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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on sexual behaviour and COVID-19 shows a change in sexual habits; however, there is no research on the association between mental health and sexual activity. AIM: To examine the relationship between mental health and sexual activity during the quarantine in Spanish adults. METHODS: A sample of 305 adults filled out an online questionnaire. Sexual activity was assessed with one question. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. To check associations between levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms (exposure) and weekly prevalence of sexual activity (outcome), we conducted multiple logistic regression adjusted for control variables (marital status, employment, average household annual income, place of living, pre-COVID-19 sexual activity, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, chronic physical conditions, chronic psychiatric conditions, physical symptoms, and days of confinement). RESULTS: Higher depression level was associated with lower weekly sexual activity in a dose-response fashion in the three implemented models. Participants with higher levels of depression were associated with significantly lower sexual activity in the fully adjusted model (OR: 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.61). Mild anxiety-level participants consistently presented significantly lower ORs for lower sexual activity than their minimal-anxiety category counterparts. Particularly, the fully adjusted model showed the lower values (OR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84). CONCLUSION: The results of this study support existing evidence stressing the association between mental health and sexual activity in quarantined adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572485

ABSTRACT

Adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are struggling with accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, and COVID-19 has escalated the problem. The purpose of this review was to identify and assess the existing literature on the impact of the pandemic on SRH needs and access to services by adolescents in LMICs. A scoping review was conducted to collate findings on the topic. Searches were performed on eight databases. Data were extracted and categorized into various themes. After removing duplicates and performing a full-text reading of all articles, nine articles were included in our review. Our findings generated several themes related to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health during the COVID-19 pandemic. These include (1) limited access to sexual and reproductive health services, (2) school closure and increased rate of early marriages, (3) sexual or intimate partner violence during COVID-19, (4) disruption in maternity care, (5) adolescents' involvement in risky or exploitative work, (6) intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health services during COVID-19, and (7) policy development related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Several recommendations were made on policies-for instance, the use of telemedicine and community-based programs as a way to deliver SRH services to adolescents during and after a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Adolescent , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
4.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(10): 765-774, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate depression and sexual function among pregnant and non-pregnant women throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 188 women, 96 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) were applied to the participants after obtaining sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The depression scores of pregnant and non-pregnant women were similar (p = 0.846). We found that the depression scores were significantly higher among the group of participants who have lower economic status (p = 0.046). Moreover, the depression score was significantly higher among women who lost their income during the pandemic (p = 0.027). The score on the ASEX was significantly higher, and sexual dysfunction was more prevalent among women who have lower levels of schooling and income (p < 0.05). Likewise, the ASEX scores were significantly higher (p = 0.019) among the group who experienced greater income loss throughout the pandemic. Upon comparing the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, we detected that sexual dysfunction had a significantly higher rate among pregnant women (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In times of global crisis, such as the current pandemic, low-income families have an increased risk of experiencing depression and sexual dysfunction. When we compared pregnant women with non-pregnant women, depression scores were similar, but pregnant women were at a 6.2 times higher risk of developing sexual dysfunction.


Investigar a depressão e as funções sexuais de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas durante a pandemia de Covid-19. MéTODOS: Um total de 188 mulheres, 96 grávidas e 92 não grávidas, foram incluídas. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, em inglês) e a Escala de Experiências Sexuais do Arizona (Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, ASEX, em inglês) foram aplicados aos participantes após a obtenção dos dados sociodemográficos.As pontuações de depressão de mulheres grávidas e não grávidas foram semelhantes (p = 0,846). Verificou-se que as pontuações de depressão foram significativamente maiores no grupo de participantes de menor nível econômico (p = 0,046). Além disso, a pontuação de depressão foi significativamente maior em mulheres que perderam sua renda durante a pandemia (p = 0,027). A pontuação na ASEX foi significativamente maior, e a disfunção sexual foi mais prevalente em pessoas com menores escolaridade e nível de renda (p < 0,05). Da mesma forma, as pontuações na ASEX foram significativamente mais altas (p = 0,019) no grupo que experimentou maior perda de renda durante a pandemia. Ao comparar os grupos de gestantes e não gestantes, detectou-se que a disfunção sexual apresentava índice significativamente maior entre as gestantes (p <0,001). CONCLUSãO: Em tempos de crise global, como a atual pandemia, famílias de baixa renda têm um risco maior de sofrer depressão e disfunção sexual. Quando comparamos mulheres grávidas e mulheres não grávidas, as pontuações de depressão foram semelhantes, mas as mulheres grávidas apresentaram um risco 6,2 vezes maior de desenvolver disfunção sexual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Factors , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Turkey/epidemiology , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 692884, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506386

