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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140364, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591621

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects in a real-world population. Objective: To evaluate factors potentially associated with participant-reported adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: The COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, an online cohort study, includes adults aged 18 years and older with a smartphone or internet access. Participants complete daily, weekly, and monthly surveys on health and COVID-19-related events. This analysis includes participants who provided consent between March 26, 2020, and May 19, 2021, and received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine dose. Exposures: Participant-reported COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participant-reported adverse effects and adverse effect severity. Candidate factors in multivariable logistic regression models included age, sex, race, ethnicity, subjective social status, prior COVID-19 infection, medical conditions, substance use, vaccine dose, and vaccine brand. Results: The 19 586 participants had a median (IQR) age of 54 (38-66) years, and 13 420 (68.8%) were women. Allergic reaction or anaphylaxis was reported in 26 of 8680 participants (0.3%) after 1 dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine, 27 of 11 141 (0.2%) after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine or 1 dose of the JNJ-78436735 (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine. The strongest factors associated with adverse effects were vaccine dose (2 doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 or 1 dose of JNJ-78436735 vs 1 dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% CI, 2.89-3.34; P < .001), vaccine brand (mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2, OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.86-2.15; P < .001; JNJ-78436735 vs BNT162b2: OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.79; P < .001), age (per 10 years: OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.72-0.76; P < .001), female sex (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53-1.78; P < .001), and having had COVID-19 before vaccination (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this real-world cohort, serious COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects were rare and comparisons across brands could be made, revealing that full vaccination dose, vaccine brand, younger age, female sex, and having had COVID-19 before vaccination were associated with greater odds of adverse effects. Large digital cohort studies may provide a mechanism for independent postmarket surveillance of drugs and devices.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , /adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , /administration & dosage , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(50): e28302, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583956

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Although the number of deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher in men than women, prior studies have provided limited sex-stratified clinical data.We evaluated sex-related differences in clinical outcomes among critically ill adults with COVID-19.Multicenter cohort study of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 67 U.S. hospitals from March 4 to May 9, 2020. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate 28-day in-hospital mortality, severe acute kidney injury (AKI requiring kidney replacement therapy), and respiratory failure occurring within 14 days of intensive care unit admission.A total of 4407 patients were included (median age, 62 years; 2793 [63.4%] men; 1159 [26.3%] non-Hispanic White; 1220 [27.7%] non-Hispanic Black; 994 [22.6%] Hispanic). Compared with women, men were younger (median age, 61 vs 64 years, less likely to be non-Hispanic Black (684 [24.5%] vs 536 [33.2%]), and more likely to smoke (877 [31.4%] vs 422 [26.2%]). During median follow-up of 14 days, 1072 men (38.4%) and 553 women (34.3%) died. Severe AKI occurred in 590 men (21.8%), and 239 women (15.5%), while respiratory failure occurred in 2255 men (80.7%) and 1234 women (76.5%). After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and clinical variables, compared with women, men had a higher risk of death (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.26-1.77), severe AKI (OR, 1.92; 95% CI 1.57-2.36), and respiratory failure (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.80).In this multicenter cohort of critically ill adults with COVID-19, men were more likely to have adverse outcomes compared with women.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Sex Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 66, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sex differences in COVID-19 are increasingly recognized globally. Although infection rates are similar between the sexes, men have more severe illness. The mechanism underlying these sex differences is unknown, but a differential immune response to COVID-19 has been implicated in several recent studies. However, how sex differences shape the immune response to COVID-19 remains understudied. METHODS: We collected demographics and blood samples from over 600 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from May 24th 2020 to April 28th, 2021. These patients were divided into two cohorts: Cohort 1 was further classified into three groups based on the severity of the disease (mild, moderate and severe); Cohort 2 patients were longitudinally followed at three time points from hospital admission (1 day, 7 days, and 14 days). MultiPlex and conventional ELISA were used to examine inflammatory mediator levels in the plasma in both cohorts. Flow cytometry was conducted to examine leukocyte responses in Cohort 2. RESULTS: There were more COVID+ males in the total cohort, and the mortality rate was higher in males vs. females. More male patients were seen in most age groups (in 10-year increments), and in most ethnic groups. Males with severe disease had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) than females; levels of IL-8, GRO, sCD40L, MIP-1ß, MCP-1 were also significantly higher in severe vs. mild or control patients in males but not in females. Females had significantly higher anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels at 14 days compared to males, and the level of IL-10 significantly increased in moderate vs. the control group in females but not in males. At 7 days and 14 days, males had significantly more circulating neutrophils and monocytes than females; however, B cell numbers were significantly higher in females vs. males. CONCLUSION: Sex differences exist in hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19 respiratory tract infection. Exacerbated inflammatory responses were seen in male vs. female patients, even when matched for disease severity. Males appear to have a more robust innate immune response, and females mount a stronger adaptive immune response to COVID-19 respiratory tract infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Factors
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581362

