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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27422, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread, easy-to-use risk models that predict hospital mortality can assist in clinical decision making and triage. We aimed to develop a risk score model for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was robust across hospitals and used clinical factors that are readily available and measured standardly across hospitals.In this retrospective observational study, we developed a risk score model using data collected by trained abstractors for patients in 20 diverse hospitals across the state of Michigan (Mi-COVID19) who were discharged between March 5, 2020 and August 14, 2020. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during hospitalization or were discharged with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) were included. We employed an iterative forward selection approach to consider the inclusion of 145 potential risk factors available at hospital presentation. Model performance was externally validated with patients from 19 hospitals in the Mi-COVID19 registry not used in model development. We shared the model in an easy-to-use online application that allows the user to predict in-hospital mortality risk for a patient if they have any subset of the variables in the final model.Two thousand one hundred and ninety-three patients in the Mi-COVID19 registry met our inclusion criteria. The derivation and validation sets ultimately included 1690 and 398 patients, respectively, with mortality rates of 19.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The average age of participants in the study after exclusions was 64 years old, and the participants were 48% female, 49% Black, and 87% non-Hispanic. Our final model includes the patient's age, first recorded respiratory rate, first recorded pulse oximetry, highest creatinine level on day of presentation, and hospital's COVID-19 mortality rate. No other factors showed sufficient incremental model improvement to warrant inclusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the derivation and validation sets were .796 (95% confidence interval, .767-.826) and .829 (95% confidence interval, .782-.876) respectively.We conclude that the risk of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients can be reliably estimated using a few factors, which are standardly measured and available to physicians very early in a hospital encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26933, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is presently unknown whether imported cases of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have different characteristics when compared with local cases. To compare the clinical characteristics of local cases of COVID-19 in China compared with those imported from abroad.This was a retrospective study of confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted at the Beijing Ditan Fever Emergency Department between February 29th, 2020, and March 27th, 2020. The clinical characteristics of the patients were compared between local and imported cases.Compared with local cases, the imported cases were younger (27.3 ±â€Š11.7 vs. 43.6 ±â€Š22.2 years, P < .001), had a shorter interval from disease onset to admission (1.0 (0.0-2.0) vs 4.0 (2.0-7.0) days, P < .001), lower frequencies of case contact (17.4% vs 94.1%, P < .001), fever (39.1% vs 82.4%, P < .001), cough (33.3% vs 51.0%, P = .03), dyspnea (1.9% vs 11.8%, P = .01), fatigue (7.5% vs. 27.5%, P = 0.001), muscle ache (4.7% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.001), and comorbidities (P < .05). The imported cases were less severe than the local cases, with 40.4% versus 5.9% mild cases, 2.8% versus 15.7% severe cases, and no critical cases (P < .001). The length of hospital stay was longer in imported cases than in local cases (32.3 ±â€Š14.5 vs 21.7 ±â€Š11.2 days, P < .001). The imported cases showed smaller biochemical perturbations than the local cases. More imported cases had no sign of pneumonia at computed tomography (45.0% vs 14.9%, P = .001), and none had pleural effusion (0% vs 14.9%, P < .001).Compared with local cases, the imported cases of COVID-19 presented with milder disease and less extensive symptoms and signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
5.
QJM ; 115(1): 59-60, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190230
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24277, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With conflicting information about COVID-19, the general public may be uncertain about how to proceed in terms of precautionary behavior and decisions about whether to return to activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. METHODS: National survey data were obtained from the Democracy Fund + UCLA Nationscape Project, an ongoing cross-sectional weekly survey. The sample was provided by Lucid, a web-based market research platform. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) COVID-19-related concerns, (2) precautionary behaviors, and (3) willingness to return to activity. Key independent variables included age, gender, race or ethnicity, education, household income, political party support, religion, news consumption, number of medication prescriptions, perceived COVID-19 status, and timing of peak COVID-19 infections by state. RESULTS: The data included 125,508 responses from web-based surveys conducted over 20 consecutive weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic (comprising approximately 6250 adults per week), between March 19 and August 5, 2020, approved by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Institutional Review Board for analysis. A substantial number of participants were not willing to return to activity even after the restrictions were lifted. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions indicated the following groups had different outcomes (all P<.001): individuals aged ≥65 years (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.93-2.18; precautionary behaviors: OR 2.38, 95% CI 2.02-2.80; return to activity: OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46 vs 18-40 years); men (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81; return to activity: OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.88-2.12 vs women); taking ≥4 medications (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54; precautionary behaviors: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.555; return to activity: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.81 vs <3 medications); Republicans (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.38-0.42; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50; return to activity: OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.09-2.36 vs Democrats); and adults who reported having COVID-19 (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.39; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81; return to activity: OR 3.99, 95% CI 3.48-4.58 vs those who did not). CONCLUSIONS: Participants' age, party affiliation, and perceived COVID-19 status were strongly associated with their COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. Future studies need to develop and test targeted messaging approaches and consider political partisanship to encourage preventative behaviors and willingness to return to activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Politics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20193, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133637

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences between the prevalence and impact factors of adolescent dissociative symptoms (ADSs) by using sex-stratification during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A school-based, two-center cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou City, China, between January 1, 2021 and April 30, 2022. The sample included 1,916 adolescents aged 13-18 years that were randomly selected using a multiphase, stratified, cluster sampling technique. A two-stage assessment procedure was used to find out the ADSs. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the impact factors of ADSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The adolescent dissociative scores (t = 4.88, P < 0.001) and positive ADSs rate (Chi-square = 15.76, P < 0.001) in males were higher than in females. Gender-stratified, stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the conflict relationship of teacher-student [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.10], family expressiveness (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98), family conflict (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.27), family organization (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99), and family cohesion (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) were linked to ADSs only in males, while individual psychological states of somatic complaint (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08) and paranoid ideation (AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.19) were associated with female ADSs only. The ADSs seemed to be prevalent in Hangzhou City, studied during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gender differences in the prevalence and impact factors of dissociative symptoms seem to be significant among adolescents. Thus, gender-specific intervention programs against ADSs should be considered as reducing this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Adolescent , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Factors
9.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i37-i44, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of COVID-19 patients is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. As with other pathogens, presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 may vary, depending on sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients by age/gender and to assess whether the diagnostic performance of these symptoms varied according to these variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross-sectional study involving primary care patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in Lyon, France. Among patients who tested positive, we examined whether there was an association between age/gender and various symptoms. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic performance of the most specific symptoms (smell/taste disorder). RESULTS: Among 1543 consecutive patients, 253 tested positive (16%). There were significant age/gender-related differences in symptoms. In middle-aged women, the diagnostic performance of smell/taste disorders were AUC = 0.65 [95%CI 0.59-0.71] and PPV = 72% [95%CI 53-87%], that is higher than in the entire sample (smell/taste disorders: AUC = 0.59 [95%CI 0.57-0.62] and PPV = 57% [95%CI 47-67%]. In contrast, the negative predictive values of smell/taste disorders were similar in both groups (85% [95%CI 81-89%] for middle-age women and 86% [95%CI 85-88%] for the entire sample). CONCLUSION: We found significant age/gender-related differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. Screening strategies based on smell/taste disorders performed better in middle-aged women, but could not ensure a diagnosis of COVID-19 in any subgroup of patients. Future diagnostic strategies should use age/gender differentiated approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Self Report , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110078

ABSTRACT

This was a systematic review of studies examining the effect of COVID-19 on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. The review was conducted by examining the current literature and analyzing up-to-date evidence. The studies were extracted from three major databases (CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) and analyzed. Studies on children and adolescents whose HRQoL has been affected by COVID-19 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Ultimately, eight studies met these criteria. The evidence of the selected studies was analyzed; the research design, age categories, respondents, evaluation tools, gender differences, and variability before and during COVID-19 were systematically reviewed. This review found differences in these groups regarding oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Furthermore, this review highlighted the relative paucity of studies that comprehensively investigate the latest evidence of changes in the HRQoL of children and adolescents due to COVID-19 in preparation for the post-COVID era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sex Factors
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110076

