However, the resistance rate to oral penicillin and ceftriaxone significantly declined in the COVID-19 control stage.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Serogroup , Ceftriaxone , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , COVID-19/epidemiology , Penicillins , China/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping
4.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 56(3): 598-604, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Serotype 3 has persisted to be an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in the post-vaccine era. We aimed to investigate clinical and microbiological characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 infection in Taiwan and identify the risk factors associated with severe clinical outcome. METHODS: A multicenter observational study was conducted to analyze serotype 3 isolates collected between 2012 and 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, and risk categories were statistically compared with clinical outcome. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing were performed. RESULTS: A total of 146 isolates were collected, including 12 isolates regarded as colonizers. Among 134 infected cases, 54 (40.3%) were aged 65 and older. Mortality was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, immunodeficiency, high-risk status, and older age. Susceptibility rates were high to levofloxacin (98.9%), moxifloxacin (100%), vancomycin (100%), and ceftriaxone (97.3%). 25.3% (37/146) of the isolates showed intermediate susceptibility and 0.7% (1/146) showed resistance to penicillin. ST180 was the dominant sequence type. ST13 and ST9625 isolates were less susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: Serotype 3 infection showed a high mortality rate, especially in patients with older ages and comorbidities. Although the incidence rates decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, serotype 3 remained as an important cause of infection after the implementation of PCV13. Developing a more effective vaccine against serotype 3 and monitoring the antimicrobial-resistant sequence types are necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Adult , Humans , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Ceftriaxone , Serogroup , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Risk Factors , Penicillins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
5.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(8): e24566, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the significant role of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in inducing severe infectious diseases, identifying serotypes and genotypes that can mediate antimicrobial resistance has become a pillar of treatment strategies. This study aims to determine the correlation between the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents and amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins. Moreover, molecular serotyping and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing were first-ever performed to characterize the invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates in Iran. METHODS: Of 149 isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against penicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime by the MIC Test Strip, and sequence analysis of the pbp genes was performed through PCR-sequencing method. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and genotyped by sequential multiplex PCR and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Among pneumococcal isolates, 53 isolates were classified as penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of which 38 (71.7%) and 15 (28.3%) were resistant and intermediate to penicillin, respectively. Furthermore, ceftriaxone- and cefotaxime-nonsusceptible pneumococci constituted 33 (62.2%) and 29 cases (54.7%), respectively. Of note, there were 8 and 41 different serotypes and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis types, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents, the most efficient approach to preventing pneumococcal infection mortality as vaccine-preventable diseases is focusing on wide-spectrum vaccination. Based on our findings, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could considerably reduce the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases due to the high rate of serotype coverage.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(7): 1149-1153, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) decreased worldwide in 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, concurrent with nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) intended to stymie transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In 2021, the stringency of these NPI strategies has varied. We investigated age- and serotype-specific variations in IPD case counts in Germany in 2020-2021. METHODS: IPD cases through 30 November 2021 were stratified by age group, serotype, or geographic location. IPD surveillance data in 2020-2021 were compared with (1) IPD surveillance data from 2015-2019, (2) mobility data during 2020 and 2021, and (3) NPI stringency data in 2020 and 2021. RESULTS: IPD incidence began to return toward baseline among children 0-4 years old in April 2021 and exceeded baseline by June 2021 (a 9% increase over the average monthly values for 2015-2019). Children aged 5-14 years and adults aged 15-34 or ≥80 years showed increases in IPD cases that exceeded baseline values starting in July 2021, with increases also starting in spring 2021. The age distribution and proportion of vaccine-serotype IPD remained comparable to those in previous years, despite lower overall case counts in 2020 and 2021. The percentage change in IPD incidence compared with the previous 5 years was correlated with changes in mobility and with NPI stringency. CONCLUSIONS: IPD levels began to return to and exceed seasonal levels in spring and summer 2021 in Germany, following sharp declines in 2020 that coincided with NPIs related to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Proportions of vaccine serotypes remained largely consistent throughout 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2202-2204, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488140

ABSTRACT

Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been low during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we found that the IPD numbers again increased in Switzerland during the first six months of 2021 and that this coincides with the loosening of COVID-19 measures. Vaccine pneumococcal serotypes have continued to decrease and non-vaccine type serotype 23B has emerged (8% of the isolates in 2021). Worryingly, serotype 23B is associated with reduced susceptibility to penicillin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Switzerland/epidemiology
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(1): 146-156, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597064

ABSTRACT

Few studies in China focused on serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We aimed at investigating the serotype distribution for IPD-causing S. pneumoniae and vaccine coverage among Chinese children and adults. This was a multicenter, observational study to collect S. pneumoniae isolates from normal sterile sites and IPD-related clinical information among children and adults. Serotyping was performed by a Capsule-Quellung reaction test using type-specific antisera. The study collected a total of 300 eligible isolates (pediatric = 148, adult = 152) were serotyped in a central laboratory. The most prevalent serotypes were 19A (20.9%) and 23 F (20.3%) in the pediatric group; 3 (21.7%) and 19 F (11.8%) in the adult group. PCV10 had low-to-moderate serotype coverage rates for children (60.8%) and adults (34.2%). PCV13 and PPV23 had high coverage rates for children (89.9%, 93.2%) and adults (70.4%, 82.9%), respectively, Investigational PCVs including PCV15 and PCV20 had high estimated coverage rates in children (89.9%, 93.9%). The study identified 269 subjects with IPD reported as the primary diagnosis in the medical records. Sepsis (48/136, 35.3%) and pneumonia (48/133, 36.1%) had the highest occurrence in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. Study findings showed that non-PCV7 S. pneumoniae 19A and 3 were the most prevalent serotypes in Chinese children and adults, respectively. High-valent vaccines had similar coverage rates and may have a greater potential in preventing IPD.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup , Serotyping , Vaccines, Conjugate
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