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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 747-756, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772799

ABSTRACT

The three unprecedented outbreaks of emerging human coronavirus (HCoV) infections at the beginning of the twenty-first century have highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and fast diagnostic testing methods. The laboratory diagnostic methods for human coronavirus infections have evolved substantially, with the development of novel assays as well as the availability of updated tests for emerging ones. Newer laboratory methods are fast, highly sensitive and specific, and are gradually replacing the conventional gold standards. This presentation reviews the current laboratory methods available for testing coronaviruses by focusing on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak going on in Wuhan. Viral pneumonias typically do not result in the production of purulent sputum. Thus, a nasopharyngeal swab is usually the collection method used to obtain a specimen for testing. Nasopharyngeal specimens may miss some infections; a deeper specimen may need to be obtained by bronchoscopy. Alternatively, repeated testing can be used because over time, the likelihood of the SARS-CoV-2 being present in the nasopharynx increases. Several integrated, random-access, point-of-care molecular devices are currently under development for fast and accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. These assays are simple, fast and safe and can be used in the local hospitals and clinics bearing the burden of identifying and treating patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Point-of-Care Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Specimen Handling
3.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 1401053, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772148

ABSTRACT

Background: The threat of contagious infectious diseases is constantly evolving as demographic explosion, travel globalization, and changes in human lifestyle increase the risk of spreading pathogens, leading to accelerated changes in disease landscape. Of particular interest is the aftermath of superimposing viral epidemics (especially SARS-CoV-2) over long-standing diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), which remains a significant disease for public health worldwide and especially in emerging economies. Methods and Results: The PubMed electronic database was systematically searched for relevant articles linking TB, influenza, and SARS-CoV viruses and subsequently assessed eligibility according to inclusion criteria. Using a data mining approach, we also queried the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). We aimed to answer the following questions: What can be learned from other coronavirus outbreaks (focusing on TB patients)? Is coinfection (TB and SARS-CoV-2) more severe? Is there a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2? How does the TB vaccine affect COVID-19? How does one diagnosis affect the other? Discussions. Few essential elements about TB and SARS-CoV coinfections were discussed. First, lessons from past outbreaks (other coronaviruses) and influenza pandemic/seasonal outbreaks have taught the importance of infection control to avoid the severe impact on TB patients. Second, although challenging due to data scarcity, investigating the pathological pathways linking TB and SARS-CoV-2 leads to the idea that their coexistence might yield a more severe clinical evolution. Finally, we addressed the issues of vaccination and diagnostic reliability in the context of coinfection. Conclusions: Because viral respiratory infections and TB impede the host's immune responses, it can be assumed that their lethal synergism may contribute to more severe clinical evolution. Despite the rapidly growing number of cases, the data needed to predict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with latent TB and TB sequelae still lies ahead. The trial is registered with NCT04327206, NCT01829490, and NCT04121494.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Diagnostic Errors , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/physiopathology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
5.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769374

ABSTRACT

Mass spectrometry and some other biophysical methods, have made substantial contributions to the studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human proteins interactions. The most interesting feature of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be the structure of its spike (S) protein and its interaction with the human cell receptor. Mass spectrometry of spike S protein revealed how the glycoforms are distributed across the S protein surface. X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy made huge impact on the studies on the S protein and ACE2 receptor protein interaction, by elucidating the three-dimensional structures of these proteins and their conformational changes. The findings of the most recent studies in the scope of SARS-CoV-2-Human protein-protein interactions are described here.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Binding Sites , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Molecular , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Sequence Alignment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020032, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761255

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging viruses represent an important challenge for global public health. In the 1960s, coronaviruses (CoVs) were recognized as disease agents in humans. In only two decades, three strains of CoVs have crossed species barriers rapidly emerging as human pathogens resulting in life-threatening disease with a pandemic potential: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002, Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of epidemiological, pathogenic and clinical features, along with diagnosis and treatment, of the ongoing epidemic of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the pediatric population in comparison to the first two previous deadly coronavirus outbreaks, SARS and MERS. Literature analysis showed that SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections seem to affect children less commonly and less severely as compared with adults. Since children are usually asymptomatic, they are often not tested, leading to an underestimate of the true numbers infected. Most of the documented infections belong to family clusters, so the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain. Like in SARS and MERS infection, there is the possibility that children are not an important reservoir for novel CoVs and this may have important implications for school attendance. While waiting for an effective against SARS-CoV-2, further prevalence studies in paediatric age are needed, in order to clarify the role of children in different age groups in the spread of the infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Incidence
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(17): e016812, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760313