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and its countermeasures may have had a significant impact on the psychological well-being of specific population subgroups. The present study investigated whether sexual minority men (defined here as attracted partly or exclusively to men) from an ongoing cohort study of young Swiss men experienced different psychological impacts, levels of substance use and addictive behaviors, and to which degree pre-existing vulnerabilities and participants experiences during the crisis might explain these differences. Methods: An ongoing cohort sample based on the general population of young Swiss men (mean age = 29.07 years; SD = 1.27) was assessed before and during the COVID-19 crisis for depression, stress, sleep quality, substance use and addictive behaviors. Additionally, during the crisis, we assessed its impact in form of fear, isolation and traumatic experiences. Potential associations between these outcomes and sexual orientation (sexual minority vs. heterosexual) were tested using linear regression models. It was additionally estimated to which degree these associations were attenuated if adjusted for differences in mental health, personality and socioeconomic status before the crisis, as well as the experience of the COVID-19 crisis (infection with the virus and changes to work situation). Results: Compared to heterosexual men, sexual minority men showed higher levels of psychological trauma (b = 0.37 [0.25, 0.49]), fear (b = 0.18 [0.06, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.32 [0.20, 0.44]) due to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as higher levels of depression (b = 0.31 [0.20, 0.41]) and lower sleep quality (b = -0.13 [-0.24, -0.02]) during the crisis. These differences were to a large degree explained by higher pre-crisis levels of mental health problems and the personality dimension of neuroticism-anxiety. Sexual minority men showed higher overall levels of substance use and addictive behaviors, but these differences were already present before the crisis. Conclusion: The COVID-19 crisis may have worsened pre-existing vulnerabilities in sexual minority men, leading to its greater psychological impact on them than on heterosexual men. Reducing minority stress due to sexual orientation may help not only to improve mental health among important proportions of the population but also to reduce their vulnerability to crises. Services offering psychological support to sexual minorities may need to be reinforced during crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Switzerland/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. METHODS: An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p<0.001); youth described mixed concern and challenges to prevention. During COVID-19, gender symmetry was observed in constrained access to contraception among contraceptive users (40.4% men; 34.6% women) and depressive symptoms (21.8% men; 24.3% women). Gender disparities rendered young women disproportionately unable to meet basic economic needs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.21; p<0.05) and in need of healthcare during the pandemic (aOR = 1.59; p<0.001). At a bivariate level, women had lower full decisional control to leave the house (40.0% vs. 53.2%) and less consistent access to safe, private internet (26.1% vs. 40.2%), while men disproportionately experienced police interactions (60.1%, 55.2% of which included extortion). Gender-specific concerns for women included menstrual hygiene access challenges (52.0%), increased reliance on transactional partnerships, and gender-based violence, with 17.3% reporting past-year partner violence and 3.0% non-partner sexual violence. Qualitative results contextualize the mental health impact of economic disruption and isolation, and, among young women, privacy constraints. IMPLICATIONS: Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Contraception/methods , Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Menstruation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Young Adult
10.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(11): 1440-1451, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Application-based data regarding sexual health and sexual behavior in various sexually active populations are scarce but at the same time relevant with regards to prevention and healthcare supply strategies. Given the structure of its attendees, the Walk In Ruhr (WIR) Center for Sexual Health and Medicine is able to obtain data from diverse living environments. OBJECTIVES: Based on the online HIV/STI risk test, questionnaires, and attendee data from the WIR, this study aims to deduce population-related findings with regards to age, gender, sexual orientation, and sexual and risk behavior as well as the respective needs for prevention. The influence of the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic on sexual behavior is examined by comparing various phases. METHODS: The analyzed data sources are the online HIV/STI risk test, the COWIR, and the PrEP study as well as the immunological outpatient clinic and the public health department at the WIR. RESULTS: Notwithstanding contact restrictions, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have increased from 2019 to 2020. Apart from men having sex with men and females having sex with females, young people also have an increased risk of STIs based on sexual practices and the number of sexual contacts. A large number of bisexual and transsexual contacts was found. SARS-CoV­2 led to a decrease in sexual contacts; sexual practices continued. There was a growing proportion of STI tests and the treatment rate including partner treatment rose. DISCUSSION: Data from the WIR center show that young attendees with an active sexual life are being reached. The results from questionnaires and the online HIV/STI risk test are mirrored in increased positive STI test results. These results vary depending on sexual behavior and sexual preferences such that specific strategies for sexual education, prevention, testing, and therapy are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adolescent , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Germany , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480746

