Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 159
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597185

ABSTRACT

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor activation via exercise or CL316,243 (CL) induces white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces visceral adiposity. Our aim was to determine if sex or adipose tissue depot differences exist in response to CL. Daily CL injections were administered to diet-induced obese male and female mice for two weeks, creating four groups: male control, male CL, female control, and female CL. These groups were compared to determine the main and interaction effects of sex (S), CL treatment (T), and WAT depot (D). Glucose tolerance, body composition, and energy intake and expenditure were assessed, along with perigonadal (PGAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) WAT gene and protein expression. CL consistently improved glucose tolerance and body composition. Female PGAT had greater protein expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), while SQAT (S, p < 0.001) was more responsive to CL in increasing UCP1 (S×T, p = 0.011) and the mitochondrial biogenesis induction protein, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (S×T, p = 0.026). Females also displayed greater mitochondrial OXPHOS (S, p < 0.05) and adiponectin protein content (S, p < 0.05). On the other hand, male SQAT was more responsive to CL in increasing protein levels of PGC1α (S×T, p = 0.046) and adiponectin (S, p < 0.05). In both depots and in both sexes, CL significantly increased estrogen receptor beta (ERß) and glucose-related protein 75 (GRP75) protein content (T, p < 0.05). Thus, CL improves systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolism in both sexes; however, sex differences exist in the WAT-specific effects of CL. Furthermore, across sexes and depots, CL affects estrogen signaling by upregulating ERß.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/growth & development , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Body Composition/genetics , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Male , Mice , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism , Sex Characteristics
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has affected people's health in various ways. University students are a particularly sensitive group for mental and physical health issues. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the mental and physical health of male and female first-year university students during and before COVID-19. METHOD: Total of 115 first-year university students (54% male) answered questions about mental and physical health. The students were asked to estimate their physical activity, sedentary behavior, loneliness, stress, and sleep quality during COVID-19 opposed to before the pandemic. RESULT: Males had fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, and their self-esteem was higher than females (p<0.05). Over 50% of both genders estimated their mental health to be worse than before COVID-19. Larger proportion of males (69%) compared to females (38%) estimated that their physical health had worsened than before the pandemic. Larger proportion of females (38%) than males (14%) experience increased loneliness and stress (68% vs. 48%). Over 70% of both genders estimated increased sedentary behavior than before the pandemic, and larger proportion of males (76%), compared to females (56%), estimated that they were less physically active than before COVID-19. About 50% of participants estimated their sleep quality was worse than before COVID-19. CONCLUSION: University students estimated their mental and physical health to have deteriorated during the pandemic. Therefore, it is important that the school and healthcare systems assist students in unwinding these negative health and lifestyle changes that have accompanied the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Characteristics , Young Adult
3.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 14(1): 54, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis of susceptibility factors to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global health imperative. It is well-established that males are more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection and exhibit more severe outcomes. Similarly, exposure to air pollutants and pre-existing respiratory chronic conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) confer an increased risk to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We investigated molecular patterns associated with risk factors in 398 candidate genes relevant to COVID-19 biology. To accomplish this, we downloaded DNA methylation and gene expression data sets from publicly available repositories (GEO and GTEx Portal) and utilized data from an empirical controlled human exposure study conducted by our team. RESULTS: First, we observed sex-biased DNA methylation patterns in autosomal immune genes, such as NLRP2, TLE1, GPX1, and ARRB2 (FDR < 0.05, magnitude of DNA methylation difference Δß > 0.05). Second, our analysis on the X-linked genes identified sex associated DNA methylation profiles in genes, such as ACE2, CA5B, and HS6ST2 (FDR < 0.05, Δß > 0.05). These associations were observed across multiple respiratory tissues (lung, nasal epithelia, airway epithelia, and bronchoalveolar lavage) and in whole blood. Some of these genes, such as NLRP2 and CA5B, also exhibited sex-biased gene expression patterns. In addition, we found differential DNA methylation patterns by COVID-19 status for genes, such as NLRP2 and ACE2 in an exploratory analysis of an empirical data set reporting on human COVID-9 infections. Third, we identified modest DNA methylation changes in CpGs associated with PRIM2 and TATDN1 (FDR < 0.1, Δß > 0.05) in response to particle-depleted diesel exhaust in bronchoalveolar lavage. Finally, we captured a DNA methylation signature associated with COPD diagnosis in a gene involved in nicotine dependence (COMT) (FDR < 0.1, Δß > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings on sex differences might be of clinical relevance given that they revealed molecular associations of sex-biased differences in COVID-19. Specifically, our results hinted at a potentially exaggerated immune response in males linked to autosomal genes, such as NLRP2. In contrast, our findings at X-linked loci such as ACE2 suggested a potentially distinct DNA methylation pattern in females that may interact with its mRNA expression and inactivation status. We also found tissue-specific DNA methylation differences in response to particulate exposure potentially capturing a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) effect-a contributor to COVID-19 susceptibility. While we identified a molecular signature associated with COPD, all COPD-affected individuals were smokers, which may either reflect an association with the disease, smoking, or may highlight a compounded effect of these two risk factors in COVID-19. Overall, our findings point towards a molecular basis of variation in susceptibility factors that may partly explain disparities in the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosomes, Human, X , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Female , Genes, X-Linked , Glutathione Peroxidase/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Sulfotransferases/genetics , Young Adult , beta-Arrestin 2/genetics
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 352: 109777, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection of patients based on sex and disease severity. METHODS: We used an analytical framework of 382 transcriptional modules and multi-omics analyses to discriminate COVID-19 patients based on sex and disease severity. RESULTS: Male and female patients overexpressed modules related to the innate immune response. The expression of modules related to the adaptive immune response showed lower enrichment levels in males than females. Inflammation modules showed ascending overexpression in male and female patients, while a higher level was observed in severe female patients. Moderate female patients demonstrated significant overexpression to interferon, cytolytic lymphocyte, T & B cells, and erythrocytes modules. Moderate female patients showed a higher adaptive immune response than males matched group. Pathways involved in metabolism dysregulation and Hippo signaling were upregulated in females than in male patients. Females and moderate cases showed higher levels of metabolic dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The immune landscape in COVID-19 patients was noticeably different between the sexes, and these differences may highlight disease vulnerability in males. This study suggested that certain treatments that increase or decrease the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 might be necessary for male and female patients at certain disease stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics
5.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546396

