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1.
QJM ; 115(1): 59-60, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190230
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995025, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099272

ABSTRACT

High right minus left (R-L) asymmetry of digit ratios has been reported to be linked to hospitalization for COVID-19. Here we examined the developmental patterns of this novel form of asymmetry in children and further explored their relationships to platelet counts and hospitalization for COVID-19 in adult patients. We considered ratios calculated from four digits (2D, 3D, 4D, 5D) in: (i) a sample of healthy participants aged 2 years to 18 years (n = 680, 340 males) and (ii) 96 adult patients (42 males) hospitalized for COVID-19 and 100 controls (53 males). The protocol for (ii) included a questionnaire and laboratory test results. In sample (i) of the six unsigned digit ratio asymmetries, those which included 5D had the highest mean asymmetry with the greatest between-individual variation and they were unstable over the age range of 2 years to 18 years. In sample (ii) patients showed higher asymmetries than controls in four ratios (2D:4D, 2D:5D, 3D:5D, 4D:5D) and a sum of asymmetries of the two independent ratios (2D:4D+3D:5D) correlated positively with platelet counts and hospitalization. Conclusion: Means and SDs of digit ratio asymmetry that include the 5th digit are high and age-unstable. Digit ratio asymmetry, particularly 5th digit ratio asymmetry and a composite measure of 2D:4D + 3D:5D asymmetry, may be positively linked to high platelet counts in COVID-19 patients and to an elevated risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fingers , Adult , Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Platelet Count , Digit Ratios , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sex Characteristics , Hospitalization
3.
Cell Syst ; 13(11): 924-931.e4, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095148

ABSTRACT

Male sex is a major risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. To understand the basis for this sex difference, we studied SARS-CoV-2 infection in a young adult cohort of United States Marine recruits. Among 2,641 male and 244 female unvaccinated and seronegative recruits studied longitudinally, SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in 1,033 males and 137 females. We identified sex differences in symptoms, viral load, blood transcriptome, RNA splicing, and proteomic signatures. Females had higher pre-infection expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) programs. Causal mediation analysis implicated ISG differences in number of symptoms, levels of ISGs, and differential splicing of CD45 lymphocyte phosphatase during infection. Our results indicate that the antiviral innate immunity set point causally contributes to sex differences in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Sex Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Interferons , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17978, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087300

ABSTRACT

In the general population with COVID-19, the male sex is an established risk factor for mortality, in part due to a more robust immune response to COVID-19 in women. Because patients on kidney function replacement therapy (KFRT) have an impaired immune response, especially kidney transplant recipients due to their use of immunosuppressants, we examined whether the male sex is still a risk factor for mortality among patients on KFRT with COVID-19. From the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA), we examined patients on KFRT with COVID-19 who presented between February 1st, 2020, and April 30th, 2021. 1204 kidney transplant recipients (male 62.0%, mean age 56.4 years) and 3206 dialysis patients (male 61.8%, mean age 67.7 years) were examined. Three-month mortality in kidney transplant recipients was 16.9% in males and 18.6% in females (p = 0.31) and in dialysis patients 27.1% in males and 21.9% in females (p = 0.001). The adjusted HR for the risk of 3-month mortality in males (vs females) was 0.89 (95% CI 65, 1.23, p = 0.49) in kidney transplant recipients and 1.33 (95% CI 1.13, 1.56, p = 0.001) in dialysis patients (pinteraction = 0.02). In a fully adjusted model, the aHR for the risk of 3-month mortality in kidney transplant recipients (vs. dialysis patients) was 1.39 (95% CI 1.02, 1.89, p = 0.04) in males and 2.04 (95% CI 1.40, 2.97, p < 0.001) in females (pinteraction = 0.02). In patients on KFRT with COVID-19, the male sex is not a risk factor for mortality among kidney transplant recipients but remains a risk factor among dialysis patients. The use of immunosuppressants in kidney transplant recipients, among other factors, may have narrowed the difference in the immune response to COVID-19 between men and women, and therefore reduced the sex difference in COVID-19 mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Sex Characteristics , Risk Factors , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082345

