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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27634, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597449

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Acute sstroke is the most common time-dependent disease attended in the emergency medical service (EMS) of Madrid (SUMMA 112). Community of Madrid has been one of the most affected regions in Spain by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A significant reduction in acute sstroke hospital admissions has been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same period 1 year before. As international clinical practice guidelines support those patients with suspected acute stroke should be accessed via EMS, it is important to know whether the pandemic has jeopardized urgent pre-hospital stroke care, the first medical contact for most patients. We aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 in stroke codes (SC) in our EMS among 3 periods of time: the COVID-19 period, the same period the year before, and the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza period.We compared the SC frequency among the periods with high cumulative infection rate (above the median of the series) of the first wave of COVID-19, seasonal influenza, and also with the same period of the year before.One thousand one hundred thirty SC were attended during the 3 periods. No significant reduction in SC was found during the COVID-19 pandemic. The reduction of hospital admissions might be attributable to patients attending the hospital by their means. The maximum SC workload seen during seasonal influenza has not been reached during the pandemic. We detected a nonsignificant deviation from the SC protocol, with a slight increase in hospitals' transfers to hospitals without stroke units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Lancet ; 398(10311): 1593-1618, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Documentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10-24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. METHODS: We report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10-24 years by age group (10-14 years, 15-19 years, and 20-24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10-24 years with that in children aged 0-9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10-24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017). FINDINGS: In 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39-1·59) worldwide in people aged 10-24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or maternal causes; 27·0% were due to non-communicable diseases; and 8·2% were due to self-harm. Since 1950, deaths in this age group decreased by 30·0% in females and 15·3% in males, and sex-based differences in mortality rate have widened in most regions of the world. Geographical variation has also increased, particularly in people aged 10-14 years. Since 1980, communicable and maternal causes of death have decreased sharply as a proportion of total deaths in most GBD super-regions, but remain some of the most common causes in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where more than half of all adolescent deaths occur. Annual percentage decrease in all-cause mortality rate since 1990 in adolescents aged 15-19 years was 1·3% in males and 1·6% in females, almost half that of males aged 1-4 years (2·4%), and around a third less than in females aged 1-4 years (2·5%). The proportion of global deaths in people aged 0-24 years that occurred in people aged 10-24 years more than doubled between 1950 and 2019, from 9·5% to 21·6%. INTERPRETATION: Variation in adolescent mortality between countries and by sex is widening, driven by poor progress in reducing deaths in males and older adolescents. Improving global adolescent mortality will require action to address the specific vulnerabilities of this age group, which are being overlooked. Furthermore, indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to jeopardise efforts to improve health outcomes including mortality in young people aged 10-24 years. There is an urgent need to respond to the changing global burden of adolescent mortality, address inequities where they occur, and improve the availability and quality of primary mortality data in this age group. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Global Burden of Disease , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
3.
S Afr Med J ; 111(11): 1084-1091, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited in-depth analyses of COVID-19 differential impacts, especially in resource-limited settings such as South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore context-specific sociodemographic heterogeneities in order to understand the differential impacts of COVID-19. METHODS: Descriptive epidemiological COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality data were drawn from daily hospital surveillance data, National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) update reports (6 March 2020 - 24 January 2021) and the Eastern Cape Daily Epidemiological Report (as of 24 March 2021). We examined hospitalisations and mortality by sociodemographics (age using 10-year age bands, sex and race) using absolute numbers, proportions and ratios. The data are presented using tables received from the NICD, and charts were created to show trends and patterns. Mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were calculated using population estimates as a denominator for standardisation. Associations were determined through relative risks (RRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values <0.001. RESULTS: Black African females had a significantly higher rate of hospitalisation (8.7% (95% CI 8.5 - 8.9)) compared with coloureds, Indians and whites (6.7% (95% CI 6.0 - 7.4), 6.3% (95% CI 5.5 - 7.2) and 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 4.5), respectively). Similarly, black African females had the highest hospitalisation rates at a younger age category of 30 - 39 years (16.1%) compared with other race groups. Whites were hospitalised at older ages than other races, with a median age of 63 years. Black Africans were hospitalised at younger ages than other race groups, with a median age of 52 years. Whites were significantly more likely to die at older ages compared with black Africans (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.06 - 1.08) or coloureds (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.33 - 1.54); a similar pattern was found between Indians and whites (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.47 - 1.73). Women died at older ages than men, although they were admitted to hospital at younger ages. Among black Africans and coloureds, females (50.9 deaths per 100 000 and 37 per 100 000, respectively) had a higher COVID-19 death rate than males (41.2 per 100 000 and 41.5 per 100 000, respectively). However, among Indians and whites, males had higher rates of deaths than females. The ratio of deaths to hospitalisations by race and gender increased with increasing age. In each age group, this ratio was highest among black Africans and lowest among whites. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed the heterogeneous nature of COVID-19 impacts in SA. Existing socioeconomic inequalities appear to shape COVID-19 impacts, with a disproportionate effect on black Africans and marginalised and low socioeconomic groups. These differential impacts call for considered attention to mitigating the health disparities among black Africans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131012, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482078

