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1.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529013

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are losing efficacy against emerging variants and may not protect against future novel coronavirus outbreaks, emphasizing the need for more broadly protective vaccines. To inform the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine, we investigated the presence and specificity of cross-reactive antibodies against the spike (S) proteins of human coronaviruses (hCoV) after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We found an 11- to 123-fold increase in antibodies binding to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV as well as a 2- to 4-fold difference in antibodies binding to seasonal hCoVs in COVID-19 convalescent sera compared to pre-pandemic healthy donors, with the S2 subdomain of the S protein being the main target for cross-reactivity. In addition, we detected cross-reactive antibodies to all hCoV S proteins after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in macaques and humans, with higher responses for hCoV more closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These findings support the feasibility of and provide guidance for development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Principal Component Analysis , Protein Domains/immunology , Serum/immunology , Serum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , /immunology
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5538, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125909

ABSTRACT

Understanding antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is indispensable for the development of containment measures to overcome the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies showed that serum from convalescent patients can display variable neutralization capacities. Still, it remains unclear whether there are specific signatures that can be used to predict neutralization. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of sera from a cohort of 101 recovered healthcare workers and we addressed their SARS-CoV-2 antibody response by ELISA against SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain and nucleoprotein. Both ELISA methods detected sustained levels of serum IgG against both antigens. Yet, the majority of individuals from our cohort generated antibodies with low neutralization capacity and only 6% showed high neutralizing titers against both authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Spike pseudotyped virus. Interestingly, higher neutralizing sera correlate with detection of -IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against both antigens, while individuals with positive IgG alone showed poor neutralization response. These results suggest that having a broader repertoire of antibodies may contribute to more potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Altogether, our work provides a cross sectional snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody response in recovered healthcare workers and provides preliminary evidence that possessing multiple antibody isotypes can play an important role in predicting SARS-CoV-2 neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(9): e23411, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of serum antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is emerging as a new tool for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Since many coronaviruses are sensitive to heat, heating inactivation of samples at 56°C prior to testing is considered a possible method to reduce the risk of transmission, but the effect of heating on the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is still unclear. METHODS: By comparing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before and after heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 minutes using a quantitative fluorescence immunochromatographic assay RESULTS: We showed that heat inactivation significantly interferes with the levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The IgM levels of all the 34 serum samples (100%) from COVID-19 patients decreased by an average level of 53.56%. The IgG levels were decreased in 22 of 34 samples (64.71%) by an average level of 49.54%. Similar changes can also be observed in the non-COVID-19 disease group (n = 9). Of note, 44.12% of the detected IgM levels were dropped below the cutoff value after heating, suggesting heat inactivation can lead to false-negative results of these samples. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 minutes interferes with the immunoanalysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Heat inactivation prior to immunoanalysis is not recommended, and the possibility of false-negative results should be considered if the sample was pre-inactivated by heating.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hot Temperature , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Serum/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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