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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(3): 204-216, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk-of-bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews). DATA SYNTHESIS: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very-low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. LIMITATION: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported. CONCLUSION: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization. (PROSPERO: CRD42020178187).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Aerosols , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Systematic Reviews as Topic , World Health Organization
2.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724486

ABSTRACT

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , SARS Virus/classification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Wild , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Camelids, New World/virology , Camelus/virology , Cats , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Dogs , Eutheria/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Lions/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Primates/virology , Raccoon Dogs/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Snakes/virology , Tigers/virology , Viverridae/virology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(17)2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724197

ABSTRACT

The airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still debated. The aim of this rapid review is to evaluate the COVID-19 risk associated with the presence of air-conditioning systems. Original studies (both observational and experimental researches) written in English and with no limit on time, on the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses that were associated with outbreaks, were included. Searches were made on PubMed/MEDLINE, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar databases, and medRxiv. A snowball strategy was adopted to extend the search. Fourteen studies reporting outbreaks of coronavirus infection associated with the air-conditioning systems were included. All studies were carried out in the Far East. In six out the seven studies on SARS, the role of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) in the outbreak was indirectly proven by the spatial and temporal pattern of cases, or by airflow-dynamics models. In one report on MERS, the contamination of HVAC by viral particles was demonstrated. In four out of the six studies on SARS-CoV-2, the diffusion of viral particles through HVAC was suspected or supported by computer simulation. In conclusion, there is sufficient evidence of the airborne transmission of coronaviruses in previous Asian outbreaks, and this has been taken into account in the guidelines released by organizations and international agencies for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor environments. However, the technological differences in HVAC systems prevent the generalization of the results on a worldwide basis. The few COVID-19 investigations available do not provide sufficient evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted by HVAC systems.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1086-1089, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709281

ABSTRACT

The recent development and regulatory approval of a variety of serological assays indicating the presence of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has led to rapid and widespread implementation of seroprevalence studies. Accurate estimates of seroprevalence are needed to model transmission dynamics and estimate mortality rates. Furthermore, seroprevalence levels in a population help guide policy surrounding reopening efforts. The literature to date has focused heavily on issues surrounding the quality of seroprevalence tests and less on the sampling methods that ultimately drive the representativeness of resulting estimates. Seroprevalence studies based on convenience samples are being reported widely and extrapolated to larger populations for the estimation of total coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, comparisons of prevalence across geographic regions, and estimation of mortality rates. In this viewpoint, we discuss the pitfalls that can arise with the use of convenience samples and offer guidance for moving towards more representative and timely population estimates of COVID-19 seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Population Surveillance , Reproducibility of Results , Sampling Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
5.
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 99, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a public catastrophe and global concern. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue and lower respiratory tract infection signs. Almost all populations are susceptible to the virus, and the basic reproduction number (R0) is 2.8-3.9. The fight against COVID-19 should have two aspects: one is the treatment of infected patients, and the other is the mobilization of the society to avoid the spread of the virus. The treatment of patients includes supportive treatment, antiviral treatment, and oxygen therapy. For patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and circulatory support are recommended. Plasma therapy and traditional Chinese medicine have also achieved good outcomes. This review is intended to summarize the research on this new coronavirus, to analyze the similarities and differences between COVID-19 and previous outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and to provide guidance regarding new methods of prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment based on autodock simulations. METHODS: This review compares the multifaceted characteristics of the three coronaviruses including COVID-19, SARS and MERS. Our researchers take the COVID-19, SARS, and MERS as key words and search literatures in the Pubmed database. We compare them horizontally and vertically which respectively means concluding the individual characteristics of each coronavirus and comparing the similarities and differences between the three coronaviruses. RESULTS: We searched for studies on each outbreak and their solutions and found that the main biological differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are in ORF1a and the sequence of gene spike coding protein-S. We also found that the types and severity of clinical symptoms vary, which means that the diagnosis and nursing measures also require differentiation. In addition to the common route of transmission including airborne transmission, these three viruses have their own unique routes of transmission such as fecal-oral route of transmission COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In evolutionary history, these three coronaviruses have some similar biological features as well as some different mutational characteristics. Their receptors and routes of transmission are not all the same, which makes them different in clinical features and treatments. We discovered through the autodock simulations that Met124 plays a key role in the efficiency of drugs targeting ACE2, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, ciclesonide and niclosamide, and may be a potential target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS Virus/ultrastructure , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
7.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 108(10): 1974-1990, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643515

