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4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 670, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to examine the prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes, both short-term and long-term, among SARS patients, healthcare workers and the general public of SARS-affected regions, and to examine the protective and risk factors associated with these mental health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, the National Central Library Online Catalog and dissertation databases to identify studies in the English or Chinese language published between January 2003 to May 2020 which reported psychological distress and mental health morbidities among SARS patients, healthcare workers, and the general public in regions with major SARS outbreaks. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 6984 titles. Screening resulted in 80 papers for the review, 35 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of post-recovery probable or clinician-diagnosed anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among SARS survivors were 19, 20 and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of these outcomes among studies conducted within and beyond 6 months post-discharge was not significantly different. Certain aspects of mental health-related quality of life measures among SARS survivors remained impaired beyond 6 months post-discharge. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder and PTSD among healthcare workers post-SARS were 12 and 11%, respectively. The general public had increased anxiety levels during SARS, but whether there was a clinically significant population-wide mental health impact remained inconclusive. Narrative synthesis revealed occupational exposure to SARS patients and perceived stigmatisation to be risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers, although causality could not be determined due to the limitations of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The chronicity of psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors should alert us to the potential long-term mental health complications of covid-19 patients. Healthcare workers working in high-risk venues should be given adequate mental health support. Stigmatisation against patients and healthcare workers should be explored and addressed. The significant risk of bias and high degree of heterogeneity among included studies limited the certainty of the body of evidence of the review.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Outbreaks/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1584-1591, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459460

ABSTRACT

Many respiratory viral infections such as influenza and measles result in severe acute respiratory symptoms and epidemics. In the spring of 2003, an epidemic of coronavirus pneumonia spread from Guangzhou to Hong Kong and subsequently to the rest of the world. The WHO coined the acronym SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and subsequently the causative virus as SARS-CoV. In the summer of 2012, epidemic of pneumonia occurred again in Saudi Arabia which was subsequently found to be caused by another novel coronavirus. WHO coined the term MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) to denote the Middle East origin of the novel virus (MERS-CoV). In the winter of 2019, another outbreak of pneumonia occurred in Wuhan, China which rapidly spread globally. Yet another novel coronavirus was identified as the culprit and has been named SARS-CoV-2 due to its similarities with SARS-CoV, and the disease as coronavirus disease-2019. This overview aims to compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these three major episodes of coronavirus outbreak, and conclude that they are essentially the same viral respiratory syndromes caused by similar strains of coronavirus with different names. Coronaviruses have caused major epidemics and outbreaks worldwide in the last two decades. From an epidemiological perspective, they are remarkably similar in the mode of spread by droplets. Special focus is placed on the pediatric aspects, which carry less morbidity and mortality in all three entities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/history , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(7): 1563-1566, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-456955

ABSTRACT

Pandemics such as influenza, smallpox, and plague have caused the loss of hundreds of millions of lives and have occurred for many centuries. Fortunately, they have been largely eliminated by the use of vaccinations and drugs. More recently, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and now Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have arisen, and given the current absence of highly effective approved vaccines or drugs, brute-force approaches involving physical barriers are being used to counter virus spread. A major basis for physical protection from respiratory infections is eye, nose, and mouth protection. However, eye protection with goggles is problematic due to "fogging", while nose/mouth protection is complicated by the breathing difficulties associated with non-valved respirators. Here, we give a brief review of the origins and development of face masks and eye protection to counter respiratory infections on the basis of experiments conducted 100 years ago, work that was presaged by the first use of personal protective equipment, "PPE", by the plague doctors of the 17th Century. The results of the review lead to two conclusions: first, that eye protection using filtered eye masks be used to prevent ocular transmission; second, that new, pre-filtered, valved respirators be used to even more effectively block viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices/history , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Masks/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , History, 17th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infection Control/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
8.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12128, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260590

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) received reports of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. The agent responsible was subsequently identified as a coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2. The WHO declared this disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern at the end of January 2020. This event evoked a sense of déjà vu, as it has many similarities to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) of 2002-2003. Both illnesses were caused by a zoonotic novel coronavirus, both originated during winter in China and both spread rapidly all over the world. However, the case-fatality rate of SARS (9.6%) is higher than that of COVID-19 (<4%). Another zoonotic novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, was responsible for the Middle East respiratory syndrome, which had a case-fatality rate of 34%. Our experiences in coping with the previous coronavirus outbreaks have better equipped us to face the challenges posed by COVID-19, especially in the health care setting. Among the insights gained from the past outbreaks were: outbreaks caused by viruses are hazardous to healthcare workers; the impact of the disease extends beyond the infection; general principles of prevention and control are effective in containing the disease; the disease poses both a public health as well as an occupational health threat; and emerging infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to the world. Given the perspectives gained and lessons learnt from these past events, we should be better prepared to face the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/history , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Health Personnel/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
9.
J Autoimmun ; 109: 102434, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4387

ABSTRACT

The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , History, 21st Century , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pyroptosis , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
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