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2.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3359-3371, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726151

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worlwide and caused a pandemic that is still ongoing. The virus can cause a disease named as COVID-19, which is composed of multi systemic manifestations with a pulmonary system predominance. As the time passes, we are dealing more and more with a wide variety of effects and complications of the disease in survivors as far as with concerns about the clinical outcome and the timeline of symptoms in different patients. Since the lungs are the most involved organs and the post-COVID prolonged and persistent effects are mainly related to the pulmonary system, it is crucial to define and predict the outcome and to determine the individuals that can progress to fibrosis and loss of function of lungs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the pulmonary complications in post-COVID syndrome and the management of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Lung/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(6): 1021-1026, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718753

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the infection of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) caused an outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and caused great public concern. Both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belong to the coronavirus family and both invade target cells through ACE2. An in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of physiological and physiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical phenomena and then deal with them timely. In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target. This article will summarize the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, targeted blocking drugs against ACE2, and drugs that inhibit inflammation in order to provide the basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , SARS Virus/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy
5.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 13(1): 3-8, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701837

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the consequences of viral infection for pregnant woman or for the fetus. This issue became important with the appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19. The fast spreading around the world and the fact that without a treatment or vaccine humans are completely exposed, converts emerging viral diseases in a significant risk for pregnant women and their infants. At this time, during SARS-CoV-2 pandemics pregnant women are not considered as a risk population and little is known about the effects of viral infections over the offspring although the amount of emerging evidence showing detrimental effects for the mother and the fetus. This issue highlights the importance to understand the effects of viral infections during pregnancy. In this work, we analyze the effects of viral infections, like SARS-CoV-2 and other related viruses during pregnancy over the mother and the consequences for the offspring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/complications , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , Pregnancy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 367, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475287

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) embodies a mixture of clinical manifestations, including elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms and secondary organ dysfunction, which was first described in the context of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and was later observed in pandemics of influenza, SARS-CoV and COVID-19, immunotherapy of tumor, after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy, and in monogenic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Particularly, severe CRS is a very significant and life-threatening complication, which is clinically characterized by persistent high fever, hyperinflammation, and severe organ dysfunction. However, CRS is a double-edged sword, which may be both helpful in controlling tumors/viruses/infections and harmful to the host. Although a high incidence and high levels of cytokines are features of CRS, the detailed kinetics and specific mechanisms of CRS in human diseases and intervention therapy remain unclear. In the present review, we have summarized the most recent advances related to the clinical features and management of CRS as well as cutting-edge technologies to elucidate the mechanisms of CRS. Considering that CRS is the major adverse event in human diseases and intervention therapy, our review delineates the characteristics, kinetics, signaling pathways, and potential mechanisms of CRS, which shows its clinical relevance for achieving both favorable efficacy and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , Signal Transduction/immunology , Acute Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 565521, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389164

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders caused by neuroviral infections are an obvious pathogenic manifestation. However, non-neurotropic viruses or peripheral viral infections pose a considerable challenge as their neuropathological manifestations do not emerge because of primary infection. Their secondary or bystander pathologies develop much later, like a syndrome, during and after the recovery of patients from the primary disease. Massive inflammation caused by peripheral viral infections can trigger multiple neurological anomalies. These neurological damages may range from a general cognitive and motor dysfunction up to a wide spectrum of CNS anomalies, such as Acute Necrotizing Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Encephalitis, Meningitis, anxiety, and other audio-visual disabilities. Peripheral viruses like Measles virus, Enteroviruses, Influenza viruses (HIN1 series), SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and, recently, SARS-CoV-2 are reported to cause various neurological manifestations in patients and are proven to be neuropathogenic even in cellular and animal model systems. This review presents a comprehensive picture of CNS susceptibilities toward these peripheral viral infections and explains some common underlying themes of their neuropathology in the human brain.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neurogenic Inflammation/complications , Neurogenic Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/virology , Neurogenic Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
9.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3359-3371, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319769

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worlwide and caused a pandemic that is still ongoing. The virus can cause a disease named as COVID-19, which is composed of multi systemic manifestations with a pulmonary system predominance. As the time passes, we are dealing more and more with a wide variety of effects and complications of the disease in survivors as far as with concerns about the clinical outcome and the timeline of symptoms in different patients. Since the lungs are the most involved organs and the post-COVID prolonged and persistent effects are mainly related to the pulmonary system, it is crucial to define and predict the outcome and to determine the individuals that can progress to fibrosis and loss of function of lungs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the pulmonary complications in post-COVID syndrome and the management of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Lung/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12948, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279894