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed major shortcomings in our ability to mitigate transmission of infectious viral disease and provide treatment to patients, resulting in a public health crisis. Within months of the first reported case in China, the virus has spread worldwide at an unprecedented rate. COVID-19 illustrates that the biomaterials community was engaged in significant research efforts against bacteria and fungi with relatively little effort devoted to viruses. Accordingly, biomaterials scientists and engineers will have to participate in multidisciplinary antiviral research over the coming years. Although tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have historically dominated the field of biomaterials, current research holds promise for providing transformative solutions to viral outbreaks. To facilitate collaboration, it is imperative to establish a mutual language and adequate understanding between clinicians, industry partners, and research scientists. In this article, clinical perspectives are shared to clearly define emerging healthcare needs that can be met by biomaterials solutions. Strategies and opportunities for novel biomaterials intervention spanning diagnostics, treatment strategies, vaccines, and virus-deactivating surface coatings are discussed. Ultimately this review serves as a call for the biomaterials community to become a leading contributor to the prevention and management of the current and future viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biocompatible Materials , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biosensing Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Extracorporeal Circulation , Filtration , Humans , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Immunologic Tests/methods , Metals , Nanostructures , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Surface-Active Agents , Tissue Engineering , Viral Vaccines
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(9): e238-e244, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622690

ABSTRACT

The objective of this Personal View is to compare transmissibility, hospitalisation, and mortality rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with those of other epidemic coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and pandemic influenza viruses. The basic reproductive rate (R0) for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be 2·5 (range 1·8-3·6) compared with 2·0-3·0 for SARS-CoV and the 1918 influenza pandemic, 0·9 for MERS-CoV, and 1·5 for the 2009 influenza pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes mild or asymptomatic disease in most cases; however, severe to critical illness occurs in a small proportion of infected individuals, with the highest rate seen in people older than 70 years. The measured case fatality rate varies between countries, probably because of differences in testing strategies. Population-based mortality estimates vary widely across Europe, ranging from zero to high. Numbers from the first affected region in Italy, Lombardy, show an all age mortality rate of 154 per 100 000 population. Differences are most likely due to varying demographic structures, among other factors. However, this new virus has a focal dissemination; therefore, some areas have a higher disease burden and are affected more than others for reasons that are still not understood. Nevertheless, early introduction of strict physical distancing and hygiene measures have proven effective in sharply reducing R0 and associated mortality and could in part explain the geographical differences.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epidemics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hygiene , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Social Distance
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(6): 1-6, 2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614929

ABSTRACT

Nasogastric tubes are used frequently in surgical patients for bowel decompression, provision of enteral nutritional support and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. There is no conclusive research into the risk of COVID-19 transmission associated with nasogastric tube insertion, although evidence from the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak appears to suggest that there is no increased risk of transmission. However, close contact with a COVID-19 patient, especially those displaying respiratory symptoms, is likely to increase the risk of transmission. Nasogastric tube insertion requires increased time spent at a patient's bedside and can also cause pharyngeal irritation, resulting in coughing. In addition, the nasogastric tube can expose the healthcare worker to potentially infectious saliva. Therefore, there is a clear need for increased evidence regarding the risk of transmission associated with nasogastric tube insertion, to ensure that such risks can be mitigated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(12): 997-998, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607763

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, in part due to the highly infectious nature of the disease. Because SARS-CoV-2 is new, much is unknown regarding mechanisms of transmission, and such information is urgently needed. Here, based on previous findings from related human betacoronaviruses, it is suggested that one possible route of transmission may be via infectious sweat. It is suggested that research be conducted in order to determine whether sweat in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals harbors virus in quantities that can infect others. Findings could be used for formulations of mitigation strategies and empirically based public health messaging.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sweat/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mucous Membrane/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Sweating/physiology
13.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 311-323, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, has been associated to a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. Soon after, the number of cases soared dramatically, spreading across China and worldwide. Italy has had 12,462 confirmed cases according to the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) as of March 11, and after the "lockdown" of the entire territory, by May 4, 209,254 cases of COVID-19 and 26,892 associated deaths have been reported. We performed a review to describe, in particular, the origin and the diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy, underlying how the geographical circulation has been heterogeneous and the importance of pathophysiology in the involvement of cardiovascular and neurological clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
15.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Reservoirs , Host Specificity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Prevalence , Primate Diseases/epidemiology , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/virology , Rodentia/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , Serologic Tests , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Zoonoses
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1287-1299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595725