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains an extreme threat in higher education settings, even during the off-peak period. Appropriate protective measures have been suggested to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in a large population context. Undergraduate students represent a highly vulnerable fraction of the population, so their COVID-19 protective behaviors play critical roles in enabling successful pandemic prevention. Hence, this study aims to understand what and how individual factors contribute to undergraduate students' protective behaviors. After building multigroup structural equation models using data acquired from the survey taken by 991 undergraduates at a large research university in eastern China, I found that students' COVID-19 awareness was positively associated with their protective behaviors, such as wearing a mask, using hand sanitizer, and maintaining proper social distance, but not with getting vaccinated. In addition, I found students with higher COVID-19 awareness were more likely to have more COVID-19 knowledge than those with less awareness. Furthermore, sex differences were observed in the mediation effects of COVID-19 awareness on wearing a mask and getting vaccinated, via COVID-19 knowledge, respectively. The results of this study have implications in helping higher education stakeholders enact effective measures to prevent the spread of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Students , China/epidemiology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 784, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of comorbidities and biomarkers on COVID-19 severity vary by sex but have not yet been verified in population-based studies. We examined the association of comorbidities, inflammatory biomarkers, and severe outcomes in men and women hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort analysis based on the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). We included 574,391 adult patients admitted for COVID-19 at hospitals or emergency rooms between 01/01/2020 and 12/31/2021. METHODS: We defined comorbidities at or before the first admission for COVID-19 by Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and CCI components. We used the averaged lab values taken within 15 days before or after the admission date to measure biomarkers including c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, procalcitonin, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP), d-dimer, absolute lymphocyte counts, absolute neutrophil counts, and platelets. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and hospital length of stay (LOS). We used logistic regression adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, visit type, and medications to assess the association of comorbidities, biomarkers, and mortality disaggregating by sex. RESULTS: Moderate to severe liver disease, renal disease, metastatic solid tumor, and myocardial infarction were the top four fatal comorbidities among patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] > 2). These four comorbid conditions remained the most lethal in both sexes, with a higher magnitude of risk in women than in men (p-interaction < 0.05). Abnormal elevations of CRP, ferritin, procalcitonin, NT proBNP, neutrophil, and platelet counts, and lymphocytopenia were significantly associated with the risk of death, with procalcitonin and NT proBNP as the strongest predictors (aOR > 2). The association between the abnormal biomarkers and death was stronger in women than in men (p-interaction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in inpatient mortality associated with comorbidities and biomarkers. The significant impact of these clinical determinants in women with COVID-19 may be underappreciated as previous studies stressed the increased death rate in male patients that is related to comorbidities or inflammation. Our study highlights the importance and the need for sex-disaggregated research to understand the risk factors of poor outcomes and health disparities in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins , Humans , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039873

ABSTRACT

Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates across the US and worldwide, as are its co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Thus, targeted interventions to reduce the prevalence of obesity are of the utmost importance. The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) and sigma-2 receptor (S2R; encoded by Tmem97) belong to the same class of drug-binding sites, yet they are genetically distinct. There are multiple ongoing clinical trials focused on sigma receptors, targeting diseases ranging from Alzheimer's disease through chronic pain to COVID-19. However, little is known regarding their gene-specific role in obesity. In this study, we measured body composition, used a comprehensive laboratory-animal monitoring system, and determined the glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Compared to Sigmar1+/+ mice of the same sex, the male and female Sigmar1-/- mice had lower fat mass (17% and 12% lower, respectively), and elevated lean mass (16% and 10% higher, respectively), but S1R ablation had no effect on their metabolism. The male Tmem97-/- mice exhibited 7% lower fat mass, 8% higher lean mass, increased volumes of O2 and CO2, a decreased respiratory exchange ratio indicating elevated fatty-acid oxidation, and improved insulin tolerance, compared to the male Tmem97+/+ mice. There were no changes in any of these parameters in the female Tmem97-/- mice. Together, these data indicate that the S1R ablation in male and female mice or the S2R ablation in male mice protects against diet-induced adiposity, and that S2R ablation, but not S1R deletion, improves insulin tolerance and enhances fatty-acid oxidation in male mice. Further mechanistic investigations may lead to translational strategies to target differential S1R/S2R regulations and sexual dimorphism for precision treatments of obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulins , Receptors, sigma/metabolism , Adiposity , Animals , Carbon Dioxide/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat , Female , Glucose/pharmacology , Insulins/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/genetics , Receptors, sigma/genetics , Sex Characteristics
8.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604913, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023041