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 disease has become a global catastrophe over the past year that has claimed the lives of over two million people around the world. Despite the introduction of vaccines against the disease, there is still a long way to completely eradicate it. There are concerns about the complications following infection with SARS-CoV-2. This research aimed to evaluate the possible correlation between infection with SARS-CoV viruses and cancer in an in-silico study model. To do this, the relevent dataset was selected from GEO database. Identification of differentially expressed genes among defined groups including SARS-CoV, SARS-dORF6, SARS-BatSRBD, and H1N1 were screened where the |Log FC| ≥ 1and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Later, the pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) were used by Enrichr and Shiny GO databases. Evaluation with STRING online was applied to predict the functional interactions of proteins, followed by Cytoscape analysis to identify the master genes. Finally, analysis with GEPIA2 server was carried out to reveal the possible correlation between candidate genes and cancer development. The results showed that the main molecular function of up- and down-regulated genes was "double-stranded RNA binding" and actin-binding, respectively. STRING and Cytoscape analysis presented four genes, PTEN, CREB1, CASP3, and SMAD3 as the key genes involved in cancer development. According to TCGA database results, these four genes were up-regulated notably in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings suggest that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most probably malignancy happening after infection with SARS-CoV family.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/etiology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 3/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Ontology , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Risk , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smad3 Protein/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics
11.
Cephalalgia ; 41(13): 1332-1341, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of headache during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection with long-term post-COVID headache and other post-COVID symptoms in hospitalised survivors. METHODS: A case-control study including patients hospitalised during the first wave of the pandemic in Spain was conducted. Patients reporting headache as a symptom during the acute phase and age- and sex-matched patients without headache during the acute phase participated. Hospitalisation and clinical data were collected from medical records. Patients were scheduled for a telephone interview 7 months after hospital discharge. Participants were asked about a list of post-COVID symptoms and were also invited to report any additional symptom they might have. Anxiety/depressive symptoms and sleep quality were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: Overall, 205 patients reporting headache and 410 patients without headache at hospitalisation were assessed 7.3 months (Standard Deviation 0.6) after hospital discharge. Patients with headache at onset presented a higher number of post-COVID symptoms (Incident Rate Ratio: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Headache at onset was associated with a previous history of migraine (Odd Ratio: 2.90, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.41-5.98) and with the development of persistent tension-type like headache as a new post-COVID symptom (Odd Ratio: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66-4.24). Fatigue as a long-term symptom was also more prevalent in patients with headache at onset (Odd Ratio: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24). No between-group differences in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive symptoms or sleep quality were seen. CONCLUSION: Headache in the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with higher prevalence of headache and fatigue as long-term post-COVID symptoms. Monitoring headache during the acute phase could help to identify patients at risk of developing long-term post-COVID symptoms, including post-COVID headache.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Headache/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 384-396, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248581

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many patients with mild or severe COVID-19 do not make a full recovery and have a wide range of chronic symptoms for weeks or months after infection, often of a neurological, cognitive or psychiatric nature. The epidemiological evidence, diagnostic criteria and pathogenesis of post-COVID-19 syndrome are reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is defined by persistent clinical signs and symptoms that appear while or after suffering COVID-19, persist for more than 12 weeks and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. The symptoms can fluctuate or cause relapses. It is a heterogeneous condition that includes post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome, sequelae in multiple organs and the effects of severe hospitalisation/post-intensive care syndrome. It has been reported in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 and irrespective of the severity of the symptoms in the acute phase. Between 10% and 65% of survivors who had mild/moderate COVID-19 present symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome for 12 weeks or more. At six months, subjects report an average of 14 persistent symptoms. The most common symptoms are fatigue, dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, and impaired attention, concentration, memory and sleep. The underlying biological mechanisms are unknown, although an abnormal or excessive autoimmune and inflammatory response may play an important role. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations are diverse, fluctuating and variable, although fatigue and neurocognitive complaints predominate. There is no defined consensus on post-COVID-19 syndrome and its diagnostic criteria have not been subjected to adequate psychometric evaluation.