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading widely around the world. We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases. Methods and Results Relevant reports updated to April 17, 2020, were searched from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library with no restriction on language. A random-effects model was used in this meta-analysis to obtain pooled proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, SARS, and MERS. A total of 22 studies (12 for COVID-19, 4 for SARS, and 6 for MERS) were included in this analysis, and the average age of patients with COVID-19, SARS, and MERS was 46.41±1.79, 39.16±2.25, and 52.51±4.64 years, respectively. Proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in coronavirus diseases were as follows: COVID-19: proportion of hypertension was 17.1% (95% CI, 13.2%-20.9%), proportion of cardiac disease was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.6%-5.5%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 8.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-11.4%); SARS: proportion of hypertension was 4.5% (95% CI, 2.0%-7.0%), proportion of cardiac disease was 2.1% (95% CI, 0.6%-3.7%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 3.7% (95% CI, 1.0%-6.4%); MERS: proportion of hypertension was 30.3% (95% CI, 18.3%-42.2%), proportion of cardiac disease was 20.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-31.1%), and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 45.4% (95% CI, 27.3%-63.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities varies among different coronavirus-associated diseases. With the development of time, proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19 need further attention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Prevalence
8.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 30, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751135

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has strengthened the interest in the biological mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between infectious agents and the human host. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, ranging from the absence of symptoms to severe systemic complications, raised the question as to what extent the variable response to coronaviruses (CoVs) is influenced by the variability of the hosts' genetic background.To explore the current knowledge about this question, we designed a systematic review encompassing the scientific literature published from Jan. 2003 to June 2020, to include studies on the contemporary outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (namely SARS, MERS and COVID-19 diseases). Studies were eligible if human genetic variants were tested as predictors of clinical phenotypes.An ad hoc protocol for the rapid review process was designed according to the PRISMA paradigm and registered at the PROSPERO database (ID: CRD42020180860). The systematic workflow provided 32 articles eligible for data abstraction (28 on SARS, 1 on MERS, 3 on COVID-19) reporting data on 26 discovery cohorts. Most studies considered the definite clinical diagnosis as the primary outcome, variably coupled with other outcomes (severity was the most frequently analysed). Ten studies analysed HLA haplotypes (1 in patients with COVID-19) and did not provide consistent signals of association with disease-associated phenotypes. Out of 22 eligible articles that investigated candidate genes (2 as associated with COVID-19), the top-ranked genes in the number of studies were ACE2, CLEC4M (L-SIGN), MBL, MxA (n = 3), ACE, CD209, FCER2, OAS-1, TLR4, TNF-α (n = 2). Only variants in MBL and MxA were found as possibly implicated in CoV-associated phenotypes in at least two studies. The number of studies for each predictor was insufficient to conduct meta-analyses.Studies collecting large cohorts from different ancestries are needed to further elucidate the role of host genetic variants in determining the response to CoVs infection. Rigorous design and robust statistical methods are warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 95001, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of developing or dying from coronavirus-2 (COVID-19). Methodological approaches to investigate the health impacts of air pollution on epidemics should differ from those used for chronic diseases, but the methods used in these studies have not been appraised critically. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to identify and critique the methodological approaches of studies of air pollution on infections and mortality due to COVID-19 and to identify and critique the methodological approaches of similar studies concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Published and unpublished papers of associations between air pollution and developing or dying from COVID-19 or SARS that were reported as of 10 May 2020 were identified through electronic databases, internet searches, and other sources. RESULTS: All six COVID-19 studies and two of three SARS studies reported positive associations. Two were time series studies that estimated associations between daily changes in air pollution, one was a cohort that assessed associations between air pollution and the secondary spread of SARS, and six were ecological studies that used area-wide exposures and outcomes. Common shortcomings included possible cross-level bias in ecological studies, underreporting of health outcomes, using grouped data, the lack of highly spatially resolved air pollution measures, inadequate control for confounding and evaluation of effect modification, not accounting for regional variations in the timing of outbreaks' temporal changes in at-risk populations, and not accounting for nonindependence of outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies of air pollution and novel coronaviruses have relied mainly on ecological measures of exposures and outcomes and are susceptible to important sources of bias. Although longitudinal studies with individual-level data may be imperfect, they are needed to adequately address this topic. The complexities involved in these types of studies underscore the need for careful design and for peer review. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7411.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Bias , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Risk Factors
10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620945398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744937