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Determine the changes in clinical, pharmacological and healthcare resource use parameters, between the 6 months prior to the lockdown and the 6 months following its end, in a population with hypertension who did not have a diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: Real world data observational study of 245,979 persons aged >16 years with hypertension in Aragon (Spain). Clinical (systolic-diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides and anthropometric measures); pharmacological (diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, and ACE inhibitors); and utilization of healthcare resources were considered. We performed the Student's T-test for matched samples (quantitative) and the Chi-squared test (qualitative) to analyze differences between periods. Results: SBP, DBP, parameters of renal function and triglycerides displayed a significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, worsening in women. In men only DBP and eGFR showed a worsening, although to a lesser extent than in women. Certain antihypertensive drugs and health-resource utilization remained below pre-pandemic levels across the 6 months post-lockdown. Conclusion: Changes in lifestyles, along with difficulties in access to routine care has not substantially compromised the health and quality of life of patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Quality of Life , Sex Characteristics , Triglycerides
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 881660, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022932

ABSTRACT

Background: The differential effect of comorbidities on COVID-19 severe outcomes by sex has not been fully evaluated. Objective: To examine the association of major comorbidities and COVID-19 mortality in men and women separately. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using a large electronic health record (EHR) database in the U.S. We included adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 who also had necessary information on demographics and comorbidities from January 1, 2016 to October 31, 2021. We defined comorbidities by the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) using ICD-10 codes at or before the COVID-19 diagnosis. We conducted logistic regressions to compare the risk of death associated with comorbidities stratifying by sex. Results: A total of 121,342 patients were included in the final analysis. We found significant sex differences in the association between comorbidities and COVID-19 death. Specifically, moderate/severe liver disease, dementia, metastatic solid tumor, and heart failure and the increased number of comorbidities appeared to confer a greater magnitude of mortality risk in women compared to men. Conclusions: Our study suggests sex differences in the effect of comorbidities on COVID-19 mortality and highlights the importance of implementing sex-specific preventive or treatment approaches in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1563, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how pandemics differentially impact on the socio-protective and psychological outcomes of males and females is important to develop more equitable public health policies. We assessed whether males and females differed on measures of major depression and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 the pandemic, and if so, which sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables may affect sex differences in depression and anxiety. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of Irish adults (N = 1,032) assessed between April 30th to May 19th, 2020, during Ireland's first COVID-19 nationwide quarantine. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9), as well as 23 sociodemographic pandemic-related, and psychological variables. Sex differences on measures of depression and anxiety were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis and differences in sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables assessed using chi-square tests of independence and independent samples t-tests. RESULTS: Females were significantly more likely than males to screen positive for major depressive disorder (30.6% vs. 20.7%; χ2 (1) = 13.26, p < .001, OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.27, 2.25]), and generalised anxiety disorder (23.3% vs. 14.4%; χ2 (1) = 13.42, p < .001, OR = 1.81 [95% CI = 1.31, 2.49]). When adjusted for all other sex-varying covariates however, sex was no longer significantly associated with screening positive for depression (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.25) or GAD (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.57). CONCLUSION: Observed sex-differences in depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland are best explained by psychosocial factors of COVID-19 related anxiety, trait neuroticism, lower sleep quality, higher levels of loneliness, greater somatic problems, and, in the case of depression, increases in childcaring responsibilities and lower trait consciousnesses. Implications of these findings for public health policy and interventions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 441: 120355, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966868