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence shows clear gender disparities in the Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19) severity and fatality. This may reflect the contribution of gender-related factors, such as sex hormones, to COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, the mechanism linking gender disparities to COVID-19 severity is still poorly understood. In this review, we will pinpoint several elements involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis that are regulated by the two main sex hormones, estrogen and androgen. These include tissue specific gene regulation of SARS-CoV2 entry factors, innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, immunometabolism, and susceptibility to tissue injury by cytopathic effect or hyper-inflammatory response. We will discuss the mechanistic link between sex hormone regulation of COVID-19 pathogenetic factors and disease severity. Finally, we will summarize current evidence from clinical studies and trials targeting sex hormones and their signalling in COVID-19. A better understanding of the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 may identify targets for therapeutic intervention and allow optimization of treatment outcomes towards gender-based personalised medicine.


Subject(s)
Androgens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Estrogens/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Androgens/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , Virus Internalization
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 778913, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574246

ABSTRACT

The current global pandemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19, has infected millions of people and continues to pose a threat to many more. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important player of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) expressed on the surface of the lung, heart, kidney, neurons, and endothelial cells, which mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. The cytokine storms of COVID-19 arise from the large recruitment of immune cells because of the dis-synchronized hyperactive immune system, lead to many abnormalities including hyper-inflammation, endotheliopathy, and hypercoagulability that produce multi-organ dysfunction and increased the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis resulting in more severe illness and mortality. We discuss the aberrated interconnectedness and forthcoming crosstalks between immunity, the endothelium, and coagulation, as well as how sex disparities affect the severity and outcome of COVID-19 and harm men especially. Further, our conceptual framework may help to explain why persistent symptoms, such as reduced physical fitness and fatigue during long COVID, may be rooted in the clotting system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelium/metabolism , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators , Male , Renin-Angiotensin System , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573871

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on March 11, 2020. Two vaccine types were developed using two different technologies: viral vectors and mRNA. Thrombosis is one of the most severe and atypical adverse effects of vaccines. This study aimed to analyze published cases of thrombosis after COVID-19 vaccinations to identify patients' features, potential pathophysiological mechanisms, timing of appearance of the adverse events, and other critical issues. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic electronic search of scientific articles regarding COVID-19 vaccine-related thrombosis and its complications on the PubMed (MEDLINE) database and through manual searches. We selected 10 out of 50 articles from February 1 to May 5, 2021 and performed a descriptive analysis of the adverse events caused by the mRNA-based Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and the adenovirus-based AstraZeneca vaccine. Results: In the articles on the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, the sample consisted of three male patients with age heterogeneity. The time from vaccination to admission was ≤3 days in all cases; all patients presented signs of petechiae/purpura at admission, with a low platelet count. In the studies on the AstraZeneca vaccine, the sample consisted of 58 individuals with a high age heterogeneity and a high female prevalence. Symptoms appeared around the ninth day, and headache was the most common symptom. The platelet count was below the lower limit of the normal range. All patients except one were positive for PF4 antibodies. The cerebral venous sinus was the most affected site. Death was the most prevalent outcome in all studies, except for one study in which most of the patients remained alive. Discussion: Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is an unknown nosological phenomenon secondary to inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine. Several hypotheses have been formulated regarding its physiopathological mechanism. Recent studies have assumed a mechanism that is assimilable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, with protagonist antibodies against the PF4-polyanion complex. Viral DNA has a negative charge and can bind to PF4, causing VITT. New experimental studies have assumed that thrombosis is related to a soluble adenoviral protein spike variant, originating from splicing events, which cause important endothelial inflammatory events, and binding to endothelial cells expressing ACE2. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to better identify VITT's pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic, demographic, or clinical predisposition of high-risk patients, to investigate the correlation of VITT with the different vaccine types, and to test the significance of the findings.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , /adverse effects , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Veins/metabolism , Cerebral Veins/pathology , Female , Headache , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1618-1624, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The paper aims to estimate consumers' demand for personal protecting products (PPP) from COVID-19. Thus, the paper collected primary data on consumers' demand for PPP utilizing the timeframe of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The paper uses two sample t-test and Anova test to examine mean differences in the quantity consumed of PPP. Also, the paper uses Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) to estimate the responsiveness of quantity demanded of PPP for changes in prices and consumers' income. RESULTS: The results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demanded of facemasks among men and women. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demand for facemasks, gloves, and hand sanitizer based on respondents' level of education. In addition, the paper analyzed the effect of price and income changes on quantity demanded of PPP. The findings indicate that the quantity demanded of facemask and gloves are sensitive to changes in consumers' income. Also, soap, hand sanitizer, and gloves were recognized as complementary products. Furthermore, facemasks were identified as a complementary product with glove use. Lastly, the own-price elasticities of demand revealed that the demand for PPP is price insensitive. CONCLUSIONS: the paper recommends that the consumer protection unit closely monitor the prices of PPP since the sellers have an opportunity to increase those products prices and maximize their revenue by exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfectants/economics , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/economics , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
11.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546396

