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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113124, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850707

ABSTRACT

The substrate-analog furin inhibitor MI-1851 can suppress the cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and consequently produces significant antiviral effect on infected human airway epithelial cells. In this study, the interaction of inhibitor MI-1851 was examined with human serum albumin using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. Furthermore, the impacts of MI-1851 on human microsomal hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 activities were assessed based on fluorometric assays. The inhibitory action was also examined on human recombinant CYP3A4 enzyme and on hepatocytes. In addition, microsomal stability (60 min) and cytotoxicity were tested as well. MI-1851 showed no relevant interaction with human serum albumin and was significantly depleted by human microsomes. Furthermore, it did not inhibit CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 enzymes. In human hepatocytes, CYP3A4 was significantly suppressed by MI-1851 and weak inhibition was noticed in regard to human microsomes and human recombinant CYP3A4. Finally, MI-1851 did not impair the viability and the oxidative status of primary human hepatocytes (up to 100 µM concentration). Based on these observations, furin inhibitor MI-1851 appears to be potential drug candidates in the treatment of COVID-19, due to the involvement of furin in S protein priming and thus activation of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Furin , Albumins/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/metabolism , Furin/pharmacology , Humans , Microsomes, Liver , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 769011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650341

ABSTRACT

Asthma patients may increase their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the poor prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-COVID-19/asthma comorbidity approaches are restricted on condition. Existing evidence indicates that luteolin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation capabilities. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of luteolin evolving into an ideal drug and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We used system pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis to assess the physicochemical properties and biological activities of luteolin and further analyze the binding activities, targets, biological functions, and mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We found that luteolin may exert ideal physicochemical properties and bioactivity, and molecular docking analysis confirmed that luteolin performed effective binding activities in COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network of 538 common targets between drug and disease was constructed and 264 hub targets were obtained. Then, the top 6 hub targets of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity were identified, namely, TP53, AKT1, ALB, IL-6, TNF, and VEGFA. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis suggested that luteolin may exert effects on virus defense, regulation of inflammation, cell growth and cell replication, and immune responses, reducing oxidative stress and regulating blood circulation through the Toll-like receptor; MAPK, TNF, AGE/RAGE, EGFR, ErbB, HIF-1, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways; PD-L1 expression; and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer. The possible "dangerous liaison" between COVID-19 and asthma is still a potential threat to world health. This research is the first to explore whether luteolin could evolve into a drug candidate for COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. This study indicated that luteolin with superior drug likeness and bioactivity has great potential to be used for treating COVID-19/asthma comorbidity, but the predicted results still need to be rigorously verified by experiments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Luteolin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Comorbidity , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Luteolin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112513, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575252

ABSTRACT

The interactions of four sulfonylated Phe(3-Am)-derived inhibitors (MI-432, MI-463, MI-482 and MI-1900) of type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) such as transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) were examined with serum albumin and cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes. Complex formation with albumin was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, microsomal hepatic CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19 and 3A4 activities in presence of these inhibitors were determined using fluorometric assays. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on human recombinant CYP3A4 enzyme were also examined. In addition, microsomal stability assays (60-min long) were performed using an UPLC-MS/MS method to determine depletion percentage values of each compound. The inhibitors showed no or only weak interactions with albumin, and did not inhibit CYP1A2, 2C9 and 2C19. However, the compounds tested proved to be potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 in both assays performed. Within one hour, 20%, 12%, 14% and 25% of inhibitors MI-432, MI-463, MI-482 and MI-1900, respectively, were degraded. As essential host cell factor for the replication of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, the TTSP TMPRSS2 emerged as an important target in drug design. Our study provides further preclinical data on the characterization of this type of inhibitors for numerous trypsin-like serine proteases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Microsomes, Liver/drug effects , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/analysis , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
4.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. RESULTS: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. CONCLUSION: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 193(Pt A): 948-955, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471998

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) keeps on destroying normal social integrity worldwide, bringing about extraordinary medical services, cultural and financial interruption. Individuals with diabetes have been demonstrated to be at higher risk of complications and even death when exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Regardless of pandemic scale infection, there is presently limited comprehension on the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 on individuals with diabetes. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant circulating plasma protein in human serum and attracted more interest from researchers because most susceptible to non-enzymatic glycation reactions. Albumin down-regulates the expression of ACE2 that is the target receptor of COVID-19. Hypoalbuminemia, coagulopathy, and vascular disease have been connected in COVID-19 and appear to predict outcomes independent of age and morbidity. This review discusses the most recent evidence that the ACE/ACE2 ratio could influence by human serum albumin both the susceptibility of individuals to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcome of the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Vascular Diseases/blood , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/therapy
6.
Biomark Med ; 15(4): 285-293, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105969

