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1.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629914

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Women , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Medicine , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , United States
2.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1810-1817, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629506

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infects a wide age group but predominantly elderly individuals, especially men and those with cardiovascular disease. Recent reports suggest an association with use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for coronaviruses. Higher ACE2 concentrations might lead to increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 in patients on RAAS inhibitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured ACE2 concentrations in 1485 men and 537 women with heart failure (index cohort). Results were validated in 1123 men and 575 women (validation cohort).The median age was 69 years for men and 75 years for women. The strongest predictor of elevated concentrations of ACE2 in both cohorts was male sex (estimate = 0.26, P < 0.001; and 0.19, P < 0.001, respectively). In the index cohort, use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) was not an independent predictor of plasma ACE2. In the validation cohort, ACE inhibitor (estimate = -0.17, P = 0.002) and ARB use (estimate = -0.15, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of lower plasma ACE2, while use of an MRA (estimate = 0.11, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. CONCLUSION: In two independent cohorts of patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of ACE2 were higher in men than in women, but use of neither an ACE inhibitor nor an ARB was associated with higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. These data might explain the higher incidence and fatality rate of COVID-19 in men, but do not support previous reports suggesting that ACE inhibitors or ARBs increase the vulnerability for COVID-19 through increased plasma ACE2 concentrations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/blood , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sex Factors
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003321, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of June 2020, there were nearly 7 million reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide and over 400,000 deaths in people with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to determine associations between comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index and mortality among patients in the United States with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 from 24 healthcare organizations in the US was conducted. The study included adults aged 18-90 years with COVID-19 coded in their electronic medical records between January 20, 2020, and May 26, 2020. Results were also stratified by age groups (<50 years, 50-69 years, or 70-90 years). A total of 31,461 patients were included. Median age was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35-63) and 54.5% (n = 17,155) were female. The most common comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index were chronic pulmonary disease (17.5%, n = 5,513) and diabetes mellitus (15.0%, n = 4,710). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed older age (odds ratio [OR] per year 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.07; p < 0.001), male sex (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.55-1.98; p < 0.001), being black or African American compared to white (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.31-1.71; p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.64-2.35; p < 0.001), congestive heart failure (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.67; p < 0.001), dementia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.56; p = 0.008), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08-1.43; p = 0.003), mild liver disease (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.59; p = 0.046), moderate/severe liver disease (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.53-4.47; p < 0.001), renal disease (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.84-2.46; p < 0.001), and metastatic solid tumor (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19-2.43; p = 0.004) were associated with higher odds of mortality with COVID-19. Older age, male sex, and being black or African American (compared to being white) remained significantly associated with higher odds of death in age-stratified analyses. There were differences in which comorbidities were significantly associated with mortality between age groups. Limitations include that the data were collected from the healthcare organization electronic medical record databases and some comorbidities may be underreported and ethnicity was unknown for 24% of participants. Deaths during an inpatient or outpatient visit at the participating healthcare organizations were recorded; however, deaths occurring outside of the hospital setting are not well captured. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying patient characteristics and conditions associated with mortality with COVID-19 is important for hypothesis generating for clinical trials and to develop targeted intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Age Factors , Chronic Disease/classification , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000849, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748960

ABSTRACT

Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 430 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and 54 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 induced a strong antiviral response with up-regulation of antiviral factors such as OAS1-3 and IFIT1-3 and T helper type 1 (Th1) chemokines CXCL9/10/11, as well as a reduction in transcription of ribosomal proteins. SARS-CoV-2 culture in human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures replicated the in vivo antiviral host response 7 days post infection, with no induction of interferon-stimulated genes after 3 days. Patient-matched longitudinal specimens (mean elapsed time = 6.3 days) demonstrated reduction in interferon-induced transcription, recovery of transcription of ribosomal proteins, and initiation of wound healing and humoral immune responses. Expression of interferon-responsive genes, including ACE2, increased as a function of viral load, while transcripts for B cell-specific proteins and neutrophil chemokines were elevated in patients with lower viral load. Older individuals had reduced expression of the Th1 chemokines CXCL9/10/11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3, as well as CD8A and granzyme B, suggesting deficiencies in trafficking and/or function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Relative to females, males had reduced B cell-specific and NK cell-specific transcripts and an increase in inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, possibly inappropriately throttling antiviral responses. Collectively, our data demonstrate that host responses to SARS-CoV-2 are dependent on viral load and infection time course, with observed differences due to age and sex that may contribute to disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Sex Factors , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Load , Wound Healing/genetics , Young Adult
8.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 204, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to describe the blood lipid levels of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to analyze the correlation between blood lipid levels and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In the clinical retrospective analysis, a total of 228 adults infected with COVID-19 were enrolled between January 17, 2020 and March 14, 2020, in Changsha, China. One thousand one hundred and forty healthy participants with matched age and gender were used as control. Median with interquartile range and Mann-Whitney test were adopted to describe and analyze clinical data. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P <  0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P <  0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P <  0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032]. In comparison with patients with high HDL-C, patients with low HDL-C showed a higher proportion of male (69.57% vs 45.60%, P = 0.004), higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (median, 27.83 vs 12.56 mg/L, P <  0.001) and higher proportion of severe events (36.96% vs 14.84%, P = 0.001). Moreover, patients with low HDL-C at admission showed a higher risk of developing severe events compared with those with high HDL-C (Log Rank P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, gender and underlying diseases, they still had elevated possibility of developing severe cases than those with high HDL-C (HR 2.827, 95% CI 1.190-6.714, P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C level was lower in COVID-19 adult patients, and low HDL-C in COVID-19 patients was correlated with a higher risk of developing severe events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Cholesterol/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood
9.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 620-626, 2020 Jun 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the insomnia status and relevant factors for the medical staff in the medical aid team for Hubei Province during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A convenient sampling survey was conducted among 1 056 medical staff in the national medical team of Hubei Province by using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RES). RESULTS: The incidence from moderate to severe insomnia was 35.14%, and the total self-efficacy of emotion regulation was 3.60±0.91. Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of insomnia in female medical workers in Hubei Province was higher than that of male medical workers, which was increased with the elongation of work time and frequency. In addition, insomnia was associated with age, perceived ambient exposure and infection, and RES scores. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the occurrence of insomnia was mainly related to gender, perceived peripheral exposure, infection, and RES scores. CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia is very common among medical workers in Hubei Province during the COVID-19 epidemic. Insomnia is related to the medical work status, the gender and their own emotional management and regulation in the epidemic area.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Medical Staff/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Betacoronavirus , China , Emotional Regulation , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sex Factors
10.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 144-151, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745215