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation measures have disrupted access to psychiatric medications, particularly for women. Objective: To assess the sex differences in trends in the prescribing of benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics and serotonergic (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), which are commonly prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from Clinformatics Data Mart, one of the largest commercial health insurance databases in the US. Enrollees 18 years or older were required to have complete enrollment in a given month during our study period, January 1, 2018, to March 31, 2021, to be included for that month. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prescription of a benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI. For each month, the percentage of patients with benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI prescriptions by sex was calculated. Results: The records of 17 255 033 adults (mean [SD] age, 51.7 [19.5] years; 51.3% female) were examined in 2018, 17 340 731 adults (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [19.7] years; 51.6% female) in 2019, 16 916 910 adults (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [19.8] years; 51.9% female) in 2020, and 15 135 998 adults (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [19.8] years; 52.5% female) in 2021. Compared with men, women had a higher rate of prescriptions for all 3 drugs classes and had larger changes in prescription rates over time. Benzodiazepine prescribing decreased from January 2018 (women: 5.61%; 95% CI, 5.60%-5.63%; men: 3.03%; 95% CI, 3.02%-3.04%) to March 2021 (women: 4.91%; 95% CI, 4.90%-4.93%; men: 2.66%; 95% CI, 2.65%-2.67%), except for a slight increase in April 2020 among women. Z-hypnotic prescribing increased from January 2020 for women (1.39%; 95% CI, 1.38%-1.40%) and February 2020 for men (0.97%; 95% CI, 0.96%-0.98%) to October 2020 (women: 1.46%; 95% CI, 1.46%-1.47%; men: 1.00%; 95% CI, 0.99%-1.01%). Prescribing of SSRIs and SNRIs increased from January 2018 (women: 12.77%; 95% CI; 12.75%-12.80%; men: 5.56%; 95% CI, 5.44%-5.58%) to April 2020 for men (6.73%; 95% CI, 6.71%-6.75%) and October 2020 for women (15.18%; 95% CI, 15.16%-15.21%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic onset was an increase in Z-hypnotic as well as SSRI and SNRI prescriptions in both men and women along with an increase in benzodiazepine prescriptions in women, findings that suggest a substantial mental health impact of COVID-19-associated mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 230, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464030

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the main purpose of this study is to describe chest computed tomography (CT) findings in 26 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic at the University Clinics in Kinshasa (UCK). Methods: we conducted a descriptive study of chest CT findings in 26 patients hospitalized with coronavirus pneumonia at the UCK over a 9-month period, from March 17 to November 17, 2020. Hitachi - CT-scanner 16 slice was used in all our patients. After analyzing lesions, these were divided into lesions suggestive and non-suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: the average age of patients was 53.02 years. Male sex was the most affected (76.9%). Respiratory distress was the most common clinical symptom (61.5%). Arterial hypertension and renal failure were the most common comorbidities (3O% and 6%). Bilateral ground-glass opacities, with a predominantly peripheral distribution, accounted for 69.2% of cases, followed by condensations (57.7%) and crazy paving (19.2%). Severe COVID-19 was most frequently found (34.61%). Distal and proximal pulmonary embolism was the most common complication (11.5%). Among the associated diseases, pleurisy and pulmonary PAH were most frequently found (30.8%). The majority of our patients had parenchymal lung lesions, corresponding to early-stage disease on CT (50%). Conclusion: at the UCK, during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, lesions on CT suggestive of COVID-19 were dominated by plaque-like ground-glass opacities, followed by nonsystematized parenchymatous condensations and crazy paving. The less observed atypical lesions consisted of unilateral, peribronchovascular pseudo-nodular condensations and infection in the remodeled lung. Severe COVID-19 was the most common CT finding. Proximal and distal pulmonary embolism was the most common complication. This study highlights that these findings are consistent with those reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
10.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 115, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatty liver is one of the most common pre-existing illnesses; it can cause liver injury, leading to further complications in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Our goal is to determine if pre-existing fatty liver is more prevalent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to patients admitted before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and determine the disease severity among fatty liver patients. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: This retrospective study involves a case and a control group consisting of 1162 patients; the case group contains hospitalized COVID-19 patients with positive PCR tests and available chest CT-scan; the control group contains patients with available chest CT-scan previous to the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients' data such as liver Hounsfield unit, hospitalization length, number of affected lobes, and total lungs involvement score were extracted and compared between the patients. RESULTS: The findings indicate that 37.9% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a pre-existing fatty liver, which is significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the prevalence of pre-existing fatty liver in control group patients (9.02%). In comparison to hospitalized non-fatty liver COVID-19 patients, data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients with fatty liver indicate a longer hospitalization length (6.81 ± 4.76 P = 0.02), a higher total lungs involvement score (8.73 ± 5.28 P < 0.001), and an increased number of affected lobes (4.42 ± 1.2 P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The statistical analysis shows fatty liver is significantly more prevalent among COVID-19 against non-COVID-19 patients, and they develop more severe disease and tend to be hospitalized for more extended periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Fatty Liver/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution
12.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1839-1846, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435678