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism, occlusion of dialysis catheters, circuit thrombosis in ECMO devices, all in the face of prophylactic and sometimes even therapeutic anti-coagulation, are frequent features of COVID-19 coagulopathy. The trials available to guide clinicians are methodologically limited. There are several unresolved controversies including 1) Should all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receive prophylactic anti-coagulation? 2) Which patients should have their dosage escalated to intermediate dose? 3) Which patients should be considered for full-dose anti-coagulation even without a measurable thromboembolic event and how should that anti-coagulation be monitored? 4) Should patients receive post-discharge anti-coagulation? 5) What thrombotic issues are related to the various medications being used to treat this coagulopathy? 6) Is anti-phospholipid anti-body part of this syndrome? 7) How do the different treatments for this disease impact the coagulation issues? The aims of this article are to explore these questions and interpret the available data based on the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 610-612, 2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743541

ABSTRACT

Indiscriminatory in its spread, COVID-19 has engulfed communities from all social backgrounds throughout the world. While healthcare professionals work tirelessly testing for the virus and caring for patients, they too have become casualties of the pandemic. Currently the best way to attempt to curb the spread of the virus, echoed by almost all nation leaders, is to distance ourselves from one another socially or physically. However ideal this may seem, social distancing is not always practical in densely populated lower-income countries with many citizens below the breadline. With the majority of South Africans living in poverty, communities in overcrowded households are unable to distance themselves from one another appropriately. In addition, as a nation we struggle with high HIV and tuberculosis rates, malnutrition and an already overburdened healthcare system, emphasising the extreme vulnerability of our people. These factors, coupled with the fact that many of our healthcare professionals lack the necessary personal protective equipment to prevent them from contracting the virus themselves, highlight the gravity of the damaging repercussions that we may face in the coming months, after the complete national lockdown in force at the time of writing is lifted and we move towards a partial lockdown state. Nationally, there needs to be a shift in mindset towards exploring alternative technology-based preventive measures that may empower the healthcare sector in the long term and enhance social distancing.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Care Sector/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Empowerment , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poverty , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 40, 2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742412

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), causing an emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which has taken a catastrophic turn with high toll rates in China and subsequently spreading across the globe. The rapid spread of this virus to more than 210 countries while affecting more than 25 million people and causing more than 843,000 human deaths, it has resulted in a pandemic situation in the world. The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, all of which originated in bats. It is highly contagious, causing symptoms like fever, dyspnea, asthenia and pneumonia, thrombocytopenia, and the severely infected patients succumb to the disease. Coronaviruses (CoVs) among all known RNA viruses have the largest genomes ranging from 26 to 32 kb in length. Extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and evolution, develop effective therapeutics, antiviral drugs, and vaccines, and to design rapid and confirmatory viral diagnostics as well as adopt appropriate prevention and control strategies. To date, August 30, 2020, no effective, proven therapeutic antibodies or specific drugs, and vaccines have turned up. In this review article, we describe the underlying molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of the coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, and recent advances in diagnosis and vaccine development in brief and focusing mainly on developing potential therapeutic options that can be explored to manage this pandemic virus infection, which would help in valid countering of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. METHODS: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. RESULTS: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 644, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge. METHODS: Forty-two patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Yongzhou Central Hospital, Hunan, China, between January 20, 2020, and March 2, 2020, were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using anal swab viral RT-PCR. In this report, we present the clinical characteristics and chest CT features of six patients with positive anal swab results and compare the clinical, laboratory, and CT findings between the positive and negative groups. RESULTS: The anal swab positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in discharged patients was 14.3% (6/42). All six patients were male. In the positive group, 40% of the patients (2/5) had a positive stool occult blood test (OBT), but none had diarrhea. The median duration of fever and major symptoms (except fever) in the positive patients was shorter than that of the negative patients (1 day vs. 6 days, 4.5 days vs. 10.5 days, respectively). The incidence of asymptomatic cases in the positive group (33.3%) was also higher than that of the negative group (5.6%). There were no significant differences in the CT manifestation or evolution of the pulmonary lesions between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our case series, patients with viral RNA positive anal swabs did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and their main symptoms disappeared early. They had similar CT features to the negative patients, which may be easier to be ignored. A positive OBT may indicate gastrointestinal damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anal Canal/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fever , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620955240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740342

