Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 114
Filter
1.
Immunotherapy ; 14(5): 351-371, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707968

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a lethal virus outbreak by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has severely affected human lives and the global economy. The most vital part of the research and development of therapeutic agents is to design drug products to manage COVID-19 efficiently. Numerous attempts have been in place to determine the optimal drug dose and combination of drugs to treat the disease on a global scale. This article documents the information available on SARS-CoV-2 and its life cycle, which will aid in the development of the potential treatment options. A consolidated summary of several natural and repurposed drugs to manage COVID-19 is depicted with summary of current vaccine development. People with high age, comorbity and concomitant illnesses such as overweight, metabolic disorders, pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, renal failure, fatty liver and neoplastic disorders are more prone to create serious COVID-19 and its consequences. This article also presents an overview of post-COVID-19 complications in patients.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the coronavirus disease i.e., COVID-19. This article encompasses basic information about coronavirus and COVID-19. It includes information about viral transmission and subsequent events for COVID-19 in a person, and it presents different drugs and vaccines utilized for the management of COVID-19. Several natural drugs are proposed to manage COVID-19. It also has an overview about post-COVID-19 complications in recovered patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 367, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475287

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) embodies a mixture of clinical manifestations, including elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms and secondary organ dysfunction, which was first described in the context of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and was later observed in pandemics of influenza, SARS-CoV and COVID-19, immunotherapy of tumor, after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy, and in monogenic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Particularly, severe CRS is a very significant and life-threatening complication, which is clinically characterized by persistent high fever, hyperinflammation, and severe organ dysfunction. However, CRS is a double-edged sword, which may be both helpful in controlling tumors/viruses/infections and harmful to the host. Although a high incidence and high levels of cytokines are features of CRS, the detailed kinetics and specific mechanisms of CRS in human diseases and intervention therapy remain unclear. In the present review, we have summarized the most recent advances related to the clinical features and management of CRS as well as cutting-edge technologies to elucidate the mechanisms of CRS. Considering that CRS is the major adverse event in human diseases and intervention therapy, our review delineates the characteristics, kinetics, signaling pathways, and potential mechanisms of CRS, which shows its clinical relevance for achieving both favorable efficacy and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , Signal Transduction/immunology , Acute Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
4.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Tracheotomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Ventilator Weaning/methods
5.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(1): 19-31, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382201

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. Health care workers face significant risk of infection when treating patients with a viral severe acute respiratory infection. To ensure health care worker safety and limit nosocomial transmission of such infection, it is crucial to synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from January 1, 2000, to April 1, 2020, for studies describing the risk of infection associated with the modalities of oxygen therapy used for patients with severe acute respiratory infection. The study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by independent reviewers. The primary outcome measure was the infection of health care workers with a severe acute respiratory infection. Random-effect models were used to synthesize the extracted data. RESULTS: Of 22,123 citations, 50 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis and 16 for meta-analysis. Globally, the quality of the included studies provided a very low certainty of evidence. Being exposed or performing an intubation (odds ratio 6.48; 95% confidence interval 2.90 to 14.44), bag-valve-mask ventilation (odds ratio 2.70; 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 5.36), and noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.96; 95% confidence interval 2.12 to 7.40) were associated with an increased risk of infection. All modalities of oxygen therapy generate air dispersion. CONCLUSION: Most modalities of oxygen therapy are associated with an increased risk of infection and none have been demonstrated as safe. The lowest flow of oxygen should be used to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation for patients with severe acute respiratory infection, and manipulation of oxygen delivery equipment should be minimized.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Cross Infection/therapy , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 317, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic reached Europe in early 2020. Convalescent plasma is used without a consistent evidence of efficacy. Our hypothesis is that passive immunization with plasma collected from patients having contracted COVID-19 and developed specific neutralizing antibodies may alleviate symptoms and reduce mortality in patients treated with mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory failure during the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: We plan to include 500 adult patients, hospitalized in 16 Belgian intensive care units between September 2020 and 2022, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, under mechanical ventilation for less than 5 days and a clinical frailty scale less than 6. The study treatment will be compared to standard of care and allocated by randomization in a 1 to 1 ratio without blinding. The main endpoint will be mortality at day 28. We will perform an intention to treat analysis. The number of patients to include is based on an expected mortality rate at day 28 of 40 percent and an expected relative reduction with study intervention of 30 percent with α risk of 5 percent and ß risk of 20 percent. DISCUSSION: This study will assess the efficacy of plasma in the population of mechanically ventilated patients. A stratification on the delay from mechanical ventilation and inclusion will allow to approach the optimal time use. Selecting convalescent plasmas with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 will allow a homogeneous study treatment. The inclusion in the study is based on the consent of the patient or his/her legal representative, and the approval of the Investigational Review Board of the University hospital of Liège, Belgium. A data safety monitoring board (DSMB) has been implemented. Interim analyses have been planned at 100, 2002, 300 and 400 inclusions in order to decide whether the trail should be discontinued prematurely for ethical issues. We plan to publish our results in a peer-reviewed journal and to present them at national and international conferences. FUNDING AND REGISTRATION: The trial is funded by the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Center KCE # COV201004 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT04558476. Registered 14 September 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04558476.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Belgium , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intensive Care Units , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238061