ABSTRACT

"Long-COVID" is a clinical entity that consists of persisting post-infectious symptoms that last for more than three months after the onset of the first acute COVID-19 symptoms. Among these, a cluster of neurological persisting symptoms defines Neuro-Long-COVID. While the debate about the pathogenesis of Long-COVID is still ongoing, sex differences have been individuated for both the acute and the chronic stage of the infection. We conducted a retrospective study describing sex differences in a large sample of patients with Neuro-Long-COVID. Demographic and clinical data were collected in a specifically designed Neuro-Long-Covid outpatient service. Our sample included 213 patients: 151 were females and 62 were males; the mean age was similar between females (53 y, standard deviation 14) and males (55 y, standard deviation 15); no significant differences was present between the demographic features across the two groups. Despite the prevalence of the specific chronic symptoms between male and females showed no significant differences, the total number of females accessing our service was higher than that of males, confirming the higher prevalence of Neuro-Long-COVID in female individuals. Conversely, a worse acute phase response in males rather than females was confirmed by a significant difference in the rates of acute respiratory symptoms (p = 0.008), dyspnea (p = 0.018), respiratory failure (p = 0.010) and the consequent need for ventilation (p = 0.015), together with other acute symptoms such as palpitations (p = 0.049), headache (p = 0.001) and joint pain (p = 0.049). Taken together, these findings offer a subgroup analysis based on sex-dependent characteristics, which can support a tailored-medicine approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055308, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 can result in persistent symptoms leaving potential rehabilitation needs unmet. This study aims to describe persistent symptoms and health status of individuals hospitalised for COVID-19 according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of impairments, limitations in activity, and participation restrictions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study consisting in a telephone interview 3 months after hospital discharge. SETTING: This study was conducted during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic by the Local Health Authority of Reggio Emilia (Italy). PARTICIPANTS: Adult individuals discharged from hospital between April and June 2020 after COVID-19. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: hospitalisation for reasons other than COVID-19, inability to participate in the study, concomitant acute or chronic conditions causing disability. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed: dyspnoea (Medical Research Council), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), mood disturbances (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), limitations in activity (Barthel Index) and participation restrictions (Reintegration to Normal Living Index). We also collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status prior to COVID-19, COVID-related clinical manifestations and hospital care pathway up to discharge, rehabilitation interventions, accidental falls and emergency room access. RESULTS: 149 participants (men, 62%; average age 62 (±11) years) were enrolled, 35 of which (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) while hospitalised. Three months after hospital discharge, nearly half of the participants still suffered from dyspnoea (44%) or fatigue (39%). Almost all individuals (91.2%) recovered a good level of independence in activity of daily living, but 76% still suffered participation restrictions. Female sex was significantly associated with worse outcomes for all symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who had moderate or severe COVID-19 may perceive persistent symptoms which may result in reduced social participation. Sex differences should be monitored, as women may recover more slowly than men. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04438239.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Sex Characteristics , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(8): 1111-1123, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905982

ABSTRACT

Sex presents a vital determinant of a person's physiology, anatomy, and development. Recent clinical studies indicate that sex is also involved in the differential manifestation of various diseases, affecting both clinical outcome as well as response to therapy. Genetic and epigenetic changes are implicated in sex bias and regulate disease onset, including the inactivation of the X chromosome as well as sex chromosome aneuploidy. The differential expression of X-linked genes, along with the presence of sex-specific hormones, exhibits a significant impact on immune system function. Several studies have revealed differences between the two sexes in response to infections, including respiratory diseases and COVID-19 infection, autoimmune disorders, liver fibrosis, neuropsychiatric diseases, and cancer susceptibility, which can be explained by sex-biased immune responses. In the present review, we explore the input of genetic and epigenetic interplay in the sex bias underlying disease manifestation and discuss their effects along with sex hormones on disease development and progression, aiming to reveal potential new therapeutic targets. KEY MESSAGES: Sex is involved in the differential manifestation of various diseases. Epigenetic modifications influence X-linked gene expression, affecting immune response to infections, including COVID-19. Epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for the sex bias observed in several respiratory and autoimmune disorders, liver fibrosis, neuropsychiatric diseases, and cancer.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Sex Characteristics , Sexism
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(22): 3789-3806, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901174