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a public health concern globally, with generally higher prevalence rates in boys compared to girls. Although biological sex is an important determinant, gender roles and norms influence the exposure and vulnerability to risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Norms and roles might be reinforced or change due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related measures as well as the exposure to risk factors for childhood obesity. COVID-19 related changes, such as home confinement, influence a child's risk of obesity. Using Dahlgren and Whitehead's model of the main determinants of health, this paper aims to provide a roadmap for future research on sex, gender, and childhood obesity during the time of COVID-19. It examines how COVID-19 has led to important changes in children's general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions, social and community networks, and individual lifestyle factors and how these may affect a child's risk for obesity. It focuses on the influence of gender and sex and outlines key considerations and indicators to examine in future studies concerned with promoting health and gender equity and equality. We need to understand the differential impact of COVID-19 related measures on girls' and boys' risk for obesity to adequately react with preventive measures, policies, and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538436

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with both increased anxiety, deterioration in diet and weight gain. These associations may differ by sex. The present report examines differences by sex in diet quality in order to determine whether associations between diet and psychological stress during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic differed by sex. This online study is available internationally in seven languages. The Mediterranean Diet Score was used to measure diet quality, while the General Anxiety Disorder 7-point scale (GAD-7) was used to measure anxiety. Findings were compared by self-reported sex (male vs. female). A total of 3797 respondents provided informed consent and met eligibility criteria, of whom 526 women were omitted due to being pregnant or six months or less post-partum, or due to reproductive status not being reported. Thus, 3271 individuals are included in the present report, of whom 71.2% were women. The median age of women was 30 (interquartile range (IQR) = 16) years vs. 31 (IQR = 19) years, p = 0.079. The median diet quality score was 9 (IQ = 3) in both women and men (p = 0.75). Despite the overall similarity in diet score, several components of the score differed significantly by sex. Women reported consuming significantly more olive oil, daily servings of vegetables, and weekly servings of sweet baked goods. Men reported consuming significantly more sweetened/carbonated drinks, red meat, alcohol, legumes, and hummus/tahini. Women reported a GAD-7 score of 6 (IQR = 8), while men reported 3 (6), p < 0.001. An inverse association was detected between the Mediterranean diet score and the GAD-7 score in both women (rho = -0.166, p < 0.001) and men (rho = -0.154, p < 0.001), and the correlation coefficients did not differ by sex (p = 0.76). Mediterranean diet score and age both reduced the odds of elevated anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10), while female sex, deterioration of diet quality during the outbreak, unemployment, and completing the survey in English increased the odds of this outcome. During the COVID-19 lockdowns, overall diet quality did not differ by sex; however, some differences by sex in components of the total score were detected. Moderate to severe anxiety was positively associated with female sex and poorer diet quality even after controlling for age, employment status, and the language in which the survey was performed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Food Preferences/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): 143-144, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518755