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused a surge in research exploring all aspects of the virus and its effects on human health. The overwhelming publication rate means that researchers are unable to keep abreast of the literature. To ameliorate this, we present the CoronaCentral resource that uses machine learning to process the research literature on SARS-CoV-2 together with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We categorize the literature into useful topics and article types and enable analysis of the contents, pace, and emphasis of research during the crisis with integration of Altmetric data. These topics include therapeutics, disease forecasting, as well as growing areas such as "long COVID" and studies of inequality. This resource, available at https://coronacentral.ai, is updated daily.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Machine Learning , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
10.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721996217, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181030

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread worldwide, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Italy, along with its site of origin in China, since 2020. The virus was first found in the Wuhan seafood market at the end of 2019, with a controversial source. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and respiratory tract inflammation, with some severe patients developing an acute and chronic lung injury, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). It has already claimed approximately 300 thousand human lives and the number is still on the rise; the only way to prevent the infection is to be safe till vaccines and reliable treatments develop. In previous studies, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in clinical trials had been proven to be effective in immune modulation and tissue repair promotion; however, their efficacy in treating COVID-19 remains underestimated. Here, we report the findings from past experiences of SARS and MSCs, and how SARS could also induce PF. Such studies may help to understand the rationale for the recent cell-based therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
11.
Blood Purif ; 51(1): 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166612

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, COVID-19 has wreaked havoc in many societies around the world. As of the present, the SARS-CoV-2-borne disease is propagating in almost all countries, affecting hundreds of thousands of people in an unprecedented way. As the name suggests, the novel coronavirus, widely known as SARS-CoV-2, is a new emerging human pathogen. A novel disease of relatively unknown origin, COVID-19 does not seem to be amenable to the currently available medicines since there is no specific cure for the disease. In the absence of any vaccine or effective antiviral medication, we have no tools at our disposal, but the method of quarantine, be it domestic or institutional, to hinder any further progression of this outbreak. However, there is a record of physicians in the past who practiced convalescent blood transfusion. To their awe, the method seemed to be useful. It is anticipated that these contemporary methods will outdo any other vaccination process in the time being, as blood transfusion is instead a cost-effective and time-friendly technique. Following a successful trial, this new approach of contemporary nature to a viral disease may serve as an emergency intervention to intercept infectious outbreaks and prevent an impending epidemic/pandemic. In this review, we document the most recent evidence regarding the efficiency of convalescent plasma and serum therapy on SARS, MERS, and particularly COVID-19, while discussing potential advantages and possible risks of such practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Forecasting , History, 20th Century , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/ethics , Immunization, Passive/history , Immunization, Passive/trends , Influenza, Human/therapy , Plasma , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serum , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
12.
Trials ; 22(1): 188, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the registration quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials for COVID-19, H1N1, and SARS. METHOD: We searched for clinical trial registrations of TCM in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) on April 30, 2020. The registration quality assessment is based on the WHO Trial Registration Data Set (Version 1.3.1) and extra items for TCM information, including TCM background, theoretical origin, specific diagnosis criteria, description of intervention, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 136 records were examined, including 129 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and 7 H1N1 influenza (H1N1) patients. The deficiencies in the registration of TCM clinical trials (CTs) mainly focus on a low percentage reporting detailed information about interventions (46.6%), primary outcome(s) (37.7%), and key secondary outcome(s) (18.4%) and a lack of summary result (0%). For the TCM items, none of the clinical trial registrations reported the TCM background and rationale; only 6.6% provided the TCM diagnosis criteria or a description of the TCM intervention; and 27.9% provided TCM outcome(s). CONCLUSION: Overall, although the number of registrations of TCM CTs increased, the registration quality was low. The registration quality of TCM CTs should be improved by more detailed reporting of interventions and outcomes, TCM-specific information, and sharing of the result data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Influenza, Human/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Registries/standards , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(4): 321-337, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the virology, immunology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of the following 3 major zoonotic coronavirus epidemics: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: Published literature obtained through PubMed database searches and reports from national and international public health agencies. STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies relevant to the basic science, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, with a focus on patients with asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Although SARS and MERS each caused less than a thousand deaths, COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic with nearly 1 million deaths. Diagnosing COVID-19 relies on nucleic acid amplification tests, and infection has broad clinical manifestations that can affect almost every organ system. Asthma and atopy do not seem to predispose patients to COVID-19 infection, but their effects on COVID-19 clinical outcomes remain mixed and inconclusive. It is recommended that effective therapies, including inhaled corticosteroids and biologic therapy, be continued to maintain disease control. There are no reports of COVID-19 among patients with primary innate and T-cell deficiencies. The presentation of COVID-19 among patients with primary antibody deficiencies is variable, with some experiencing mild clinical courses, whereas others experiencing a fatal disease. The landscape of treatment for COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, with both antivirals and immunomodulators demonstrating efficacy. CONCLUSION: Further data are needed to better understand the role of asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Young Adult
14.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095682