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guatemala during 2020 by week, age, sex, and place of death. Methods. We used mortality data from 2015 to 2020, gathered through the vital registration system of Guatemala. We calculated weekly mortality rates, overall and stratified by age, sex, and place of death. We fitted a generalized additive model to calculate excess deaths, adjusting for seasonality and secular trends and compared excess deaths to the official COVID-19 mortality count. Results. We found an initial decline of 26% in mortality rates during the first weeks of the pandemic in 2020, compared with 2015 to 2019. These declines were sustained through October 2020 for the population younger than 20 years and for deaths in public spaces and returned to normal from July onward in the population aged 20 to 39 years. We found a peak of 73% excess mortality in mid-July, especially in the population aged 40 years or older. We estimated a total of 8036 excess deaths (95% confidence interval = 7935, 8137) in 2020, 46% higher than the official COVID-19 mortality count. Conclusions. The extent of this health crisis is underestimated when COVID-19 confirmed death counts are used. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1839-1846. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306452).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Death Certificates , Female , Guatemala/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
13.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 16-22, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436190

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a new disease, knowledge on the mode of transmission and clinical features are still evolving, new tests are being developed with inherent challenges regarding interpretation of tests results. There is generally, a gap in knowledge on the virus globally as the pandemic evolves and in Ghana, there is dearth of information and documentation on the clinical characteristics of the virus. With these in mind, we set out to profile the initial cohort of COVID-19 patients who recovered in Ghana. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 who had recovered from the two main treatment centres in Accra, Ghana. Descriptive data analysis was employed and presented in simple and relational tables. Independent t-test and ANOVA were used to determine differences in the mean age of the sexes and the number of days taken for the first and second retesting to be done per selected patient characteristics. Results: Of the 146 records reviewed, 54% were male; mean age of patients was 41.9 ± 17.5 years, nearly half were asymptomatic, with 9% being severely ill. The commonest presenting symptoms were cough (22.6%), headache (13%) and sore throat (11%) while the commonest co-morbidities were hypertension (25.3%), diabetes mellitus (14%) and heart disease (3.4%). Conclusion: COVID-19 affected more males than females; nearly half of those infected were asymptomatic. Cough, headache and sore throat were the commonest symptoms and mean duration from case confirmation to full recovery was 19 days. Further research is required as pandemic evolves. Funding: None declared.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Distribution , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Sex Distribution
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 180, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has experienced great improvements in life expectancy (LE) at birth over the last three decades. Despite consistent increases in LE for both males and females in Ethiopia, the country has simultaneously witnessed an increasing discrepancy in LE between males and females. METHODS: This study used Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing LE to compare age- and cause- specific contributions to changes in sex differences in LE between 1995 and 2015 in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Life expectancy at birth in Ethiopia increased for both males and females from 48.28 years and 50.12 years in 1995 to 65.59 years and 69.11 years in 2015, respectively. However, the sex differences in LE at birth also increased from 1.85 years in 1995 to 3.51 years in 2015. Decomposition analysis shows that the higher male mortality was consistently due to injuries and respiratory infections, which contributed to 1.57 out of 1.85 years in 1995 and 1.62 out of 3.51 years in 2015 of the sex differences in LE. Increased male mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) also contributed to the increased difference in LE between males and females over the period, accounting for 0.21 out of 1.85 years and 1.05 out of 3.51 years in 1995 and 2015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While injuries and respiratory infections causing male mortality were the most consistent causes of the sex differences in LE in Ethiopia, morality from NCDs is the main cause of the recent increasing differences in LE between males and females. However, unlike the higher exposure of males to death from injuries due to road traffic injuries or interpersonal violence, to what extent sex differences are caused by the higher male mortality compared to female mortality from respiratory infection diseases is unclear. Similarly, despite Ethiopia's weak social security system, an explanation for the increased sex differences after the age of 40 years due to either longer female LE or reduced male LE should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Health Status Disparities , Life Expectancy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Wounds and Injuries , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Expectancy/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1807-1818, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360311