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a public health concern globally, with generally higher prevalence rates in boys compared to girls. Although biological sex is an important determinant, gender roles and norms influence the exposure and vulnerability to risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Norms and roles might be reinforced or change due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related measures as well as the exposure to risk factors for childhood obesity. COVID-19 related changes, such as home confinement, influence a child's risk of obesity. Using Dahlgren and Whitehead's model of the main determinants of health, this paper aims to provide a roadmap for future research on sex, gender, and childhood obesity during the time of COVID-19. It examines how COVID-19 has led to important changes in children's general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions, social and community networks, and individual lifestyle factors and how these may affect a child's risk for obesity. It focuses on the influence of gender and sex and outlines key considerations and indicators to examine in future studies concerned with promoting health and gender equity and equality. We need to understand the differential impact of COVID-19 related measures on girls' and boys' risk for obesity to adequately react with preventive measures, policies, and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6660-6670, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544317

ABSTRACT

With the wide spread of Coronavirus, most people who infected with the COVID-19, will recover without requiring special treatment. Whereas, elders and those with underlying medical problems are more likely to have serious illnesses, even be threatened with death. Many more disciplines try to find solutions and drive master plan to this global trouble. Consequently, by taking one particular population, Hungary, this study aims to explore a pattern of COVID-19 victims, who suffered from some underlying conditions. Age, gender, and underlying medical problems form the structure of the clustering. K-Means and two step clustering methods were applied for age-based and age-independent analysis. Grouping of the deaths in the form of two different scenarios may highlight some concepts of this deadly disease for public health professionals. Our result for clustering can forecast similar cases which are assigned to any cluster that it will be a serious cautious for the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Sex Factors , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6506-6511, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544294

ABSTRACT

Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglouilin G (IgG) and immunoglouilin M (IgM) antibodies have been widely used to assist clinical diagnosis. Our previous study reported a discrepancy in SARS-CoV-2 antibody response between male and female coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the duration and discrepancy between ages as well as sexes of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in convalescent COVID-19 patients have not been clarified. In this study, a total of 538 health-examination individuals who were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection a year ago were enrolled. Blood samples were collected and detected for IgM and IgG antibodies. Among these convalescent patients, 12.80% were detected positive for IgM antibodies. The positive rates for IgM antibody were close between sexes: for males, this is 9.17% and for females 13.75%. However, the IgG antibody was detected positive in as much as 82.90% convalescent patients and the positive rates were nearly the same between males (82.57%) and females (82.98%). Besides this, the level of IgM and IgG antibodies showed no difference between male and female convalescent patients. The level of IgG antibodies showed a significant difference between ages. The elder patients (over 35 years old) maintained a higher level of IgG antibody than the younger patients (under or equal 35 years old) after recovering for 1 year. In addition, IgG antibody was more vulnerable to disappear in younger patients than in elder patients. Overall, our study identified over 1-year duration of SARS-CoV-2 antibody and age difference of IgG antibody response in convalescent COVID-19 patients. These findings may provide new insights into long-term humoral immune response, vaccines efficacy and age-based personalized vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544350