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) has been investigated as a treatment for COVID-19. This review evaluates CPT in COVID-19 and other viral respiratory diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and influenza. PubMed and Google scholar databases were used to collect eligible publications until 8 December 2020. Meta-analysis used Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooled analysis for individual patient data with inverse variance weighted average. The study is registered at PROSPERO with the number of CRD4200270579. Forty-four studies with 36,716 participants were included in the pooled analysis and 20 studies in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed reduction of mortality (RR 0.57, 95% CI [0.43, 0.76], z = 3.86 [p < 0.001], I2  = 44% [p = 0.03]) and higher number of discharged patients (RR 2.53, 95% CI [1.72, 3.72], z = 4.70 [p < 0.001], I2  = 3% [p = 0.39]) in patients receiving CPT compared to standard care alone. A possible mechanism of action is prompt reduction in viral titre. Serious transfusion-related adverse events were reported to be less than 1% of cases, suggesting the overall safety of CPT; nevertheless, the number of patients participating in the studies was still limited. It is also important to notice that in all the studies, the majority of patients were also given other medications, such as antivirals, antibiotics and corticosteroid; furthermore, randomized controlled studies involving more patients and in combination with other treatment modalities are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Influenza, Human/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
15.
Biomed J ; 44(1): 86-93, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091932

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is proving to be an unprecedented disaster that lays its dark shadow on global health, economics and personal freedom. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics provide scientific data that is useful in better understanding and resolution of COVID-19. Similarities among SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have been investigated in the light of available data. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 evolved in bats and have positive-sense RNA genomes of 27.9 kb, 30.1 kb and 29.9 kb, respectively. Molecular and serological tools used for diagnosis of SARS and MERS patients resemble COVID-19 diagnostic tools. Stability and longevity data of SARS and MERS epidemics contribute in the current pandemic precaution policies. Trials to produce vaccines for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV failed, therefore different strategies were employed for SARS-CoV2 vaccines production and during the past period antiviral agents, Convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies provide potential treatments for sever patients. The mortality rate caused by the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV reached 15% and 37%, respectively. The first declarations about mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 was around 2-4% but now this rate differed globally and reached more than 13% in some countries. A realistic COVID-19 outbreak scenario suggest that the pandemic might last for three years with fluctuation in the number of infected cases, unless vaccination process goes faster and/or antiviral drug is discovered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Sex Characteristics
16.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Ann Surg ; 272(6): e311-e315, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define whether rapidly reallocating health care workers not experienced with PP for performing PP in ICU is feasible and safe. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In the setting of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the use of prone and supine positioning procedures (PP) has been associated with improved oxygenation resulting in decreased mortality. Nevertheless, applying PP is time consuming for ICU staffs that are at risk of mental of physical exhaustion, especially with the constant surge of admitted COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. METHODS: This prospective cohort study conducted at a single regional university hospital between March 27 and April 15, 2020. Among 117 patients admitted to ICU, 67 patients (57.3%) presented with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection with severe ARDS requiring PP. After accelerated simulation training, 109 volunteers including surgeons, physicians, nurses and physiotherapists, multiple dedicated teams performed daily multiple PP following a systematic checklist. Patient demographics and PP data were collected. Patient safety and health care workers safety were assessed. RESULTS: Among 117 patients admitted to ICU, 67 patients (57.3%) required PP. Overall, 53 (79%) were male, with a median age of 68.5 years and median body mass index of 29.3 kg/m. A total of 384 PP were performed. Overall, complication occurred in 34 PP (8.8%) and led to PP cancelation in 4 patients (1%). Regarding health care workers safety, four health care workers presented with potential COVID-19 related symptoms and none was positive. CONCLUSIONS: To overcome the surge of critically ill COVID-19 patients, reallocating health care workers to targeted medical tasks beyond their respective expertise such as PP was safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Checklist , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Resource Allocation/methods , Resource Allocation/organization & administration
18.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 245-249, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083299

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant negative prognostic factors in patients suffering from the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the development of coagulopathy, associated with abnormal laboratory findings, such as increased D-dimer, and venous thromboembolic complications, requiring thromboprophylactic strategies. The main clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients are revised here as compared to other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), emphasizing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy
19.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1569-1575, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067833

ABSTRACT

The IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, may represent a therapeutic option for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted to the Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale of Lecco, Italy, between March 5th to April 15th, 2020, and who had received anakinra off-label were retrospectively evaluated and compared with a cohort of matched controls who did not receive immunomodulatory treatment. The primary end point was survival at day 28. The population consisted of 112 patients (56 treated with anakinra and 56 controls). Survival at day 28 was obtained in 69 patients (61.6%) and was significantly higher in anakinra-treated patients than in the controls (75.0 versus 48.2%, p = 0.007). When stratified by continuous positive airway pressure support at baseline, anakinra-treated patients' survival was also significant compared with the controls (p = 0.008). Univariate analysis identified anakinra usage (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-7.17) as a significant survival predictor. This was not supported by multivariate modeling. The rate of infectious-related adverse events was similar between groups. In conclusion, anakinra improved overall survival and invasive ventilation-free survival and was well tolerated in patients with ARDS associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Survival Rate
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL