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2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 9th January 2020, China CDC reported a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2) as the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Identifying the first appearance of virus is of epidemiological importance to tracking and mapping the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a country. We therefore conducted a retrospective observational study to detect SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized patients with a Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) enrolled in the DRIVE (Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness) study in five Italian hospitals (CIRI-IT BIVE hospitals network) (1st November 2019 - 29th February 2020). OBJECTIVES: To acquire new information on the real trend in SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic phase I and to determine the possible early appearance of the virus in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were tested for influenza [RT-PCR assay (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yam, B/Vic)] in accordance with the DRIVE study protocol. Subsequently, swabs underwent molecular testing for SARS-COV-2. [one-step real-time multiplex retro-transcription (RT) PCR]. RESULTS: In the 1683 samples collected, no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 was found. Moreover, 28.3% (477/1683) of swabs were positive for influenza viruses, the majority being type A (358 vs 119 type B). A/H3N2 was predominant among influenza A viruses (55%); among influenza B viruses, B/Victoria was prevalent. The highest influenza incidence rate was reported in patients aged 0-17 years (40.3%) followed by those aged 18-64 years (24.4%) and ≥65 years (14.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, some studies have shown the early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in northern regions, those most severely affected during phase I of the pandemic. In central and southern regions, by contrast no early circulation of the virus was registered. These results are in line with ours. These findings highlight the need to continue to carry out retrospective studies, in order to understand the epidemiology of the novel coronavirus, to better identify the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison with other acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), and to evaluate the real burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has turned the world topsy-turvy since its onset in 2019. The thromboinflammatory complications of this disease are common in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is characterized by symmetrical distal gangrene in absence of any large vessel occlusion or vasculitis and it is usually associated with critical illness. Our aim was to report the clinical profile and outcome of patients diagnosed with SPG associated with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, no such similar cases have been reported till date. METHODS: In this case series, we have discussed the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and outcome in a series of two patients of SPG associated with COVID-19 and also compared those findings. Due to paucity of data, we also reviewed the literature on this under-diagnosed and rarely reported condition and association. RESULTS: Two consecutive patients (both males, age range: 37-42 years, mean: 39.5 years) were admitted with the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated SPG. Both patients had clinical and laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Leucopenia was noted in both patients. Despite vigorous therapy, both patients succumbed to their illness within a fortnight of admission. CONCLUSION: SPG in the background of COVID-19 portends a fatal outcome. Physicians should be aware of its grim prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Gangrene/diagnosis , Humans , India , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
10.
J Biol Chem ; 297(6): 101399, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509947

ABSTRACT

The nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a critical viral protein that suppresses host gene expression by blocking the assembly of the ribosome on host mRNAs. To understand the mechanism of inhibition of host gene expression, we sought to identify cellular proteins that interact with nsp1. Using proximity-dependent biotinylation followed by proteomic analyses of biotinylated proteins, here we captured multiple dynamic interactions of nsp1 with host cell proteins. In addition to ribosomal proteins, we identified several pre-mRNA processing proteins that interact with nsp1, including splicing factors and transcription termination proteins, as well as exosome, and stress granule (SG)-associated proteins. We found that the interactions with transcription termination factors are primarily governed by the C-terminal region of nsp1 and are disrupted by the mutation of amino acids K164 and H165 that are essential for its host shutoff function. We further show that nsp1 interacts with Ras GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) and colocalizes with G3BP1 in SGs under sodium arsenite-induced stress. Finally, we observe that the presence of nsp1 disrupts the maturation of SGs over a long period. Isolation of SG core at different times shows a gradual loss of G3BP1 in the presence of nsp1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Biotinylation , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Proteomics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , /metabolism
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488763

ABSTRACT

In the last two decades, several coronavirus (CoV) interspecies jumping events have occurred between bats and other animals/humans, leading to major epidemics/pandemics and high fatalities. The SARS epidemic in 2002/2003 had a ~10% fatality. The discovery of SARS-related CoVs in horseshoe bats and civets and genomic studies have confirmed bat-to-civet-to-human transmission. The MERS epidemic that emerged in 2012 had a ~35% mortality, with dromedaries as the reservoir. Although CoVs with the same genome organization (e.g., Tylonycteris BatCoV HKU4 and Pipistrellus BatCoV HKU5) were also detected in bats, there is still a phylogenetic gap between these bat CoVs and MERS-CoV. In 2016, 10 years after the discovery of Rhinolophus BatCoV HKU2 in Chinese horseshoe bats, fatal swine disease outbreaks caused by this virus were reported in southern China. In late 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread globally, leading to >4,000,000 fatalities so far. Although the genome of SARS-CoV-2 is highly similar to that of SARS-CoV, patient zero and the original source of the pandemic are still unknown. To protect humans from future public health threats, measures should be taken to monitor and reduce the chance of interspecies jumping events, either occurring naturally or through recombineering experiments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Host Adaptation , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Specificity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary
13.
Anaesthesia ; 77(1): 22-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483808

