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1.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
3.
BMJ ; 381: 845, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296951
4.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasms/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , United States
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 5(3): e109-e111, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280410
6.
J Affect Disord ; 325: 453-458, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may unfavourably affect the mental health of individuals in various ways. Accordingly, the concern has been raised that national suicide rates will increase in the wake of the outbreak of the pandemic. METHODS: In the current study, we tested this conjecture in three age groups (<25; 25-64; ≥65) of the Hungarian total population and the male and female populations. In addition, we assessed whether the pandemic had different effects on counts of suicides committed by violent or non-violent methods. Finally, by comparing the monthly suicide rates in 2020 and the corresponding monthly rates in 2019, we also investigated the "pulling together" hypothesis that postulates that a temporary decrease in suicides may occur after large-scale catastrophic events. RESULTS: With regard to the total population only the suicide counts of individuals aged 25-64 rose significantly (p < 0.05) during the COVID months of 2020. Similar patterns, but at lower levels of significance (0.05 < p < 0.1), were found in those members of the total population aged 65 or older and among males aged between 25 and 64. Furthermore, we found that the number of violent suicides increased significantly (p < 0.05) during the COVID months. Finally, our results have not confirmed the existence of a "pulling together" phenomenon in association with the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary. LIMITATIONS: We used non-individual level data and were therefore unable to control suicide risk factors at the level of individuals. DISCUSSION: The number of suicides rose significantly in some subgroups of the Hungarian population during the COVID months of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hungary/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Firearms cause the most suicides (60%) and homicides (36%) in the US. The high lethality and availability of firearms make them a particularly dangerous method of attempted violence. The aim of this study was to study US trends in firearm suicide and homicide mortality and years of potential life lost before age 75 (YPLL-75) between 1981 and 2020. METHODS: Data in this cross-sectional study were collected between 1981 and 2020 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s WISQARS database for fatal injury and violence. Data from the US population were considered for all age groups and were divided by racial groups and sex for analysis. RESULTS: Those most heavily impacted by firearm homicide were Black, with homicide age-adjusted death rates almost seven times higher than White people. A spike in firearm homicide deaths occurred between 2019 and 2020, with Black people having the largest increase (39%). White people had the highest rates of firearm suicide, and suicide death rates increased between 2019 and 2020. Increases in homicide and suicide YPLL-75 between 2011 and 2020 had most heavily impacted minority populations. Men had a firearm suicide rate that was seven times higher than women, and a firearm homicide rate that was five times higher than women. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Black and White men were most impacted by firearm deaths, and that firearm homicide and suicide rates increased between 2019 and 2020 for all racial groups except Asian/Pacific Islander. Our results suggest that prevention efforts should focus on specific demographic factors and articulate the urgency to mitigate firearm-related deaths in the US.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Suicide , Wounds, Gunshot , Male , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Distribution , Sex Distribution , Homicide , Racial Groups
8.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(2): 233-242, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The year 2020 in the extent of HCV infection was set for the first milestones on the road to the eradication of HCV infection in 2030. In addition, in 2020 there was a global public health crisis - the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiological situation of HCV infection based on epidemiological surveillance data in Poland in 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of: 1) individual data from surveillance in 2020 conducted by EpiBaza system; 2) diagnosis rate from bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" for the years 2014-2020; and 3) data about deaths due to hepatitis C from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of Statistics Poland. RESULTS: In 2020, there was a significant decrease in the number of reported cases and thus in the diagnosis rate of HCV infection in Poland - 955 HCV infections were reported (2.49/100,000 - in comparison with 2019, 3.5 times less). The decrease occurred in all voivodeships (ranging from 0.50 to 6.37/100,000), we observe more districts in which HCV infections were not detected (in 2020 - 35.3%; in 2019 - 16.8%). The diagnosis rate of HCV infection in women and men was at a similar level. However, large disproportions are visible if age groups are considered in addition to gender. For years, we have observed a variation of the diagnosis rate of HCV infection depending on the environment of residence - also in 2020, higher values were reported overall in residents of urban than in rural areas (2.90 vs. 1.88/100,000). In 2.9% of newly diagnosed HCV infections, at the same time cirrhosis was already present, 0.4% had liver failure, and 0.1% had hepatocellular carcinoma. Among exposures of HCV infection, those related to nosocomial transmission still dominate (59%), also in acute hepatitis C (60%). One-third of reported infections were diagnosed in primary health care, and one in four were diagnosed during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this paper show that the COVID-19 pandemic deepened the inequalities observed for years in HCV areas. Establishing a diverse system of testing and linking to care in Poland, reaching those in the greatest risk of ongoing transmission of HCV infection, and providing methodologically correct studies to assess progress in the eradication of HCV infection is becoming increasingly urgent to achieve the planned 2030 WHO targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Registries , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Urban Population
9.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(4): 201-208, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems that affect different population groups. According to the national survey in 2015 based on General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), 23.44% of Iranians older than 15 years were suspected of having a mental disorder. The study aimed to determine the mental health status of the population over 15 years of age in the Islamic Republic of Iran, one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: The population-based study was performed on 24584 individuals over 15 years of age in Iran between December and February, 2020. The GHQ-28 was completed through telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent t-test, and multiple logistic regression at 95% confidence level. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean age of participants was 44.18±16.47 years. The prevalence of mental disorders was 29.7%. Mental disorder was associated with female gender (OR=1.195, 95% CI 1.10-1.29), 25-44 years (OR=1.206, 95% CI 1.06-1.36), urban life (OR=1.116, 95% CI 1.04-1.19), illiteracy (OR=1.286, 95% CI 1.11-1.48), being divorced (OR=1.924, 95% CI 1.50- 2.45), and unemployment (OR=1.657, 95% CI 1.40-1.94). Among the participants and their families, 14.7% and 32.3% were infected with the disease, respectively. The COVID-19 mortality rate in their families was 13.2%. The prevalence of mental disorders in infected people (40% vs. 27.3%) and bereaved families (39.6% vs. 35.3%) was more than the non-infected groups. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that in Iran, the mental health of the general population had a rising trend compared to 2015, especially in people infected with COVID-19 and bereaved families. The observed difference may be due to the prevalence of the COVID-19 epidemic and rapid demographic, social, and economic changes in Iran. Planning to improve mental health in the mentioned population should be considered for the post COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Forecasting , Health Status , Health Surveys , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Rural Population , Sampling Studies , Sex Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population
11.
Child Abuse Negl ; 127: 105573, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719456