TITLE: Síndrome post-COVID-19: epidemiología, criterios diagnósticos y mecanismos patogénicos implicados.Introducción. Numerosos pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave no tienen una recuperación completa y presentan una gran variedad de síntomas crónicos durante semanas o meses tras la infección, con frecuencia de carácter neurológico, cognitivo o psiquiátrico. Se revisan las evidencias epidemiológicas, los criterios diagnósticos y la patogenia del síndrome post-COVID-19. Desarrollo. El síndrome post-COVID-19 se define por la persistencia de signos y síntomas clínicos que surgen durante o después de padecer la COVID-19, permanecen más de 12 semanas y no se explican por un diagnóstico alternativo. Los síntomas pueden fluctuar o causar brotes. Es una entidad heterogénea que incluye el síndrome de fatiga crónica posvírica, la secuela de múltiples órganos y los efectos de la hospitalización grave/síndrome poscuidados intensivos. Se ha descrito en pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave y con independencia de la gravedad de los síntomas en la fase aguda. Un 10-65% de los supervivientes que padeció COVID-19 leve/moderada presenta síntomas de síndrome post-COVID-19 durante 12 semanas o más. A los seis meses, los sujetos relatan un promedio de 14 síntomas persistentes. Los síntomas más frecuentes son fatiga, disnea, alteración de la atención, de la concentración, de la memoria y del sueño, ansiedad y depresión. Se desconocen los mecanismos biológicos que subyacen, aunque una respuesta autoinmunitaria e inflamatoria anómala o excesiva puede tener un papel importante. Conclusiones. Las manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, fluctuantes y variables, aunque predominan la fatiga y las quejas neurocognitivas. No existe un consenso definido sobre el síndrome post-COVID-19 y sus criterios diagnósticos no se han sometido a una evaluación psicométrica adecuada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimmunity , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Organ Specificity , Pandemics , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224028

ABSTRACT

Numbers of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have increased rapidly worldwide. Plasma levels of full-length galectin-9 (FL-Gal9) and osteopontin (FL-OPN) as well as their truncated forms (Tr-Gal9, Ud-OPN, respectively), are representative inflammatory biomarkers. Here, we measured FL-Gal9, FL-OPN, Tr-Gal9, and Ud-OPN in 94 plasma samples obtained from 23 COVID-19-infected patients with mild clinical symptoms (CV), 25 COVID-19 patients associated with pneumonia (CP), and 14 patients with bacterial infection (ID). The four proteins were significantly elevated in the CP group when compared with healthy individuals. ROC analysis between the CV and CP groups showed that C-reactive protein had the highest ability to differentiate, followed by Tr-Gal9 and ferritin. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that Tr-Gal9 and Ud-OPN but not FL-Gal9 and FL-OPN, had a significant association with laboratory markers for lung function, inflammation, coagulopathy, and kidney function in CP patients. CP patients treated with tocilizumab had reduced levels of FL-Gal9, Tr-Gal9, and Ud-OPN. It was suggested that OPN is cleaved by interleukin-6-dependent proteases. These findings suggest that the cleaved forms of OPN and galectin-9 can be used to monitor the severity of pathological inflammation and the therapeutic effects of tocilizumab in CP patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Galectins/blood , Osteopontin/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/virology , ROC Curve , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721996217, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181030

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread worldwide, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Italy, along with its site of origin in China, since 2020. The virus was first found in the Wuhan seafood market at the end of 2019, with a controversial source. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and respiratory tract inflammation, with some severe patients developing an acute and chronic lung injury, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). It has already claimed approximately 300 thousand human lives and the number is still on the rise; the only way to prevent the infection is to be safe till vaccines and reliable treatments develop. In previous studies, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in clinical trials had been proven to be effective in immune modulation and tissue repair promotion; however, their efficacy in treating COVID-19 remains underestimated. Here, we report the findings from past experiences of SARS and MSCs, and how SARS could also induce PF. Such studies may help to understand the rationale for the recent cell-based therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
15.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 18, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175699