ABSTRACT

Manual facemask ventilation, a core component of elective and emergency airway management, is classified as an aerosol-generating procedure. This designation is based on one epidemiological study suggesting an association between facemask ventilation and transmission during the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. There is no direct evidence to indicate whether facemask ventilation is a high-risk procedure for aerosol generation. We conducted aerosol monitoring during routine facemask ventilation and facemask ventilation with an intentionally generated leak in anaesthetised patients. Recordings were made in ultraclean operating theatres and compared against the aerosol generated by tidal breathing and cough manoeuvres. Respiratory aerosol from tidal breathing in 11 patients was reliably detected above the very low background particle concentrations with median [IQR (range)] particle counts of 191 (77-486 [4-1313]) and 2 (1-5 [0-13]) particles.l-1 , respectively, p = 0.002. The median (IQR [range]) aerosol concentration detected during facemask ventilation without a leak (3 (0-9 [0-43]) particles.l-1 ) and with an intentional leak (11 (7-26 [1-62]) particles.l-1 ) was 64-fold (p = 0.001) and 17-fold (p = 0.002) lower than that of tidal breathing, respectively. Median (IQR [range]) peak particle concentration during facemask ventilation both without a leak (60 (0-60 [0-120]) particles.l-1 ) and with a leak (120 (60-180 [60-480]) particles.l-1 ) were 20-fold (p = 0.002) and 10-fold (0.001) lower than a cough (1260 (800-3242 [100-3682]) particles.l-1 ), respectively. This study demonstrates that facemask ventilation, even when performed with an intentional leak, does not generate high levels of bioaerosol. On the basis of this evidence, we argue facemask ventilation should not be considered an aerosol-generating procedure.


Subject(s)
Masks , /chemistry , Adult , Aged , Cough/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
14.
Virol J ; 17(1): 136, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious morbidity and mortality, with case fatality rates ranging from 4 to 35%. Currently, no specific prophylaxis or treatment is available for CoV infections. Therefore we investigated the virucidal and antiviral potential of Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®) against human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E, highly pathogenic MERS- and SARS-CoVs, as well as the newly identified SARS-CoV-2, in vitro. METHODS: To evaluate the antiviral potential of the extract, we pre-treated virus particles and cells and evaluated remaining infectivity by limited dilution. Furthermore, we exposed cells to the extract after infection to further evaluate its potential as a prophylaxis and treatment against coronaviruses. We also determined the protective effect of Echinaforce® in re-constituted nasal epithelium. RESULTS: In the current study, we found that HCoV-229E was irreversibly inactivated when exposed to Echinaforce® at 3.2 µg/ml IC50. Pre-treatment of cell lines, however, did not inhibit infection with HCoV-229E and post-infection treatment had only a marginal effect on virus propagation at 50 µg/ml. However, we did observe a protective effect in an organotypic respiratory cell culture system by exposing pre-treated respiratory epithelium to droplets of HCoV-229E, imitating a natural infection. The observed virucidal activity of Echinaforce® was not restricted to common cold coronaviruses, as both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoVs were inactivated at comparable concentrations. Finally, the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 was also inactivated upon treatment with 50µg/ml Echinaforce®. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that Echinaforce® is virucidal against HCoV-229E, upon direct contact and in an organotypic cell culture model. Furthermore, MERS-CoV and both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 were inactivated at similar concentrations of the extract. Therefore we hypothesize that Echinacea purpurea preparations, such as Echinaforce®, could be effective as prophylactic treatment for all CoVs due to their structural similarities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Vero Cells
15.
HLA ; 96(3): 277-298, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388402