ABSTRACT

The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) and its complications in the COVID-19 era is very challenging. The recurrent sickling process in SCD causes tissue hypoxemia and micro-infarcts, resulting in end organ damage. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, little data has been published about SCD concerning clinical presentation with COVID-19 and management. Hydroxyurea has been the cornerstone of management in children and adults with SCD, with evidence of its effect on controlling end organ damage. There are several anti-sickling drugs that have been approved recently that might have an additive value toward the management of SCD and its complications. The role of simple and exchange transfusions is well established and should always be considered in the management of various complications. The value of convalescent plasma has been demonstrated in small case series, but large randomized controlled studies are still awaited. Immunomodulatory agents may play a role in reducing the damaging effects of cytokines storm that contributes to the morbidity and mortality in advanced cases. Prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered in every management protocol because SCD and COVID-19 are thrombogenic conditions. Management proposals of different presentations of patients with SCD and COVID-19 are outlined.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hydroxyurea/administration & dosage , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Management , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 224, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733042

ABSTRACT

Within two decades, there have emerged three highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The economic burden and health threats caused by these coronaviruses are extremely dreadful and getting more serious as the increasing number of global infections and attributed deaths of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Unfortunately, specific medical countermeasures for these hCoVs remain absent. Moreover, the fast spread of misinformation about the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic uniquely places the virus alongside an annoying infodemic and causes unnecessary worldwide panic. SARS-CoV-2 shares many similarities with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, certainly, obvious differences exist as well. Lessons learnt from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, timely updated information of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, and summarized specific knowledge of these hCoVs are extremely invaluable for effectively and efficiently contain the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. By gaining a deeper understanding of hCoVs and the illnesses caused by them, we can bridge knowledge gaps, provide cultural weapons for fighting and controling the spread of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and prepare effective and robust defense lines against hCoVs that may emerge or reemerge in the future. To this end, the state-of-the-art knowledge and comparing the biological features of these lethal hCoVs and the clinical characteristics of illnesses caused by them are systematically summarized in the review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , World Health Organization
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 726-730, 2020 Jul 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731278

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare epidemic characteristics between severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The general information, including epidemiological and clinical data of the confirmed cases during the epidemic period of the two infectious diseases was collected. The data of SARS in Guangzhou was derived from the technical files of Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (GZCDC), including the statistical report and brief report of the epidemic situation (from January 2 to May 11, 2003);The data of COVID-19 in Wuhan was derived from the epidemic data published by Wuhan health and Health Committee's official website and other publicly reported documents (from December 9, 2019 to March 11, 2020). Descriptive analysis was used for a comparativeanalysis of the time and age characteristics, the number of cases, basic reproduction number (R0), proportion of medical staff in confirmed cases (%), crude mortality, etc. Results: A total of 1 072 cases of SARS in Guangzhou were included in the study. The incidence ratio of male to female was 1∶1.26. 43 cases of death were reported with a mortality rate of 4.01%. The median age was 36 years old. The proportion of medical staff in the early stage of the epidemic was 29.04% (88 cases). As to COVID-19 in Wuhan, a total of 49 978 cases were included, The incidence ratio of male to female was 1.04∶1. The 2 423 cases of death were reported with a mortality rate of 4.85%. The median age was 56 years old. The proportion of medical staff in the early stage of the epidemic was 30.43% (42 cases). Conclusion: The COVID-19 in Wuhan has the characteristics of high incidence and wide population. However, the epidemic situation is falling rapidly, and the prevention and control strategy needs to be adjusted timely. The prevention and control of nosocomial infection should be addressed in future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Sex Distribution
20.
Pathog Dis ; 78(6)2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729137

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia, responsible for the recent pandemic, and originated from Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified as coronavirus and designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). Few years back, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS- CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were reported to be highly pathogenic and caused severe infections in humans. In the current situation SARS-CoV-2 has become the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that is responsible for the present outbreak in human population. At the time of this review, there were more than 14 007 791 confirmed COVID-19 patients which associated with over 597 105 deaths in more then 216 countries across the globe (as reported by World Health Organization). In this review we have discussed about SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARC-CoV-2, their reservoirs, role of spike proteins and immunogenicity. We have also covered the diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccine status of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zoonoses/virology
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