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Critically, the presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, such as hypertension or type II diabetes mellitus, increases the chance of having severe complications (including death) if infected by the virus. In addition, the infection can worsen an existing cardiovascular disease or precipitate new ones. This paper presents a contemporary review of cardiovascular complications of Covid-19. It also specifically examines the impact of the disease on those already vulnerable and on the poorly resourced health systems of Africa as well as the potential broader consequences on the socio-economic health of this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/economics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Africa , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/economics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Economic Factors , Economic Recession , Gross Domestic Product , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Heart Failure/economics , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inflammation , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/economics , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/economics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
16.
Pharmacol Ther ; 224: 107825, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117458

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of single stranded RNA viruses, of which some of them such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are associated with deadly worldwide human diseases. Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a condition caused by SARS-CoV-2, results in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with high mortality in the elderly and in people with underlying comorbidities. Results from several studies suggest that CoVs localize in mitochondria and interact with mitochondrial protein translocation machinery to target their encoded products to mitochondria. Coronaviruses encode a number of proteins; this process is essential for viral replication through inhibiting degradation of viral proteins and host misfolded proteins including those in mitochondria. These viruses seem to maintain their replication by altering mitochondrial dynamics and targeting mitochondrial-associated antiviral signaling (MAVS), allowing them to evade host innate immunity. Coronaviruses infections such as COVID-19 are more severe in aging patients. Since endogenous melatonin levels are often dramatically reduced in the aged and because it is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin has been proposed to be useful in CoVs infections by altering proteasomal and mitochondrial activities. Melatonin inhibits mitochondrial fission due to its antioxidant and inhibitory effects on cytosolic calcium overload. The collective data suggests that melatonin may mediate mitochondrial adaptations through regulating both mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis. We propose that melatonin may inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced cell damage by regulating mitochondrial physiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Mitochondria/pathology , Aged , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication
17.
Life Sci ; 272: 119245, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087130

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, infections caused by coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have posed a threat to public health since they may cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans. The Complement System is activated during viral infection, being a central protagonist of innate and acquired immunity. Here, we report some interactions between these three coronaviruses and the Complement System, highlighting the central role of C3 with the severity of these infections. Although it can be protective, its role during coronavirus infections seems to be contradictory. For example, during SARS-CoV-2 infection, Complement System can control the viral infection in asymptomatic or mild cases; however, it can also intensify local and systemic damage in some of severe COVID-19 patients, due to its potent proinflammatory effect. In this last condition, the activation of the Complement System also amplifies the cytokine storm and the pathogenicity of coronavirus infection. Experimental treatment with Complement inhibitors has been an enthusiastic field of intense investigation in search of a promising additional therapy in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement C3/immunology , Complement Inactivating Agents/pharmacology , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology
18.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 245-249, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083299

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant negative prognostic factors in patients suffering from the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the development of coagulopathy, associated with abnormal laboratory findings, such as increased D-dimer, and venous thromboembolic complications, requiring thromboprophylactic strategies. The main clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients are revised here as compared to other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), emphasizing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy
19.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 773-785, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has significantly affected the entire world. It was labelled a pandemic by World Health Organization. Although it commonly produces respiratory symptoms, neurological features have been described. Neurological manifestations may vary from non-specific symptoms such as headache, dizziness, myalgia and/or fatigue, olfactory or taste dysfunction to specific syndromes including meningitis, stroke, acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. This review describes potential pathogenetic mechanisms and neurological manifestations of COVID-19 along with its management. Considering structural and pathogenetic similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and MERS viruses, we compared their neurological manifestations and mentioned few features expected in COVID-19 in future. Interestingly, many COVID-19 cases may present with pure neurological manifestations at onset with non-neurological features manifesting few days later and we propose the term "Neuro-COVID syndrome" for such cases. Awareness of neurological manifestations may facilitate its management and improve outcome in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
20.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 13(1): 3-8, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060027

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the consequences of viral infection for pregnant woman or for the fetus. This issue became important with the appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19. The fast spreading around the world and the fact that without a treatment or vaccine humans are completely exposed, converts emerging viral diseases in a significant risk for pregnant women and their infants. At this time, during SARS-CoV-2 pandemics pregnant women are not considered as a risk population and little is known about the effects of viral infections over the offspring although the amount of emerging evidence showing detrimental effects for the mother and the fetus. This issue highlights the importance to understand the effects of viral infections during pregnancy. In this work, we analyze the effects of viral infections, like SARS-CoV-2 and other related viruses during pregnancy over the mother and the consequences for the offspring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/complications , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , Pregnancy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
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