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2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has turned the world topsy-turvy since its onset in 2019. The thromboinflammatory complications of this disease are common in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is characterized by symmetrical distal gangrene in absence of any large vessel occlusion or vasculitis and it is usually associated with critical illness. Our aim was to report the clinical profile and outcome of patients diagnosed with SPG associated with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, no such similar cases have been reported till date. METHODS: In this case series, we have discussed the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and outcome in a series of two patients of SPG associated with COVID-19 and also compared those findings. Due to paucity of data, we also reviewed the literature on this under-diagnosed and rarely reported condition and association. RESULTS: Two consecutive patients (both males, age range: 37-42 years, mean: 39.5 years) were admitted with the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated SPG. Both patients had clinical and laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Leucopenia was noted in both patients. Despite vigorous therapy, both patients succumbed to their illness within a fortnight of admission. CONCLUSION: SPG in the background of COVID-19 portends a fatal outcome. Physicians should be aware of its grim prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Gangrene/diagnosis , Humans , India , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(13)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389098

ABSTRACT

Whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from two patients, a Chinese tourist visiting Rome and an Italian, were compared with sequences from Europe and elsewhere. In a phylogenetic tree, the Italian patient's sequence clustered with sequences from Germany while the tourist's sequence clustered with other European sequences. Some additional European sequences in the tree segregated outside the two clusters containing the patients' sequences. This suggests multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Europe or virus evolution during circulation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Travel , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Germany , Humans , Italy , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Point Mutation , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
6.
Respir Med ; 186: 106541, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the consequences of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia on lung function in the first 6 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: A prospective lung function assessment in SARS-CoV2 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, hospitalized between March and April 2020, was conducted with spirometry measurements including lung volumes, mainly total lung capacity (TLC), lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) collected at 3 months after hospital discharge. Patients with restrictive ventilatory defect or impaired DLCO or both were re-evaluated at 6 months with global spirometry and chest HRCT scan. RESULTS: Among 40 consecutive patients, 19 (48%) had normal pulmonary functional tests (group A), and 21 (52%) showed residual lung function abnormalities at 3 months after hospital discharge (group B). In group B, 4 patients (19%) had only loss of lung volume as shown by TLC reduction (group 1), 13 patients (62%) had decreased both TLC and DLCO (group 2), and 4 patients (19%) had isolated reduction in DLCO (group 3). At 6-month follow-up in group 1, although all patients improved, only one normalized total lung capacity (TLC). In group 2, TLC and DLCO increased significantly (p < 0.01), but only 3 patients reached normal values. In group 3, DLCO improved for most patients, normalizing in 50% of them. At 6-months significant correlations between an internal-built chest HRCT scan severity score and TLC (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01) and DLCO (r2 = 0.32; p < 0.01) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 50% of patients recovered in the post-critical phase. Most of those with abnormal pulmonary function tests at 3 months improved subsequently, but only another 29% (6 out of 21) reached normal values at 6 months. These results indicate that lung function spontaneous recovery is faster at first and occurs more slowly thereafter, leaving more than one third (15 out of 40) of patients with abnormal lung function tests at 6 months.


Subject(s)
Lung/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Spirometry , Total Lung Capacity , Aged , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Time Factors
7.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(2): 199-210, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293035

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Seven coronavirus species have been identified that can infect humans. While human coronavirus infections had been historically associated with only mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold, three coronaviruses identified since 2003, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, cause life-threatening severe respiratory syndromes. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 has triggered a worldwide health emergency. Due to the lack of effective drugs and vaccination, rapid and reliable detection is of vital importance to control coronavirus epidemics/pandemics. AREA COVERED: A literature search was performed in Pubmed covering the detections and diagnostics of SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2. This review summarized the current knowledge of established and emerging methods for coronavirus detection. The characteristics of different diagnostic approaches were described, and the strengths and weaknesses of each method were analyzed and compared. In addition, future trends in the field of coronavirus detection were also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Nucleic acid-based RT-PCR is the current golden-standard of coronavirus detection, while immunoassays provide history of coronavirus infection besides diagnostic information. Integrated high-throughput system holds the great potential and is the trend of future detection and diagnosis of virus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 49-59, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated frequency of reinfection with seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and serum antibody response following infection over 8 years in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) cohort. METHODS: Households were followed annually for identification of acute respiratory illness with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HCoV infection. Serum collected before and at 2 time points postinfection were tested using a multiplex binding assay to quantify antibody to seasonal, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 spike subdomains and N protein. RESULTS: Of 3418 participants, 40% were followed for ≥3 years. A total of 1004 HCoV infections were documented; 303 (30%) were reinfections of any HCoV type. The number of HCoV infections ranged from 1 to 13 per individual. The mean time to reinfection with the same type was estimated at 983 days for 229E, 578 days for HKU1, 615 days for OC43, and 711 days for NL63. Binding antibody levels to seasonal HCoVs were high, with little increase postinfection, and were maintained over time. Homologous, preinfection antibody levels did not significantly correlate with odds of infection, and there was little cross-response to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfection with seasonal HCoVs is frequent. Binding anti-spike protein antibodies do not correlate with protection from seasonal HCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Family Characteristics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/virology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Michigan/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health Surveillance , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Load
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(1): E13-E24, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264704