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739757, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a sex bias with males showing signs of more severe disease and hospitalizations compared with females. The mechanisms are not clear but differential immune responses, particularly the initial innate immune response, between sexes may be playing a role. The early innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have not been studied because of the gap in timing between the patient becoming infected, showing symptoms, and getting the treatment. The primary objective of the present study was to compare the response of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes from males and females to SARS-CoV-2, 24 h after infection. To investigate this, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy young individuals were stimulated in vitro with the virus. Our results indicate that PBMCs from females upregulated the expression of HLA-DR and CD86 on pDCs and mDCs after stimulation with the virus, while the activation of these cells was not significant in males. Monocytes from females also displayed increased activation than males. In addition, females secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IL-29 compared with males at 24 h. However, the situation was reversed at 1 week post stimulation and males displayed high levels of IFN-α production compared with females. Further investigations revealed that the secretion of CXCL-10, a chemokine associated with lung complications, was higher in males than females at 24 h. The PBMCs from females also displayed increased induction of CTLs. Altogether, our results suggest that decreased activation of pDCs, mDCs, and monocytes and the delayed and prolonged IFN-α secretion along with increased CXCL-10 secretion may be responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality of males to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Characteristics , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e24184, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, Text4Hope-a community health service-was provided to Alberta residents. This free service aims to promote psychological resilience and alleviate pandemic-associated stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feedback, satisfaction, experience, and perceptions of Text4Hope subscribers and to examine any differences based on gender after subscribers received 6 weeks of daily supportive text messages. Additionally, this study examined subscribers' anticipated receptivity to technology-based medical services that could be offered during major crises, emergencies, or pandemics. METHODS: Individuals self-subscribed to Text4Hope to receive daily supportive text messages for 3 months. Subscribers were invited to complete a web-based survey at 6 weeks postintervention to provide service satisfaction-related information. Overall satisfaction was assessed on a scale of 0-10, and satisfaction scores were analyzed using a related-measures t test. Likert scale satisfaction responses were used to assess various aspects of the Text4Hope program. Gender differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square analyses. RESULTS: A total of 2032 subscribers completed the baseline and 6-week surveys; 1788 (88%) were female, 219 (10.8%) were male, and 25 (1.2%) were other gender. The mean age of study participants was 44.58 years (SD 13.45 years). The mean overall satisfaction score was 8.55 (SD 1.78), suggesting high overall satisfaction with Text4Hope. The ANOVA analysis, which was conducted using the Welch test (n=1716), demonstrated that females had significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than males (8.65 vs 8.11, respectively; mean difference=0.546; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91; P<.001) and nonsignificantly lower satisfaction scores than other gender respondents (mean difference=-0.938; 95% CI -0.37 to 2.25; P=.15). More than 70% of subscribers agreed that Text4Hope helped them cope with stress (1334/1731, 77.1%) and anxiety (1309/1728, 75.8%), feel connected to a support system (1400/1729, 81%), manage COVID-19-related issues (1279/1728, 74%), and improve mental well-being (1308/1731, 75.6%). Similarly, subscribers agreed that messages were positive, affirmative, and succinct. Messages were always or often read by 97.9% (1681/1716) of respondents, and more than 20% (401/1716, 23.4%) always or often returned to messages. The majority of subscribers (1471/1666, 88.3%) read the messages and either reflected upon them or took a positive action. Subscribers welcomed almost all technology-based services as part of their health care during crisis or emergency situations. Text4Hope was perceived to be effective by many female subscribers, who reported higher satisfaction and improved coping after receiving text messages for 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents affirmed the high quality of the text messages with their positive feedback. Technology-based services can provide remotely accessible and population-level interventions that align with the recommended physical distancing practices for pandemics. Text4Hope subscriber feedback revealed high satisfaction and acceptance at 6 weeks postintervention. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/19292.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Adult , Alberta/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Technology
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470670