ABSTRACT

India has the highest number of suicides in the world. Indian men account for a quarter of global suicides, while Indian women account for 36% of all global suicides in the 15-39 age group. One suicide every 25 min. These are not isolated incidents. Mental health experts say that one of the main reasons for this situation is rampant domestic violence. India's official data are hugely underestimated and do not convey the true scale of the problem. Women from this country are responsible for 36% of global female suicide deaths. In a country like India, with its wide sociocultural variations, there can be multiple risk factors: hanging, pesticide consumption, drug overdose, and self-immolation. Access to these "lethal" resources is an important factor.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence , Suicide , Asian People , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Sex Distribution
14.
Ann Surg ; 275(3): 435-437, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707712

ABSTRACT

Sex inequity in academic achievement was well documented before the COVID-19 pandemic, and evolving data suggest that women in academic surgery are disproportionately disadvantaged by the pandemic. This perspective piece reviews currently accepted solutions to the sex achievement gap, with their associated shortcomings. We also propose innovative strategies to overcoming barriers to sex equity in academic medicine that broadly fall into three categories: strategies to mitigate inequitable caregiving responsibilities, strategies to reduce cognitive load, and strategies to value uncompensated, impactful work. These approaches address inequities at the system-level, as opposed to the individual-level, lifting the burden of changing the system from women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Female , Humans , Sex Distribution
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 306-312, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707039