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the current pandemic, is a novel strain of the Coronaviridae family, which has infected humans as a result of the leap to a new species. It causes an atypical pneumonia similar to that caused by SARS-CoV in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 has currently infected more than 9,200,000 people and caused almost 480,000 deaths worldwide. Although SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV have similar phylogenetic and pathogenetic characteristics, they show important differences in clinical manifestations. We have reviewed the recent literature comparing the characteristics of the two epidemics and highlight their peculiar aspects. An analysis of all signs and symptoms of 3,365 SARS patients and 23,280 COVID-19 patients as well as of the comorbidities has been carried out. A total of 17 and 75 studies regarding patients with SARS and COVID-19, respectively, were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed an overlap of some symptoms between the two infections. Unlike SARS patients, COVID-19 patients have developed respiratory, neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms, and, in a limited number of subjects, symptoms involving organs such as skin and subcutaneous tissue, kidneys, cardiovascular system, liver and eyes. This analysis was conducted in order to direct towards an early identification of the infection, a suitable diagnostic procedure and the adoption of appropriate containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Young Adult
11.
Int Rev Immunol ; 40(1-2): 5-53, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections are responsible for mild, moderate, and severe infections in birds and mammals. These were first isolated in humans as causal microorganisms responsible for common cold. The 2002-2003 SARS epidemic caused by SARS-CoV and 2012 MERS epidemic (64 countries affected) caused by MERS-CoV showed their acute and fatal side. These two CoV infections killed thousands of patients infected worldwide. However, WHO has still reported the MERS case in December 2019 in middle-eastern country (Saudi Arabia), indicating the MERS epidemic has not ended completely yet. Although we have not yet understood completely these two CoV epidemics, a third most dangerous and severe CoV infection has been originated in the Wuhan city, Hubei district of China in December 2019. This CoV infection called COVID-19 or SARS-CoV2 infection has now spread to 210 countries and territories around the world. COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It has infected more than 16.69 million people with more than 663,540 deaths across the world. Thus the current manuscript aims to describe all three (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) in terms of their causal organisms (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2), similarities and differences in their clinical symptoms, outcomes, immunology, and immunopathogenesis, and possible future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronaviridae/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Virus Replication/physiology
12.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(9): 889-892, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231668

ABSTRACT

Early December 2019 witnessed an international outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID 19) designated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Since then, a number of therapeutic molecules have been explored to have potential efficacy against the SARS-Cov-2 per se or its sequelae. There are no Food and Drug Administration specific therapies approved so far; however, numerous drugs based on varying levels of evidence, in vitro studies and compassionate drug trials are being established as therapeutic agents, especially drugs approved for previous emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Cov). Numerous active clinical trials for COVID-19 with more than 150 drugs and products are under study. Needless to say, many dermatological drugs are being employed to mitigate this pandemic threat. We aim to review drugs with potential against SARS-Cov-2 widely used in dermatology practice. Additionally, rampant and overzealous use of these drugs as well as introduction of new molecules might lead to emergence of adverse effects associated with these agents. Dermatologists must be on lookout for any cutaneous adverse effects of these drugs. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(9):889-892. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5323.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/administration & dosage , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/physiopathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
13.
Clin Lab ; 67(4)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of the third pneumonia-like outbreak of coronaviruses in humans during the 21st century. The status of the host immune system is a critical factor that affects the severity and outcomes of COVID-19. In particular, antibody responses are an indicator of the anti-viral defense; so, a delayed or inappropriate induction of these responses would correlate with a defect in the viral clearance. METHODS: This is a rapid synthesis of literature investigating antibody responses in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. RESULTS: Lessons learned from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), along with the direct evidence of antibody responses in COVID-19, pose the potentials of dynamic antibody responses for screening and prognostic purposes in COVID-19. Also, neutralizing antibodies extracted from recovered patients and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines offer therapeutic support for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the dynamics of antibody responses help to determine the effectiveness of treatments for COVID-19. Of note, it might be helpful for the evaluation of the efficacy of immunotherapy and vaccination - the dreams for the future of COVID-19. Further studies are necessary to investigate the possibility and efficacy of antibody extraction from animal subjects. Finally, numerous factors affect antibody response such as race, nutrition status, and virus mutations in viral infections, which need to be considered in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4219-4241, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151934