ABSTRACT

Context: Coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD 19) pandemic has induced the government to initiate strict control measures. Improvements to these measures and shortcomings could be gleaned with the understanding of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the public. Aims: The aim of this study the CoViD 19 KAP of a south Indian state population. Settings and Design: This was a Cross-sectional observational study. Subjects and Methods: We conducted an online survey to elicit this information. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, Standard deviation, Binomial and Multinomial logistic regression. Results: Of the 1837 subjects who answered the survey, 70% were youth (16-29 years), 54% were postgraduates and 47.8% were desk jobholders. The mean knowledge score was 9.92 ± 2.37/14 and 94.44% secured at least above-average score. The subjects had a positive (70%) attitude towards the CoViD 19 situation and 77% of subjects followed good preventive practices. However, we found that women, people with low education and nonmedical background were associated with poor knowledge and practices. The attitude was poor in subjects occupant in physical works. Conclusions: The health policy would better serve the purpose of the groups with poor scores are targeted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has globally strained medical resources and caused significant mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a machine-learning model based on clinical features for severity risk assessment and triage for COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHOD: 725 patients were used to train and validate the model. This included a retrospective cohort from Wuhan, China of 299 hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 23 December 2019 to 13 February 2020, and five cohorts with 426 patients from eight centres in China, Italy and Belgium from 20 February 2020 to 21 March 2020. The main outcome was the onset of severe or critical illness during hospitalisation. Model performances were quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and metrics derived from the confusion matrix. RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, the median age was 50 years and 137 (45.8%) were male. In the five test cohorts, the median age was 62 years and 236 (55.4%) were male. The model was prospectively validated on five cohorts yielding AUCs ranging from 0.84 to 0.93, with accuracies ranging from 74.4% to 87.5%, sensitivities ranging from 75.0% to 96.9%, and specificities ranging from 55.0% to 88.0%, most of which performed better than the pneumonia severity index. The cut-off values of the low-, medium- and high-risk probabilities were 0.21 and 0.80. The online calculators can be found at www.covid19risk.ai. CONCLUSION: The machine-learning model, nomogram and online calculator might be useful to access the onset of severe and critical illness among COVID-19 patients and triage at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Belgium , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internationality , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
13.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742829

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated economic vulnerabilities and disrupted the Australian food supply, with potential implications for food insecurity. This study aims to describe the prevalence and socio-demographic associations of food insecurity in Tasmania, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (deployed late May to early June 2020) incorporated the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and fifteen demographic and COVID-related income questions. Survey data (n = 1170) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of food insecurity was 26%. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were higher among respondents with a disability, from a rural area, and living with dependents. Increasing age, a university education, and income above $80,000/year were protective against food insecurity. Food insecurity more than doubled with a loss of household income above 25% (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.71; p = 0.022), and the odds further increased with loss of income above 75% (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 2.01, 24.83; p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the prevalence of food insecurity may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among economically vulnerable households and people who lost income. Policies that support disadvantaged households and ensure adequate employment opportunities are important to support Australians throughout and post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Disabled Persons , Educational Status , Employment , Family , Female , Food Supply/economics , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tasmania/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3345-3354, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740447