ABSTRACT

A newly emerged coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused severe pneumonia outbreaks in China in December 2019 and has since spread to various countries around the world. To trace the evolution route and probe the transmission dynamics of this virus, we performed phylodynamic analysis of 247 high quality genomic sequences available in the GISAID platform as of 5 March 2020. Among them, four genetic clusters, defined as super-spreaders (SSs), could be identified and were found to be responsible for the major outbreaks that subsequently occurred in various countries. SS1 was widely disseminated in Asia and the US, and mainly responsible for outbreaks in the states of Washington and California as well as South Korea, whereas SS4 contributed to the pandemic in Europe. Using the signature mutations of each SS as markers, we further analysed 1539 genome sequences reported after 29 February 2020 and found that 90% of these genomes belonged to SSs, with SS4 being the most dominant. The relative degree of contribution of each SS to the pandemic in different continents was also depicted. Identification of these super-spreaders greatly facilitates development of new strategies to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Genetic , Genome, Viral , Global Health , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Virulence
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(11)2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-536771

ABSTRACT

Virus outbreaks are threats to humanity, and coronaviruses are the latest of many epidemics in the last few decades in the world. SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated Coronavirus) is a member of the coronavirus family, so its study is useful for relevant virus data research. In this work, we conduct a proposed approach that is non-medical/clinical, generate graphs from five features of the SARS outbreak data in five countries and regions, and offer insights from a visual analysis perspective. The results show that prevention measures such as quarantine are the most common control policies used, and areas with strict measures did have fewer peak period days; for instance, Hong Kong handled the outbreak better than other areas. Data conflict issues found with this approach are discussed as well. Visual analysis is also proved to be a useful technique to present the SARS outbreak data at this stage; furthermore, we are proceeding to apply a similar methodology with more features to future COVID-19 research from a visual analysis perfective.


Subject(s)
Data Analysis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Time Factors , World Health Organization
19.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(7): 1563-1566, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-456955

ABSTRACT

Pandemics such as influenza, smallpox, and plague have caused the loss of hundreds of millions of lives and have occurred for many centuries. Fortunately, they have been largely eliminated by the use of vaccinations and drugs. More recently, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and now Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have arisen, and given the current absence of highly effective approved vaccines or drugs, brute-force approaches involving physical barriers are being used to counter virus spread. A major basis for physical protection from respiratory infections is eye, nose, and mouth protection. However, eye protection with goggles is problematic due to "fogging", while nose/mouth protection is complicated by the breathing difficulties associated with non-valved respirators. Here, we give a brief review of the origins and development of face masks and eye protection to counter respiratory infections on the basis of experiments conducted 100 years ago, work that was presaged by the first use of personal protective equipment, "PPE", by the plague doctors of the 17th Century. The results of the review lead to two conclusions: first, that eye protection using filtered eye masks be used to prevent ocular transmission; second, that new, pre-filtered, valved respirators be used to even more effectively block viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices/history , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Masks/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , History, 17th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infection Control/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 843-848, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382001

ABSTRACT

In the recent two decades, three global viral infectious diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease (COVID-19), have occurred worldwide. SARS occurred in November 2002, causing 8096 infected cases, as well as 774 deaths. MERS occurred in June, 2012, causing 2519 confirmed cases, along with 866 associated deaths. COVID-19 occurred in December 2019, as of 30 April 2020, a total of 3,024,059 clinical cases have been reported, including 208,112 deaths. Healthcare workers (HCWs) need to be in close contact with these virus-infected patients and their contaminated environments at work, thus leading to be infected in some of them, even a few of them are died in line of duty. In this review, we summarized the infection status of HCWs during the outbreak of SARS, MERS and COVID-19, with in-depth discussion, hoping to provoke sufficient attention to the HCWs infection status by more people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
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