ABSTRACT

Male sex was repeatedly identified as a risk factor for death and intensive care admission. However, it is yet unclear whether sex hormones are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we analysed sex hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) of male and female COVID-19 patients (n = 50) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison to control non-COVID-19 patients at the ICU (n = 42), non-COVID-19 patients with the most prevalent comorbidity (coronary heart diseases) present within the COVID-19 cohort (n = 39) and healthy individuals (n = 50). We detected significantly elevated estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to all control cohorts. Testosterone levels were significantly reduced in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to control cohorts. No statistically significant differences in sex hormone levels were detected in critically ill female COVID-19 patients, albeit similar trends towards elevated estradiol levels were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed that among a broad range of cytokines and chemokines analysed, IFN-γ levels are positively associated with estradiol levels in male and female COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, male COVID-19 patients with elevated estradiol levels were more likely to receive ECMO treatment. Thus, we herein identified that disturbance of sex hormone metabolism might present a hallmark in critically ill male COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Hypogonadism/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1430-1438, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite expected initial universal susceptibility to a novel pandemic pathogen like SARS-CoV-2, the pandemic has been characterized by higher observed incidence in older persons and lower incidence in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differential testing by age group explains observed variation in incidence. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Persons diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and those tested for SARS-CoV-2. MEASUREMENTS: Test volumes from the Ontario Laboratories Information System, number of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases from the Integrated Public Health Information System, and population figures from Statistics Canada. Demographic and temporal patterns in incidence, testing rates, and test positivity were explored using negative binomial regression models and standardization. Sources of variation in standardized ratios were identified and test-adjusted standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were estimated by metaregression. RESULTS: Observed disease incidence and testing rates were highest in the oldest age group and markedly lower in those younger than 20 years; no differences in incidence were seen by sex. After adjustment for testing frequency, SIRs were lowest in children and in adults aged 70 years or older and markedly higher in adolescents and in males aged 20 to 49 years compared with the overall population. Test-adjusted SIRs were highly correlated with standardized positivity ratios (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95]; P < 0.001) and provided a case identification fraction similar to that estimated with serologic testing (26.7% vs. 17.2%). LIMITATIONS: The novel methodology requires external validation. Case and testing data were not linkable at the individual level. CONCLUSION: Adjustment for testing frequency provides a different picture of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk by age, suggesting that younger males are an underrecognized group at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Binomial Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16443, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356581

ABSTRACT

Comparison of COVID-19 trends in space and over time is essential to monitor the pandemic and to indirectly evaluate non-pharmacological policies aimed at reducing the burden of disease. Given the specific age- and sex- distribution of COVID-19 mortality, the underlying sex- and age-distribution of populations need to be accounted for. The aim of this paper is to present a method for monitoring trends of COVID-19 using adjusted mortality trend ratios (AMTRs). Age- and sex-mortality distribution of a reference European population (N = 14,086) was used to calculate age- and sex-specific mortality rates. These were applied to each country to calculate the expected deaths. Adjusted Mortality Trend Ratios (AMTRs) with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) were calculated for selected European countries on a daily basis from 17th March 2020 to 29th April 2021 by dividing observed cumulative mortality, by expected mortality, times the crude mortality of the reference population. These estimated the sex- and age-adjusted mortality for COVID-19 per million population in each country. United Kingdom experienced the highest number of COVID-19 related death in Europe. Crude mortality rates were highest Hungary, Czech Republic, and Luxembourg. Accounting for the age-and sex-distribution of the underlying populations with AMTRs for each European country, four different patterns were identified: countries which experienced a two-wave pandemic, countries with almost undetectable first wave, but with either a fast or a slow increase of mortality during the second wave; countries with consistently low rates throughout the period. AMTRs were highest in Eastern European countries (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland). Our methods allow a fair comparison of mortality in space and over time. These might be of use to indirectly estimating the efficacy of non-pharmacological health policies. The authors urge the World Health Organisation, given the absence of age and sex-specific mortality data for direct standardisation, to adopt this method to estimate the comparative mortality from COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
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