ABSTRACT

Suicide was among the 10 leading causes of death in the United States in 2020 among persons aged 10-64 years, and the second leading cause of death among children and adolescents aged 10-14 and adults aged 25-34 years (1). During 1999-2020, nearly 840,000 lives were lost to suicide in the United States. During that period, the overall suicide rate peaked in 2018 and declined in 2019 and 2020 (1). Despite the recent decline in the suicide rate, factors such as social isolation, economic decline, family stressors, new or worsening mental health symptoms, and disruptions to work and school associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have raised concerns about suicide risk in the United States. During 2020, a total of 12.2 million U.S. adults reported serious thoughts of suicide and 1.2 million attempted suicide (2). To understand how changes in suicide death rates might have varied among subpopulations, CDC analyzed counts and age-adjusted suicide rates during 2019 and 2020 by demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, county urbanization level, and state. From 2019 to 2020, the suicide rate declined by 3% overall, including 8% among females and 2% among males. Significant declines occurred in seven states but remained stable in the other states and the District of Columbia. Despite two consecutive years of declines, the overall suicide rate remains 30% higher compared with that in 2000 (1). A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention that uses data driven decision-making and implements prevention strategies with the best available evidence, especially among disproportionately affected populations (3), is critical to realizing further declines in suicide and reaching the national goal of reducing the suicide rate by 20% by 2025 (4).


Subject(s)
Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Urbanization , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(3): 454-464, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical data from the first 108 patients seen in the Mayo Clinic post-COVID-19 care clinic (PCOCC). METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed the charts of the first 108 patients seen between January 19, 2021, and April 29, 2021, in the PCOCC and abstracted from the electronic medical record into a standardized database to facilitate analysis. Patients were grouped into phenotypes by expert review. RESULTS: Most of the patients seen in our clinic were female (75%; 81/108), and the median age at presentation was 46 years (interquartile range, 37 to 55 years). All had post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with 6 clinical phenotypes being identified: fatigue predominant (n=69), dyspnea predominant (n=23), myalgia predominant (n=6), orthostasis predominant (n=6), chest pain predominant (n=3), and headache predominant (n=1). The fatigue-predominant phenotype was more common in women, and the dyspnea-predominant phenotype was more common in men. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was elevated in 61% of patients (69% of women; P=.0046), which was more common than elevation in C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, identified in 17% and 20% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: In our PCOCC, we observed several distinct clinical phenotypes. Fatigue predominance was the most common presentation and was associated with elevated IL-6 levels and female sex. Dyspnea predominance was more common in men and was not associated with elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels were more likely than erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein to be elevated in patients with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
18.
Nature ; 603(7902): 587-598, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655590

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is benign in most individuals but, in around 10% of cases, it triggers hypoxaemic COVID-19 pneumonia, which leads to critical illness in around 3% of cases. The ensuing risk of death (approximately 1% across age and gender) doubles every five years from childhood onwards and is around 1.5 times greater in men than in women. Here we review the molecular and cellular determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Inborn errors of type I interferons (IFNs), including autosomal TLR3 and X-chromosome-linked TLR7 deficiencies, are found in around 1-5% of patients with critical pneumonia under 60 years old, and a lower proportion in older patients. Pre-existing auto-antibodies neutralizing IFNα, IFNß and/or IFNω, which are more common in men than in women, are found in approximately 15-20% of patients with critical pneumonia over 70 years old, and a lower proportion in younger patients. Thus, at least 15% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia can be explained. The TLR3- and TLR7-dependent production of type I IFNs by respiratory epithelial cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, respectively, is essential for host defence against SARS-CoV-2. In ways that can depend on age and sex, insufficient type I IFN immunity in the respiratory tract during the first few days of infection may account for the spread of the virus, leading to pulmonary and systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Age Distribution , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Sex Distribution , Toll-Like Receptor 3/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics
20.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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