ABSTRACT

Background: Troponin levels may be elevated in COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to the explore relation between troponin levels and COVID-19 severity. Materials, methods & Results: One hundred and forty consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included. Diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia was based on positive chest computed tomography (CT) findings. Quantitative PCR test was performed in all patients. Only 74 patients were quantitative PCR-positive. Twenty four patients had severe CT findings and 27 patients had progressive disease. These patients had significantly lower albumin and higher ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with severe CT findings and progressive disease had higher hs-cTnI levels suggesting the use of hs-cTnI in risk stratification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heart Diseases , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Troponin I/blood
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2350-2358, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023296

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the maternal serum afamin and vitamin E levels in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to investigate their association with composite adverse perinatal outcomes. This prospective, case-control study consisted of 60 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection and 36 age-matched pregnant women without any defined risk factors. Demographic features, laboratory test results, afamin and vitamin E levels were compared between the groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the relationship of afamin and vitamin E levels in predicting composite adverse perinatal outcomes. A correlation analysis was performed between afamin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in pregnant women with COVID-19. The obstetric complication rate was higher in the COVID-19 group (13.3% vs. 2.8%) (p = .01). Afamin levels were higher and vitamin E levels were lower in the COVID-19 group (p = .02 and p < .001, respectively). Vitamin E levels were lower in the COVID-19 group for the all trimesters (p < .001, p < .001, and p = .004, respectively). Afamin levels were higher in the COVID-19 group for the all trimesters without reaching statistical significance (p > .05). The values in the ROC curves with the best balance of sensitivity/specificity for afamin and vitamin E were 0.424 mg/l (70.6% sensitivity, 44.3% specificity) and 3.150 µg/ml (76.5% sensitivity, 58.2% specificity), respectively. A positive moderate statistically significant correlation was found between afamin and CRP levels (r = .264, p = .009). Higher afamin and lower vitamin E levels may support the elevated oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of COVID-19 and the relationship with composite adverse perinatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Vitamin E/blood , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glycoproteins/blood , Humans , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(8): 611-618, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780149

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a very fast-spreading infectious disease. Severe forms are marked by a high mortality rate. The objective of this study is to identify routine biomarkers that can serve as early predictors of the disease progression. This is a prospective, single-center, cohort study involving 330 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients who were admitted at the University Hospital of Blida, Algeria in the period between the 27th of March and 22nd of April 2020. The ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive performance of biomarkers, assessed at admission, in the early warning of progression toward severity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent risk for each marker. After an average follow-up period of 13.9 ± 3.5 days, 143 patients (43.3%) were classified as severe cases. Six biological abnormalities were identified as potential risk markers independently related to the severity: elevated urea nitrogen (>8.0 mmol/L, OR = 9.3 [2.7-31.7], p < .00001), elevated CRP (>42mg/L, OR = 7.5 [2.4-23.3], p = .001), decreased natremia (<133. 6 mmol/L, OR = 6.0 [2.0-17.4], p = .001), decreased albumin (<33.5 g/L, OR = 5.2 [1.7-16.6], p = .003), elevated LDH (>367 IU/L, OR = 4.9 [1.7-14.2], p = .003) and elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>7.99, OR = 4.2, [1.4-12.2], p = .009). These easy-to-measure, time-saving and very low-cost parameters have been shown to be effective in the early prediction of the COVID-19 severity. Their use at the early admission stage can improve the risk stratification and management of medical care resources in order to reduce the mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Aged , Algeria , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood
9.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(11): 1678-1687, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610883

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic which has caused numerous deaths worldwide. The present study investigated the roles of hypoproteinemia in the clinical outcome and liver dysfunction of COVID-19 patients. In this retrospective study, we extracted data from 2,623 clinically confirmed adult COVID-19 patients (>18 years old) between January 29, 2020 and March 6, 2020 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into three groups-non-critically ill, critically ill, and death groups-in accordance with the Chinese Clinical Guideline for COVID-19. Serum albumin, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured and compared among these three groups. The median age of these 2,623 patients was 64 years old (interquartile range (IQR), 52-71). Among the patients enrolled in the study, 2,008 (76.6%) were diagnosed as non-critically ill and 615 (23.4%) were critically ill patients, including 383 (14.6%) critically ill survivors and 232 (8.8%) critically ill deaths in the hospital. Marked hypoalbuminemia occurred in 38.2%, 71.2%, and 82.4% patients in non-critically ill, critically ill, and death groups, respectively, on admission and 45.9%, 77.7%, and 95.6% of these three groups, respectively, during hospitalization. We also discovered that serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL levels were significantly lower in critically ill and death groups compared to non-critically ill group. Meanwhile, the patients displayed dramatically elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors, while a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in critically ill patients reflected coagulopathy. This study suggests that COVID-19-induced cytokine storm causes hepatotoxicity and subsequently critical hypoalbuminemia, which are associated with exacerbation of disease-associated inflammatory responses and progression of the disease and ultimately leads to death for some critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Time Factors
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