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1.
Anesth Analg ; 133(6): 1497-1509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607763

ABSTRACT

Research has shown that women have leadership ability equal to or better than that of their male counterparts, yet proportionally fewer women than men achieve leadership positions and promotion in medicine. The Women's Empowerment and Leadership Initiative (WELI) was founded within the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) in 2018 as a multidimensional program to help address the significant career development, leadership, and promotion gender gap between men and women in anesthesiology. Herein, we describe WELI's development and implementation with an early assessment of effectiveness at 2 years. Members received an anonymous, voluntary survey by e-mail to assess whether they believed WELI was beneficial in several broad domains: career development, networking, project implementation and completion, goal setting, mentorship, well-being, and promotion and leadership. The response rate was 60.5% (92 of 152). The majority ranked several aspects of WELI to be very or extremely valuable, including the protégé-advisor dyads, workshops, nomination to join WELI, and virtual facilitated networking. For most members, WELI helped to improve optimism about their professional future. Most also reported that WELI somewhat or absolutely contributed to project improvement or completion, finding new collaborators, and obtaining invitations to be visiting speakers. Among those who applied for promotion or leadership positions, 51% found WELI to be somewhat or absolutely valuable to their application process, and 42% found the same in applying for leadership positions. Qualitative analysis of free-text survey responses identified 5 main themes: (1) feelings of empowerment and confidence, (2) acquisition of new skills in mentoring, coaching, career development, and project implementation, (3) clarification and focus on goal setting, (4) creating meaningful connections through networking, and (5) challenges from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the inability to sustain the advisor-protégé connection. We conclude that after 2 years, the WELI program has successfully supported career development for the majority of protégés and advisors. Continued assessment of whether WELI can meaningfully contribute to attainment of promotion and leadership positions will require study across a longer period. WELI could serve as a programmatic example to support women's career development in other subspecialties.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , Empowerment , Gender Equity , Leadership , Pediatricians , Physicians, Women , Sexism , Women, Working , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Career Mobility , Female , Humans , Male , Mentors , Program Evaluation , Staff Development , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(6): 859-872, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509369

ABSTRACT

Although women are about half of world's population, they are underrepresented in many sectors including academia and the research scenario in general. Gender gap in Entomology has been pointed out in other publications; however, data for Brazil has never been demonstrated. Here we provide a diagnosis for the Brazilian Entomology scenario in order to contribute to propositions towards disentangling the gender gap in general. We analyzed scientometric data for Brazilian Entomology focusing on gender disparity and on personal perceptions related to the gender gap through an online questionnaire. We detected a pervasive gender bias in which the scissor-shaped curve is the most representative effect of it: women were the majority in lower degree stages but the minority in higher degree stages (permanent positions and positions of prestige and power). We also observed mentorship bias and discussed these results in light of intersectionality and the COVID-19 pandemic. Gender differences were perceived differently by the questionnaire respondents considering age, gender, and parenting. With this data and analyses, we have provided elements to stimulate and support change to a healthier and more equitable academic space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexism , Animals , Brazil , Female , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444202

ABSTRACT

There has long been a gender bias in medicine. This qualitative study aims to identify the experience of sexism among frontline female nurses and further explore their expectations and possible strategies to get rid of gender bias. This is a descriptive phenomenological study of 23 female nurses with 11 ± 3.98 years of experience who spent 36 ± 6.50 days at the frontline during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. We employed Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis method to understand the subjective experiences, revealing the following themes: (a) materialization of gender identity; (b) incoordinate relationships; (c) future voice of female nurses. The gender bias experienced by female frontline nurses further challenges their emotional identity and self-identity. Therefore, it is important to require extensive consciousness-raising and policy support to defend female nurses' rights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , China , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
6.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 255-270, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409985