ABSTRACT

Given the growing number of deaths due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, this study presents an initial and exploratory descriptive analysis of the excess mortality observed from March to May 2020 in capitals and other municipalities. The data source was the death registers from the Civil Registry Offices. The data were disaggregated by gender and capitals and other municipalities of the 26 federative units and the Federal District. The standardized mortality ratio for 2020 was calculated with the 2019 mortality coefficients as standards. The results showed 39,146 excess deaths for the period studied and is higher among men. This increase was more significant among the capitals of the North, Northeast, and Southeast regions. In the other municipalities in these regions, the increase was observed in May, indicating a possible inland-bound COVID-19 transmission. The need to improve the detection and registration of cases is highlighted to enable the efficient monitoring of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Registries , Sex Factors
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3431-3436, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740423

ABSTRACT

This study aims to reflect the impact of COVID 19, considering gender, race, and class markers. This is an exploratory study, with an emphasis on the analysis of selected publications, based on a systematized search on official websites, and on the PubCovid-19 platform that includes papers published on COVID-19, which are indexed in PubMed and EMBASE. This work was based on these documents and built with reflections from the authors from the perspectives of social markers related to gender, race, and class, which contribute to the prognosis of the disease. The reflection carried out from the analyzed literature revealed that the markers of gender, class, and race emerge as a vulnerable condition to the exposure of COVID-19 in the most diverse world scenarios. This context reveals the historical need to implement strategies to improve the lives of this population, not only during the pandemic but also after their passing. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt socioeconomic policies with a more significant impact on the lives of these people and with greater coverage, expanding access to better health, education, housing, and income.


Subject(s)
Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , Sex Factors , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Adv Respir Med ; 88(4): 335-342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737676

ABSTRACT

In early December 2019, in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China, the first infections by a novel coronavirus were reported. Since then, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading to other cities and countries becoming the global emerging epidemiological issue and quickly reaching the status of a pandemic. Multiple risk factors of disease severity and mortality have been identified so far. These include old age, male sex, smoking, and obesity. This concise narrative review highlights the important role of these factors in the pathobiology and clinical landscape of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We especially focused on their significant role in disease severity and mortality. However, in spite of intensive research, most of the presented pieces of evidence are weak and need further verification.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aging , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 640, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st December 2019 to 16th July 2020 based on three databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant outcomes. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0 °C), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 °C, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 65 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Demography , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(9): 62, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a specific high-affinity angiotensin II-hydrolytic enzyme, is the vector that facilitates cellular entry of SARS-CoV-1 and the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2, which crossed species barriers to infect humans, is highly contagious and associated with high lethality due to multi-organ failure, mostly in older patients with other co-morbidities. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating clinical evidence demonstrates that the intensity of the infection and its complications are more prominent in men. It has been postulated that potential functional modulation of ACE2 by estrogen may explain the sex difference in morbidity and mortality. We review here the evidence regarding the role of estrogenic hormones in ACE2 expression and regulation, with the intent of bringing to the forefront potential mechanisms that may explain sex differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes, assist in management of COVID-19, and uncover new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Estrogens/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Sex Factors , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237960, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to the lack of COVID-19 diagnostic tests for the whole Spanish population, the current strategy is to identify the disease early to limit contagion in the community. AIM: To determine clinical factors of a poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, observational, retrospective study in three primary healthcare centres with an assigned population of 100,000. METHOD: Examination of the medical records of patients with COVID-19 infections confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Logistic multivariate regression models adjusted for age and sex were constructed to analyse independent predictive factors associated with death, ICU admission and hospitalization. RESULTS: We included 322 patients (mean age 56.7 years, 50% female, 115 (35.7%) aged ≥ 65 years): 123 (38.2) were health workers (doctors, nurses, auxiliaries). Predictors of ICU admission or death were greater age (OR = 1.05; 95%CI = 1.03 to 1.07), male sex (OR = 2.94; 95%CI = 1.55 to 5.82), autoimmune disease (OR = 2.82; 95%CI = 1.00 to 7.84), bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (OR = 2.86; 95%CI = 1.41 to 6.13), elevated lactate-dehydrogenase (OR = 2.85; 95%CI = 1.28 to 6.90), elevated D-dimer (OR = 2.85; 95%CI = 1.22 to 6.98) and elevated C-reactive protein (OR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.22 to 4.68). Myalgia or arthralgia (OR = 0.31; 95%CI = 0.12 to 0.70) was protective factor against ICU admission and death. Predictors of hospitalization were chills (OR = 5.66; 95%CI = 1.68 to 23.49), fever (OR = 3.33; 95%CI = 1.89 to 5.96), dyspnoea (OR = 2.92; 95%CI = 1.62 to 5.42), depression (OR = 6.06; 95%CI = 1.54 to 40.42), lymphopenia (OR = 3.48; 95%CI = 1.67 to 7.40) and elevated C-reactive protein (OR = 3.27; 95%CI = 1.59 to 7.18). Anosmia (OR = 0.42; 95%CI = 0.19 to 0.90) was the only significant protective factor for hospitalization after adjusting for age and sex. CONCLUSION: Determining the clinical, biological and radiological characteristics of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection will be key to early treatment and isolation and the tracing of contacts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
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