ABSTRACT

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) preferentially infects and causes Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in male patients. However, the biological mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was novel in confirming the extensive nuclear distribution of the androgen receptor (AR) and its co-localization with viral oncoprotein of latency-associated nuclear antigen in KS lesions, indicating a transcription way of AR in KS pathogenesis. The endogenous AR was also remarkably higher in KSHV-positive B cells than in KSHV-negative cells and responded to the ligand treatment of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the agonist of AR. Then, the anti-AR antibody-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-associated sequencing was used to identify the target viral genes of AR, revealing that the AR bound to multiple regions of lytic genes in the KSHV genome. The highest peak was enriched in the core promoter sequence of polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN), and the physical interaction was verified by ChIP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Consistently, male steroid treatment significantly transactivated the promoter activity of PAN in luciferase reporter assay, consequently leading to extensive lytic gene expression and KSHV production as determined by real-time quantitative PCR, and the deletion of nuclear localization signals of AR resulted in the loss of nuclear transport and transcriptional activity in the presence of androgen and thus impaired the expression of PAN RNA. Oncogenically, this study identified that the AR was a functional prerequisite for cell invasion, especially under the context of KSHV reactivation, through hijacking the PAN as a critical effector. Taken together, a novel mechanism from male sex steroids to viral noncoding RNA was identified, which might provide a clue to understanding the male propensity in KS.


Subject(s)
RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Sarcoma, Kaposi/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Carcinogenesis/metabolism , Female , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Humans , Male , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism
14.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 983-988, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455308

ABSTRACT

We measured anti-spike (S), nucleoprotein (N), and neutralizing antibodies in sera from 308 healthcare workers with a positive reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and with mild disease, collected at 2 timepoints up to 6 months after symptom onset. At month 1, anti-S and -N antibody levels were higher in male participants aged >50 years and participants with a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. At months 3-6, anti-S and anti-N antibodies were detected in 99% and 59% of individuals, respectively. Anti-S antibodies and neutralizing antibodies declined faster in men than in women, independent of age and BMI, suggesting an association of sex with evolution of the humoral response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Sex Characteristics , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , HEK293 Cells , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174548, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446596

ABSTRACT

The importance of sex differences is increasingly acknowledged in the incidence and treatment of disease. Accumulating clinical evidence demonstrates that sex differences are noticeable in COVID-19, and the prevalence, severity, and mortality rate of COVID-19 are higher among males than females. Sex-related genetic and hormonal factors and immunological responses may underlie the sex bias in COVID-19 patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease/serine subfamily member 2 (TMPRSS2) are essential proteins involved in the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Since ACE2 is encoded on the X-chromosome, a double copy of ACE2 in females may compensate for virus-mediated downregulation of ACE2, and thus ACE2-mediated cellular protection is greater in females. The X chromosome also contains the largest immune-related genes leading females to develop more robust immune responses than males. Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR-7), one of the key players in innate immunity, is linked to sex differences in autoimmunity and vaccine efficacy, and its expression is greater in females. Sex steroids also affect immune cell function. Estrogen contributes to higher CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation levels, and females have more B cells than males. Sex differences not only affect the severity and progression of the disease, but also alter the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and adverse events related to the drugs/vaccines used against COVID-19. Administration of different drugs/vaccines in different doses or intervals may be useful to eliminate sex differences in efficacy and side/adverse effects. It should be noted that studies should include sex-specific analyses to develop further sex-specific treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Sex Characteristics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): e26-e27, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443125
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428994

ABSTRACT

The 2020 US mortality totaled 2.8 million after early March, which is 17.3% higher than age-population-weighted mortality over the same time interval in 2017 to 2019, for a total excess death count of 413,592. We use data on weekly death counts by cause, as well as life tables, to quantify excess mortality and life years lost from both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 causes by race/ethnicity, age, and gender/sex. Excess mortality from non-COVID-19 causes is substantial and much more heavily concentrated among males and minorities, especially Black, non-Hispanic males, than COVID-19 deaths. Thirty-four percent of the excess life years lost for males is from non-COVID-19 causes. While minorities represent 36% of COVID-19 deaths, they represent 70% of non-COVID-19 related excess deaths and 58% of non-COVID-19 excess life years lost. Black, non-Hispanic males represent only 6.9% of the population, but they are responsible for 8.9% of COVID-19 deaths and 28% of 2020 excess deaths from non-COVID-19 causes. For this group, nearly half of the excess life years lost in 2020 are due to non-COVID-19 causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Health Status Disparities , Minority Groups , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720952, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417084

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has increased awareness about sex-specific differences in immunity and outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Strong evidence of a male bias in COVID-19 disease severity is hypothesized to be mediated by sex differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. This hypothesis is based on data from other viral infections, including influenza viruses, HIV, hepatitis viruses, and others that have demonstrated sex-specific immunity to viral infections. Although males are more susceptible to most viral infections, females possess immunological features that render them more vulnerable to distinct immune-related disease outcomes. Both sex chromosome complement and related genes as well as sex steroids play important roles in mediating the development of sex differences in immunity to viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...