ABSTRACT

From 1940 to 1980, studies of medical education were foundational to sociology, but attention shifted away from medical training in the late 1980s. Recently, there has been a marked return to this once pivotal topic, reflecting new questions and stakes. This article traces this resurgence by reviewing recent substantive research trends and setting the agenda for future research. We summarize four current research foci that reflect and critically map onto earlier projects in this subfield while driving theoretical development elsewhere in the larger discipline: (1) professional socialization, (2) knowledge regimes, (3) stratification within the profession, and (4) sociology of the field of medical education. We then offer six potential future directions where more research is needed: (1) inequalities in medical education, (2) socialization across the life course and new institutional forms of gatekeeping, (3) provider well-being, (4) globalization, (5) medical education as knowledge-based work, and (6) effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Sociology , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Forecasting , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Models, Educational , Professionalism , Racism , Sexism , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology/history , Sociology/methods , Sociology/trends
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 952, 2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of an advanced practice physiotherapist has been introduced in many countries to improve access to care for patients with hip and knee arthritis. Traditional models of care have shown a gender bias, with women less often referred and recommended for surgery than men. This study sought to understand if patient gender affects access to care in the clinical encounter with the advanced practice provider. Our objectives were: (1) To determine if a gender difference exists in the clinical decision to offer a consultation with a surgeon; (2) To determine if a gender difference exists in patients' decisions to accept a consultation with a surgeon among those patients to whom it is offered; and, (3) To describe patients' reasons for not accepting a consultation with a surgeon. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 815 patients presenting to a tertiary care centre for assessment of hip and knee arthritis, with referral onward to an orthopaedic surgeon when indicated. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for severity to address the first objective and a simple logistic regression analysis to answer the second objective. Reasons for not accepting a surgical consultation were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fifteen patients (511 women, 304 men) fulfilled study eligibility criteria. There was no difference in the probability of being referred to a surgeon for men and women (difference adjusted for severity = - 0.02, 95% CI: - 0.07, 0.02). Neither was there a difference in the acceptance of a referral for men and women (difference = - 0.05, 95% CI: - 0.09, 0.00). Of the 14 reasons for declining a surgical consultation, 5 showed a difference with more women than men indicating a preference for non-surgical treatment along with fears/concerns about surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There is no strong evidence to suggest there is a difference in proportion of males and females proceeding to surgical consultation in the model of care that utilizes advanced practice orthopaedic providers in triage. This study adds to the evidence that supports the use of suitably trained alternate providers in roles that reduce wait times to care and add value in contexts where health human resources are limited. The care model is a viable strategy to assist in managing the growing backlog in orthopaedic care, recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthopedic Surgeons , Orthopedics , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390623

ABSTRACT

Racial and gender discrimination are risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes in the general population; however, the effects of discrimination on the mental health of healthcare workers needs to be further explored, especially in relation to competing stressors. Thus, we administered a survey to healthcare workers to investigate the associations between perceived racial and gender discrimination and symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and burnout during a period of substantial stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic and a national racial reckoning. We used multivariable linear regression models, which controlled for demographics and pandemic-related stressors. Of the 997 participants (Mean Age = 38.22 years, SD = 11.77), 688 (69.01%) were White, 148 (14.84%) Asian, 86 (8.63%) Black, 73 (7.32%) Latinx, and 21 (2.11%) identified as another race. In multivariable models, racial discrimination predicted symptoms of depression (B = 0.04; SE: 0.02; p = .009), anxiety (B = 0.05; SE: 0.02; p = .004), and posttraumatic stress (B = 0.01; SE: 0.01; p = .006) and gender discrimination predicted posttraumatic stress (B = 0.11; SE: 0.05; p = .013) and burnout (B = 0.24; SE: 0.07; p = .001). Discrimination had indirect effects on mental health outcomes via inadequate social support. Hospital-wide diversity and inclusion initiatives are warranted to mitigate the adverse mental health effects of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360747

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused Japanese workers psychological distress through crises of health, economics, and social relationships. To assess whether these effects are amplified by the gender bias that exists in Japan, we examined male and female worker's psychological distress and difficulties during the pandemic. An online "COVID-19-related difficulties" questionnaire, based on item response theory, gathered responses from 3464 workers in October and November 2020. The workers' psychological distress was found concerned to be significantly worse than before the pandemic. Basic stressors related to infection anxiety, economic anxiety, and restrictions on social interactions and outings. Men's and women's experiences of difficulties were consistent with traditional gender roles in Japan: men were more likely to face job-related stressors, such as economic insecurity and work-style changes; women were more likely to face non-job-related stressors, such as increased living costs and reduced social interactions. Policymakers and employers should consider the association between gender differences and industry types, and implement measures to strengthen the acceptability of mental health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Sexism , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(8): e526-e533, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333841