ABSTRACT

With the arrival of COVID-19, educational systems have had to adapt to the social and health situation immediately. This led to the appearance of the asynchronous teaching model. Throughout the pandemic, at the educational level, we can distinguish three phases, eminently online, hybrid, and finally, face-to-face. However, the perception of educational quality in these three educational moments, taking into account the psychometric profile and gender, has not been studied. Thus, 1093 university students from Ibero-American countries were analyzed. Through a questionnaire, demographic, academic, and psychological variables were analyzed at three moments during the evolution of the pandemic. Data suggest that, during the lockdown phase, while teaching was eminently online, students presented higher levels of stress and higher difficulty of learning; class attendance, convenience, preferred method of learning, grading score, and motivation were lower, compared to other phases of teaching (hybrid and face-to-face). During this period, females presented higher stress levels than males, as well as higher levels of anxiety and loneliness, without gender differences among the other studied variables. During the hybrid and face-to-face phases, male students presented higher values in the results of difficulty learning and demanding activities. No differences were seen regarding motivation, synchronous class attendance, learning level, grades, convenience, or preferred learning method. The results from the present study suggest that, despite the effect of the pandemic on mental health, asynchronous education is postulated as an effective teaching-learning alternative. Yet, a special focus should be given to female students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Universities , Communicable Disease Control , Students
13.
Acta Biomed ; 93(5): e2022312, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously affected young people. The present study aims to explore the effects of COVID-19 on lifestyle in 500 undergraduate students both during the acute phase of the pandemic (so-called "first wave") and during the second spread of infections (so-called "second wave"). Gender differences were also explored.  Methods and results. During the first wave we found weight gain in 48.6% of subjects, a switch to an unhealthy diet (43%), and an increase in the amount of food introduced (35%). Interestingly, women showed higher intake of food in order to cope, while men privileged higher wine consumption as a coping mechanism. We observed a sharp reduction in physical activity, increased sedentary behaviours and deterioration in sleep quality. Stress correlates with eating to cope (r=0.86; p<0.001); drinking to cope (r=0.83; p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, the second wave led to a situation similar to the first. We have detected a further deterioration in quality of sleep (67% vs 77%; p<0.01) and also a reduction in sleeping time (68.6% vs 77.7; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The long pandemic has led to unhealthy lifestyle changes in the student population of our municipality in Northern Italy. There are gender differences in lifestyle modifications developed during the pandemic that suggest a different response to stress. Moreover, the persistence of pandemic-related stress due to the "second wave" has severely affected the lifestyle habits of undergraduate student.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Life Style
14.
Braz Oral Res ; 36: e0116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089520

ABSTRACT

This was a retrospective cohort study to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the gender gap in articles submitted to three international dental journals based in Brazil. All submissions performed to Brazilian Dental Journal, Brazilian Oral Research, and Journal of Applied Oral Science before (2019) and during the pandemic (2020) were assessed. Gender of the first, last, and corresponding authors were collected. Other variables collected were journal, continent studied by authors and stage of their careers (classified according to authors' highest degree), and final decision reached in the article. Absolute and relative frequencies with 95% confidence intervals, Pearson's Chi-square tests, and Fisher's Exact test were used (α = 0.05). In total, 4,726 unique submissions were analyzed. A higher proportion of early-career authors was observed during the pandemic (44.8% to 49.3%, p = 0.021). Most articles were rejected but without association with gender. Increased proportion of male first authors from before to during the pandemic was observed (39% to 42.1%, p = 0.034). Drop in the proportion of articles with women as first authors was observed for researchers in their early- (65.9% to 58.8%, p = 0.02) and mid-career stages (63% to 55.8%, p = 0.014). Reduction in women as first authors was observed during the pandemic in South and Central Americas (66.7% to 61.5%, p = 0.010), and when the last author was a female, or the corresponding author was a male. In conclusion, a disproportionate impact on female dental researchers in submitting articles in the period from before to during the pandemic was observed when considering first authorship, suggesting that the COVID-19 may have increased the gender inequality in dental science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodicals as Topic , Humans , Female , Male , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Pandemics , Authorship
15.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1165): 887-888, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088873

Subject(s)
Plague , Humans , Whites , Sex Factors
17.
Clin Lab ; 68(10)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), led to a pandemic in March 2020. During a viral infection, it has been reported that epigenetic changes occur for both sides: Infected cells elicit an antiviral environmental response, which induces and initiates certain pathways for proper response to the virus, while the virus silences the expression of vital genes in the anti-viral host cell. In this study, we aimed to examine the methylation level of the MX1 gene promoter in different stages in COVID-19 patients compared to the control group. METHODS: In total, 470 COVID-19 patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (235 women and 235 men) were recruited into the study as the test group. Patients were divided based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification into three groups: moderate, severe, and critical. Moreover, 100 healthy individuals (50 women and 50 men) were selected as the control group. Peripheral white blood cells were collected and PCR was performed using two types of primers designed for methylated and unmethylated states of the MX1 gene. The PCR products were then loaded on agarose gel and the band intensities were calculated by ImageJ software. RESULTS: The results showed a decrease in the methylation of the MX1 gene promoter in moderate and severe groups and an increase in the MX1 gene promoter methylation in the critical group. In addition, the level of methylation was higher in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: Increased methylation of the MX1 gene in the critical group may indicate the role of SARS-CoV-2 in reducing the expression levels of this antiviral gene and thus promoting virus replication and disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA Methylation , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/genetics , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Sex Factors
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079712