ABSTRACT

Here, we describe the results of a genome-wide study conducted in 11 939 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive cases with an extensive clinical information that were recruited from 34 hospitals across Spain (SCOURGE consortium). In sex-disaggregated genome-wide association studies for COVID-19 hospitalization, genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) was crossed for variants in 3p21.31 and 21q22.11 loci only among males (P = 1.3 × 10-22 and P = 8.1 × 10-12, respectively), and for variants in 9q21.32 near TLE1 only among females (P = 4.4 × 10-8). In a second phase, results were combined with an independent Spanish cohort (1598 COVID-19 cases and 1068 population controls), revealing in the overall analysis two novel risk loci in 9p13.3 and 19q13.12, with fine-mapping prioritized variants functionally associated with AQP3 (P = 2.7 × 10-8) and ARHGAP33 (P = 1.3 × 10-8), respectively. The meta-analysis of both phases with four European studies stratified by sex from the Host Genetics Initiative (HGI) confirmed the association of the 3p21.31 and 21q22.11 loci predominantly in males and replicated a recently reported variant in 11p13 (ELF5, P = 4.1 × 10-8). Six of the COVID-19 HGI discovered loci were replicated and an HGI-based genetic risk score predicted the severity strata in SCOURGE. We also found more SNP-heritability and larger heritability differences by age (<60 or ≥60 years) among males than among females. Parallel genome-wide screening of inbreeding depression in SCOURGE also showed an effect of homozygosity in COVID-19 hospitalization and severity and this effect was stronger among older males. In summary, new candidate genes for COVID-19 severity and evidence supporting genetic disparities among sexes are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Genetic Loci , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(8): 797-806, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899222

ABSTRACT

Men are more likely than women to die due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An open question is whether these sex differences reflect men's generally poorer health and lower life expectancy compared to women of similar ages or if men face a unique COVID-19 disadvantage. Using age-specific data on COVID-19 mortality as well as cause-specific and all-cause mortality for 63 countries, we compared the sex difference in COVID-19 mortality to sex differences in all-cause mortality and mortality from other common causes of death to determine the magnitude of the excess male mortality disadvantage for COVID-19. We found that sex differences in the age-standardized COVID-19 mortality rate were substantially larger than for the age-standardized all-cause mortality rate and mortality rate for most other common causes of death. The excess male mortality disadvantage for COVID-19 was especially large in the oldest age groups. Our findings suggest that the causal pathways that link male sex to a higher mortality from a SARS-CoV-2 infection may be specific to SARS-CoV-2, rather than shared with the pathways responsible for the shorter life expectancy among men or sex differences for other common causes of death. Understanding these causal chains could assist in the development of therapeutics and preventive measures for COVID-19 and, possibly, other coronavirus diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Life Expectancy , Male , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
17.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(8): 1391-1399, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895655