ABSTRACT

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Vector Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Angola/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Young Adult , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 44-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544334

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reported that some recovered COVID-19 patients have tested positive for virus nucleic acid again. A systematic search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to March 6, 2021. The pooled estimation of reinfection, recurrence, and hospital readmission among recovered COVID-19 patients was 3, 133, and 75 per 1000 patients, respectively. The overall estimation of reinfection among males compared to females was greater. The prevalence of recurrence in females compared to males was more common. Also, hospital readmission between sex groups was the same. There is uncertainty about long-term immunity after SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thus, the possibility of reinfection and recurrence after recovery is not unexpected. In addition, there is a probability of hospital readmission due to adverse events of COVID-19 after discharge. However, with mass vaccination of people and using the principles of prevention and appropriate management of the disease, frequent occurrence of the disease can be controlled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors , Sex Ratio , Vaccination
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 237-244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has overwhelmed the world's health systems. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients treated in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19 from March 23 to July 31, 2020 was conducted. RESULTS: 4,401 patients were hospitalized at Central Military Hospital, out of which 35 % were beneficiaries, 26 % civilians, 28 % active military personnel, and only 11 %, retired military personnel. Male gender predominated, both in hospitalized patients and in those who died, as well as the O+ group and absence of comorbidities; among the observed comorbidities, the main ones were overweight and diabetes. Hospitalized patients' median age was 49 years, while median age of those who died was 62 years; women older than 51 years had a higher risk of dying. Adjusted case fatality rate was 18.5 %; 50 % died within the first six days. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the epidemiological characteristics and main comorbidities in Mexican patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
18.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211055587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528625

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, older people are threatened, and there may be different psychological responses toward COVID-19 between women and men. The present study explored the factors and gender differences related to the fear of COVID-19 among older women and men in Taiwan. Methods: Geriatric patients (n = 139; 42 men; mean age = 71.73 years) who visited outpatient departments were recruited. They self-reported demographic data and completed questions asking about (i) their fear of COVID-19, (ii) whether they paid attention to COVID-19 news, (iii) whether searched for COVID-19 news, (iv) whether they believed in COVID-19 news, and (v) their preventive COVID-19 behaviors. Results: Both women and men reported a low fear of COVID-19, paid close attention to COVID-19 news, and practiced good preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. The perceived chance of COVID-19 infection was a significant factor contributing to the fear of COVID-19 among both women and men. Preventive behaviors had a positive effect in lowering the fear of COVID-19. News about COVID-19 had a negative effect in lowering the fear of the disease among women but not men. Conclusions: As the performing of preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors was associated with a lower fear of COVID-19, healthcare providers should consider strategies for improving preventive behaviors among older people to help ease their worries and fears concerning COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Fear , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22480, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526099

ABSTRACT

Monitoring community psychological and behavioural responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for informing policy making and risk communication to sustain public compliance with challenging precautionary behaviours and mitigating the psychological impacts. Monthly telephone-based cross-sectional surveys in January-April 2020 and then weekly surveys from May through December 2020 were conducted to monitor changes in public risk perception of COVID-19, personal efficacy in self-protection, confidence in government's ability to control the pandemic, precautionary behaviours, perceived impact of precautionary behaviours, psychological fatigue and distress in Hong Kong, and examine their inter-relationships. While worry about contracting COVID-19 increased, personal efficacy and confidence in government declined as the community incidence of COVID-19 increased. The public maintained high compliance with most precautionary behaviours throughout but relaxed behaviours that were more challenging when disease incidence declined. Public confidence in government was persistently low throughout, of which, a lower level was associated with more psychological fatigue, lower compliance with precautionary behaviours and greater psychological distress. Perceived greater negative impact of precautionary behaviours was also associated with more psychological fatigue which in turn was associated with relaxation of precautionary behaviours. Female, younger and unemployed individuals reported greater psychological distress throughout different stages of the pandemic. Risk communication should focus on promoting confidence in self-protection and pandemic control to avoid helplessness to act when the pandemic resurges. Policy making should prioritize building public trust, enhancing support for sustaining precautionary behaviours, and helping vulnerable groups to adapt to the stress during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
20.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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