ABSTRACT

The potential zoonotic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) are of global health concerns. Early diagnosis is the milestone in their mitigation, control, and eradication. Many diagnostic techniques are showing great success and have many advantages, such as the rapid turnover of the results, high accuracy, and high specificity and sensitivity. However, some of these techniques have several pitfalls if samples were not collected, processed, and transported in the standard ways and if these techniques were not practiced with extreme caution and precision. This may lead to false-negative/positive results. This may affect the downstream management of the affected cases. These techniques require regular fine-tuning, upgrading, and optimization. The continuous evolution of new strains and viruses belong to the coronaviruses is hampering the success of many classical techniques. There are urgent needs for next generations of coronaviruses diagnostic assays that overcome these pitfalls. This new generation of diagnostic tests should be able to do simultaneous, multiplex, and high-throughput detection of various coronavirus in one reaction. Furthermore, the development of novel assays and techniques that enable the in situ detection of the virus on the environmental samples, especially air, water, and surfaces, should be given considerable attention in the future. These approaches will have a substantial positive impact on the mitigation and eradication of coronaviruses, including the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Plaque Assay/methods
15.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 245-249, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083299

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant negative prognostic factors in patients suffering from the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the development of coagulopathy, associated with abnormal laboratory findings, such as increased D-dimer, and venous thromboembolic complications, requiring thromboprophylactic strategies. The main clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients are revised here as compared to other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), emphasizing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy
16.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 159-164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059768

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Globally, since the outbreak, more than seven million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported. The rapid spread and increase in the number of new cases is due to person-to-person transmission. To further control its transmission, early laboratory diagnosis of both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients is crucial. Presently, the COVID-19 diagnosis of infected individuals is dependent on computed tomography scanning and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The latter is considered more sensitive and efficient for early diagnosis. In this review, general comparisons are made (cases, fatality rate, incubation period, clinical features, and reservoirs) and diagnostic laboratory procedures (specimens, extraction methods, and positive rates by real-time PCR) are compared between SARS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and SARS-2. In total, 8982 SARS-2 suspected patients specimen data were retrieved, in which 40.9% (n = 3678) were detected as positive by real-time PCR. The specimen-wise high detection rate was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage, followed by saliva, nasal swabs, and sputum. As the COVID-19 cases are persistently increasing, the selection of appropriate specimens and laboratory assay would help in rapid and timely diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Sputum/virology
18.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 715-731, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046770

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of viral pathogens that infect both birds and mammals, including humans. Seven human coronaviruses (HCoV) have been recognized so far. HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1 account for one-third of common colds with mild symptoms. The other three members are severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. These viruses are responsible for SARS, MERS, and CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19), respectively. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including chest X-rays, computer tomography (CT) scans, analysis of viral nucleic acids, proteins, or whole virions, and host antibody detection using serological assays have been developed for the detection of these viruses. In this review, we discuss conventional serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot (WB), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), as well as biosensor-based assays that have been developed for diagnosing HCoV-associated diseases since 2003, with an in-depth focus on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Blotting, Western/methods , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Humans , Luminescent Measurements/methods , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
19.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(5): 652-657, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024859

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper is the first update of the second edition of the rapid living systematic review on the latest scientific literature informing rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 and/or describing consequences of the disease and its treatment, as they relate to limitations in functioning of rehabilitation interest. The aim of this study was to report data of a systematic search performed on papers published in July 2020. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The methodology described in the second edition of the rapid living systematic review was applied to search eligible papers included in the databases between July 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Eight-hundred-ninety-two papers were identified through database searching (after removal of duplicates); of these, only 23 studies were included. According to OCEBM 2011 Levels of Evidence Table, they were level 3 in 30.5% cases and level 4 in 69.5%. No RCT was found. Nineteen papers studied COVID-19 patients, assessed in the acute (10 studies), post-acute (8 studies) and chronic phase (one study). Four studies reported data on the impact of COVID-19 on subjects with pre-existing health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature production still focuses more on describing all the possible aspects and complications of the pathology than on interventions or new organization models to deal with it. Albeit evidence on handling COVID-19 from a rehabilitative point of view is improving each month, further studies are still mandatory to report the role of rehabilitation in this scenario.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/rehabilitation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Rehabilitation Centers/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(12): e439-e443, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998533

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is mainly transmitted through droplets, but other ways of transmission have been hypothesized. We report a case of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a preterm born to an infected mother, confirmed by the presence of the virus in the neonatal blood, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs collected in the first half an hour of life. The neonate presented with acute respiratory distress, similar to the findings in severely affected adults. This case highlights the importance of pregnancy, labor and neonatal period surveillance of affected mothers and their newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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