ABSTRACT

We report detailed peptide-binding affinities between 438 HLA Class I and Class II proteins and complete proteomes of seven pandemic human viruses, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses and HIV-1. We contrast these affinities with HLA allele frequencies across hundreds of human populations worldwide. Statistical modelling shows that peptide-binding affinities classified into four distinct categories depend on the HLA locus but that the type of virus is only a weak predictor, except in the case of HIV-1. Among the strong HLA binders (IC50 ≤ 50), we uncovered 16 alleles (the top ones being A*02:02, B*15:03 and DRB1*01:02) binding more than 1% of peptides derived from all viruses, 9 (top ones including HLA-A*68:01, B*15:25, C*03:02 and DRB1*07:01) binding all viruses except HIV-1, and 15 (top ones A*02:01 and C*14:02) only binding coronaviruses. The frequencies of strongest and weakest HLA peptide binders differ significantly among populations from different geographic regions. In particular, Indigenous peoples of America show both higher frequencies of strongest and lower frequencies of weakest HLA binders. As many HLA proteins are found to be strong binders of peptides derived from distinct viral families, and are hence promiscuous (or generalist), we discuss this result in relation to possible signatures of natural selection on HLA promiscuous alleles due to past pathogenic infections. Our findings are highly relevant for both evolutionary genetics and the development of vaccine therapies. However they should not lead to forget that individual resistance and vulnerability to diseases go beyond the sole HLA allelic affinity and depend on multiple, complex and often unknown biological, environmental and other variables.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HLA Antigens/chemistry , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Africa/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Asia/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/immunology , HLA Antigens/classification , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Kinetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 565521, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389164

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders caused by neuroviral infections are an obvious pathogenic manifestation. However, non-neurotropic viruses or peripheral viral infections pose a considerable challenge as their neuropathological manifestations do not emerge because of primary infection. Their secondary or bystander pathologies develop much later, like a syndrome, during and after the recovery of patients from the primary disease. Massive inflammation caused by peripheral viral infections can trigger multiple neurological anomalies. These neurological damages may range from a general cognitive and motor dysfunction up to a wide spectrum of CNS anomalies, such as Acute Necrotizing Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Encephalitis, Meningitis, anxiety, and other audio-visual disabilities. Peripheral viruses like Measles virus, Enteroviruses, Influenza viruses (HIN1 series), SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and, recently, SARS-CoV-2 are reported to cause various neurological manifestations in patients and are proven to be neuropathogenic even in cellular and animal model systems. This review presents a comprehensive picture of CNS susceptibilities toward these peripheral viral infections and explains some common underlying themes of their neuropathology in the human brain.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neurogenic Inflammation/complications , Neurogenic Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/virology , Neurogenic Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(13)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389098

ABSTRACT

Whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from two patients, a Chinese tourist visiting Rome and an Italian, were compared with sequences from Europe and elsewhere. In a phylogenetic tree, the Italian patient's sequence clustered with sequences from Germany while the tourist's sequence clustered with other European sequences. Some additional European sequences in the tree segregated outside the two clusters containing the patients' sequences. This suggests multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Europe or virus evolution during circulation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Travel , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Germany , Humans , Italy , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Point Mutation , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 198-206, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Synthesis of the available evidence on the effectiveness of medical and cloth facemask use by the general public in community settings is required to learn lessons for future respiratory epidemics/pandemics. METHOD: Search terms relating to facemasks, infection and community settings were used for PubMed, the Cochrane Library Database and Google Scholar. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: The review included 12 primary studies on the effectiveness of medical facemask use to prevent influenza, influenza-like illness, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The meta-analysis demonstrated that facemask use significantly reduces the risk of transmitting these respiratory infections (pooled OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.81). Of the 12 studies, 10 clinical trials suggested that respiratory infection incidence is lower with high medical facemask compliance, early use and use in combination with intensive hand hygiene. One cohort study conducted during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic demonstrated that facemasks are effective in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission when used before those who are infected develop symptoms. One case-control study reported that controls used medical facemasks more often than cases infected with SARS-CoV (p < 0.05). No primary study on cloth facemask effectiveness to prevent respiratory infection transmission was found. CONCLUSION: Based on the available evidence, medical facemask use by healthy and sick individuals is recommended for preventing respiratory infection transmission in community settings. Medical facemask effectiveness is dependent on compliance and utilization in combination with preventive measures such as intensive hand hygiene. No direct evidence is currently available in humans supporting the recommendation of cloth facemask use to prevent respiratory infection transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
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