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing debate about whether gender equality in education has been achieved or not. Research efforts have focused on primary and secondary education, while there are fewer studies on higher education, and few studies refer to distance education. To contribute to address this gap, this article presents a gender analysis of educational outcomes in economics at Spain's leading distance university, UNED, which is also the largest university in the European Union in terms of enrolment. The aim of the article is to assess whether there is a gender gap in academic results and to identify the sociodemographic and academic variables that may be causing such a gap by analysing how they shape such differences. Finally, the impact of COVID-19 is also considered. The results confirm that women underperformed significantly in our sample in terms of passing and scoring, especially among those between 30 and 45 years of age, who are more likely to have young children. When considering a distribution of family tasks biased against women, along with the higher average age of distance learning university students, gender gaps could probably be greater in nonface-to-face education. COVID-19 narrowed the gender gap during the lockdown period, as some men and women staying at home together were able to improve task sharing capabilities. After the lockdown, however, women's results worsened compared to pre-COVID-19 levels. A possible explanation is that they had to continue performing the same family duties in addition to substituting education and caring services (e.g., nurseries and day centres for the elderly) that did not resume activity immediately or continuously.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Economics , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Factors , Work-Life Balance
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1805-1809, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies against coronavirus disease-2019 in post-infection and post-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June, 1 to July 31, 2021 at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised subjects of either gender in whom immunogenicity was checked 35 days post-vaccination and 90 days post-infection. Correlation with age and gender was checked. Specimens were collected and investigated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies by consuming electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the total 256 patients enrolled, 70(27.34%) were included; 49(69%) males and 21(29.6%) females. The overall mean age was 44±7.75 years. Among 30(42.8%) patients with positive polymerase chain reaction test, the mean time between the positive test and antibody screening was 90±30 days. Among the 40(57.2%) vaccinated individuals, the time between vaccination and antibody screening was 35±9.74 days. Overall, 68(97%) patients revealed robust positive findings to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike proteins antibodies >50IU/mL. Male subjects had significantly higher immunogenic response compared to females (p=0.001), and immunogenicity decreased with advancing age (p<0.001). Also, post-vaccinated patients' antibody response was significant compared to post-infection patients' response (p=0.001). Conclusion: Majority of the patients had significantly higher antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. Males and younger individuals developed a significant humoral immunity compared to females and the elderly.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Age Factors , Sex Factors
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1900, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces more severe symptoms and a higher mortality in men than in women. The role of biological sex in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is believed to explain this sex disparity. However, the contribution of gender factors that influence health protective behaviors and therefore health outcomes, remains poorly explored. METHODS: We assessed the contributions of gender in attitudes towards the COVID-19 pandemic, using a hypothetical influenza pandemic data from the 2019 Taiwan Social Change Survey. Participants were selected through a stratified, three-stage probability proportional-to-size sampling from across the nation, to fill in questionnaires that asked about their perception of the hypothetical pandemic, and intention to adopt health protective behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 1,990 participants (median age = 45·92 years, 49% were women) were included. Significant gender disparities (p < .001) were observed. The risk perception of pandemic (OR = 1·28, 95% CI [1·21 - 1·35], p < .001), older age (OR = 1·06, 95% CI [1·05 - 1·07], p < .001), female gender (OR = 1·18, 95% CI [1·09-1·27], p < .001), higher education (OR = 1·10, 95% CI [1·06 - 1·13], p < .001), and larger family size (OR = 1·09, 95% CI [1·06 - 1·15], p < .001) were positively associated with health protective behaviors. The risk perception of pandemic (OR = 1·25, 95% CI [1·15 - 1·36]), higher education (OR = 1·07, 95% CI [1·02 - 1·13], p < .05), being married (OR = 1·17, 95% CI [1·01-1·36, p < .05), and larger family size (OR = 1·33, 95% CI [1·25 - 1·42], p < .001), were positively associated with intention to receive a vaccine. However, female gender was negatively associated with intention to receive a vaccine (OR = 0·85, 95% CI [0·75 - 0·90], p < ·01) and to comply with contact-tracing (OR = 0·95, 95% CI [0·90 - 1·00], p < .05) compared to men. Living with children was also negatively associated with intention to receive vaccines (OR = 0·77, 95% CI [0·66 - 0·90], p < .001). CONCLUSION: This study unveils gender differences in risk perception, health protective behaviors, vaccine hesitancy, and compliance with contact-tracing using a hypothetical viral pandemic. Gender-specific health education raising awareness of health protective behaviors may be beneficial to prevent future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taiwan/epidemiology
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