ABSTRACT

Digital health, including the use of mobile health apps, telemedicine, and data analytics to improve health systems, has surged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The social and economic fallout from COVID-19 has further exacerbated gender inequities, through increased domestic violence against women, soaring unemployment rates in women, and increased unpaid familial care taken up by women-all factors that can worsen women's health. Digital health can bolster gender equity through increased access to health care, empowerment of one's own health data, and reduced burden of unpaid care work. Yet, digital health is rarely designed from a gender equity perspective. In this Viewpoint, we show that because of lower access and exclusion from app design, gender imbalance in digital health leadership, and harmful gender stereotypes, digital health is disadvantaging women-especially women with racial or ethnic minority backgrounds. Tackling digital health's gender inequities is more crucial than ever. We explain our feminist intersectionality framework to tackle digital health's gender inequities and provide recommendations for future research.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Feminism , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sexism , Telemedicine , Women's Health , COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mobile Applications , Unemployment , Women's Health/statistics & numerical data , Women's Health/trends
13.
Lancet ; 398(10295): 99-101, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303714
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2267-2269, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279934
16.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211024214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269852

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented threat of COVID-19 has taken its toll on the field of cancer research, with trial accrual rates seeing a sharp decline since the beginning of the pandemic. Recent evidence has suggested that decreased participation appears to be more pronounced in women than men, which raises concerns about an exacerbation of gender bias in research. The following manuscript is a commentary article to the recent study by Fox et al, who aimed at investigating the concerns of patients with regard to participating to cancer research, as well as examining potential gender disparities within their sample population. We provide a brief critique of their work, especially focusing on important limitations concerning sample size and under-representation of ethnic minority groups, before discussing their findings in light of current literature on gender differences in anxiety and risk perception, how this might be interpreted in the context of the current pandemic, and its impact on participation in cancer research. We present multiple lines of evidence which support the idea that women might experience greater anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic which could have a significant impact on cancer research participation and consequently the external validity of studies in the field. The first attempts to tackle these challenges have shown promise, but further research is required to perfect this process and target those groups who are at greatest need of intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1303: 107-127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261779

ABSTRACT

In addition to studies focused on estrogen mediation of sex-different regulation of systemic circulations, there is now increasing clinical relevance and research interests in the pulmonary circulation, in terms of sex differences in the morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as inherent-, allergic- and inflammatory-based events. Thus, female predisposition to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is an inevitable topic. To better understand the nature of sexual differentiation in the pulmonary circulation, and how heritable factors, in vivo- and/or in vitro-altered estrogen circumstances and changes in the live environment work in concert to discern the sex bias, this chapter reviews pulmonary events characterized by sex-different features, concomitant with exploration of how alterations of genetic expression and estrogen metabolisms trigger the female-predominant pathological signaling. We address the following: PAH (Sect.7.2) is characterized as an estrogenic promotion of its incidence (Sect. 7.2.2), as a function of specific germline mutations, and as an estrogen-elicited protection of its prognosis (Sect.7.2.1). More detail is provided to introduce a less recognized gene of Ephx2 that encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to degrade epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs). As a susceptible target of estrogen, Ephx2/sEH expression is downregulated by an estrogen-dependent epigenetic mechanism. Increases in pulmonary EETs then evoke a potentiation of PAH generation, but mitigation of its progression, a phenomenon similar to the estrogen-paradox regulation of PAH. Additionally, the female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Sect. 7.3) and asthma (Sect.7.4), but less preference to COVID-19 (Sect. 7.5), and roles of estrogen in their pathogeneses are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung Diseases , Estrogens , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/genetics , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1635-1636, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248139
20.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 465-469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247696

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of healthcare professionals, especially vulnerable physicians such as young or female cardiologists. In Japan, they are facing the fear of not only infection but also weak and unstable employment, difficulties in medical practice and training anxiety, implications for research and studying abroad, as well as worsened mental health issues due to social isolation. Conversely, some positive aspects are seen through the holding of remote meetings and conferences. Here, we suggest a new working style for cardiologists, as well as offer solutions to the medical employment problems that have been taken place in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cardiologists/psychology , Occupational Health , Physicians, Women/psychology , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiologists/education , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Employment , Female , Humans , Japan , Mental Health , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/therapy , Physical Distancing , Sexism/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Vulnerable Populations
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