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We conducted literature reviews to uncover differential effects of sex on sequelae from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and on long COVID syndrome. METHODS: Two authors independently searched OvidSP in Embase, Medline, Biosis, and Derwent Drug File. Publications reporting original, sex-disaggregated data for sequelae of COVID-19 (published before August 2020) and long COVID syndrome (published before June 2021) were included in the reviews. The association between COVID-19 sequelae (i.e. lasting <4 weeks after symptom onset) and sex, and between long COVID syndrome (i.e. lasting >4 weeks after symptom onset) and sex, was determined by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) (statistical significance defined by 95% CI not including 1). RESULTS: Of 4346 publications identified, 23 and 12 met eligibility criteria for COVID-19 sequelae and long COVID syndrome, respectively. COVID-19 sequelae in the categories of psychiatric/mood (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.35-2.41), ENT (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.39-1.46), musculoskeletal (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.14-1.16), and respiratory (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.08-1.11) were significantly more likely among females (vs. males), whereas renal sequelae (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.93) were significantly more likely among males. The likelihood of having long COVID syndrome was significantly greater among females (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.13-1.32), with the odds of ENT (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.94-2.67), GI (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.04-2.44), psychiatric/mood (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.37-1.82), neurological (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03-1.63), dermatological (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.58), and other (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25-1.49) disorders significantly higher among females and the odds of endocrine (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.69-0.81) and renal disorders (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.64-0.86) significantly higher among males. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-disaggregated differences for COVID-19 sequelae and long COVID syndrome were observed. Few COVID-19 studies report sex-disaggregated data, underscoring the need for further sex-based research/reporting of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics
18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 533: 42-47, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) is a global public health emergency. Age and gender are two important factors related to the risk and outcome of various diseases. Cycle threshold (Ct) value is believed to have relation with age and gender. OBJECTIVE: This study has been conducted to investigates the association between SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold to age and gender of COVID-19 patients, to investigate whether the population-wide change of SARSCoV2 RTPCR Ct value over time is corelated to the number of new COVID19 cases and to investigate the dynamic of RdRp and N genes. METHODS: 72,811 individuals from second wave of COVID19, were observed in current study at Pure Health Lab, Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. RESULTS: 15,201/72,811 (21 %) positivity was observed. COVID-19 were more prevalent in males (59.35%) as compared to female (40.65%). The Positivity rate were significantly higher in Male than in Female cases (p-Value = 0.04). The Ct values for both targets of all the samples were ranged from 4.57 to 29.73. Longitudinal analysis showed significant increased during the study period from starting to end as were hypothesized. Interestingly, both the targets (RdRp and N) were present in age < 1 year. Which may indicate that mutated strains are not prevalent in children's < 1 year. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in viral loads in between age-groups. Males were tending to higher viral load compared to females. The findings have implications for preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Distribution , Child , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sex Characteristics
19.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884388

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: We aimed to assess the effect of COPD in the incidence of hospital admissions for COVID-19 and on the in-hospital mortality (IHM) according to sex. (2) Methods: We used national hospital discharge data to select persons aged ≥40 years admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 2020 in Spain. (3) Results: The study population included 218,301 patients. Age-adjusted incidence rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations for men with and without COPD were 10.66 and 9.27 per 1000 persons, respectively (IRR 1.14; 95% CI 1.08-1.20; p < 0.001). The IHM was higher in men than in women regardless of the history of COPD. The COPD was associated with higher IHM among women (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) but not among men. The COPD men had a 25% higher risk of dying in the hospital with COVID-19 than women with COPD (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.1-1.42). (4) Conclusions: Sex differences seem to exist in the effect of COPD among patients suffering COVID-19. The history of COPD increased the risk of hospitalization among men but not among women, and COPD was only identified as a risk factor for IHM among women. In any case, we observed that COPD men had a higher mortality than COPD women. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these sex differences could help predict the patient outcomes and inform clinical decision making to facilitate early treatment and disposition decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Spain/epidemiology
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(21): 2085-2093, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male sex in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) has a low incidence and it is still not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to describe TTS sex differences. METHODS: TTS patients enrolled in the international multicenter GEIST (GErman Italian Spanish Takotsubo) registry were analyzed. Comparisons between sexes were performed within the overall cohort and using an adjusted analysis with 1:1 propensity score matching for age, comorbidities, and kind of trigger. RESULTS: In total, 286 (11%) of 2,492 TTS patients were men. Male patients were younger (age 69 ± 13 years vs 71 ± 11 years; P = 0.005), with higher prevalence of comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus 25% vs 19%; P = 0.01; pulmonary diseases 21% vs 15%; P = 0.006; malignancies 25% vs 13%; P < 0.001) and physical trigger (55 vs 32% P < 0.01). Propensity-score matching yielded 207 patients from each group. After 1:1 propensity matching, male patients had higher rates of cardiogenic shock and in-hospital mortality (16% vs 6% and 8% vs 3%, respectively; both P < 0.05). Long-term mortality rate was 4.3% per patient-year (men 10%, women 3.8%). Survival analysis showed higher mortality rate in men during the acute phase in both cohorts (overall: P < 0.001; matched: P = 0.001); mortality rate after 60 days was higher in men in the overall (P = 0.002) but not in the matched cohort (P = 0.541). Within the overall population, male sex remained independently associated with both in-hospital (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.16-4.40) and long-term mortality (HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.32-2.52). CONCLUSIONS: Male TTS is featured by a distinct high-risk phenotype requiring close in-hospital monitoring and long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology
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