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the physical and mental health of many and has necessitated widespread societal shifts, including changes to work and family activities. These changes have impacted individuals' identity, including their sexual self-image and body image, yet research on perceptions of these changes is missing. This study reports on quantitative and qualitative data from an electronic survey with adults in the United States (N = 326) to examine these perceptions. Body appreciation did not significantly differ between demographic groups. Themes emerging from the qualitative results included changes in general self-image (becoming more restricted or disempowered), changes in sexual self-image (deepening, becoming more sexy/sexual, or less sexy/sexual), and changes in body image (positive, negative, and neutral). Our findings point to positive, negative, and neutral effects on sexual self-image and body image, implying that nuanced approaches are needed to understand how identity has transformed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Gender Identity , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , United States
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e035335, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have attempted to review the vast body of evidence on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH), but none has focused on a complete mapping and synthesis of the body of inquiry and evidence on ASRH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Such a comprehensive scoping is needed, however, to offer direction to policy, programming and future research. We aim to undertake a scoping review of studies on ASRH in SSA to capture the landscape of extant research and findings and identify gaps for future research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol is designed using the framework for scoping reviews developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. We will include English and French language peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on ASRH (aged 10-19) in SSA published between January 2010 and June 2019. A three-step search strategy involving an initial search of three databases to refine the keywords, a full search of all databases and screening of references of previous review studies for relevant articles missing from our full search will be employed. We will search AJOL, JSTOR, HINARI, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and the websites for the WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO and Guttmacher Institute. Two reviewers will screen the titles, abstracts and full texts of publications for eligibility and inclusion-using Covidence (an online software). We will then extract relevant information from studies that meet the inclusion criteria using a tailored extraction frame and template. Extracted data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results will be presented using tables and charts and summaries of key themes arising from available research findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review as it synthesises publicly available publications. Dissemination will be through publication in a peer-review journal and presentation at relevant conferences and convening of policymakers and civil society organisations working on ASRH in SSA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Reproductive Health , Sexual Behavior , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Sexually Transmitted Diseases
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(12): 7195-7207, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453750

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to examine and categorize the current evidence on patient-physician relationships among marginalized patient populations within the context of cancer care using a systemic scoping review approach. METHODS: Web-based discovery services (e.g., Google Scholar) and discipline-specific databases (e.g., PubMed) were queried for articles on the patient-physician relationship among marginalized cancer patients. The marginalized populations of interest included (1) race and ethnicity, (2) gender, (3) sexual orientation and gender identity, (4) age, (5) disability, (6) socioeconomic status, and (7) geography (rural/urban). Study screening and data extraction were facilitated through the Covidence software platform. RESULTS: Of the 397 screened studies, 37 met study criteria-most articles utilized quantitative methodologies (n = 28). The majority of studies focused on racial and ethnic cancer disparities (n = 27) with breast cancer (n = 20) as the most common cancer site. Trust and satisfaction with the provider were the most prevalent issues cited in the patient-physician relationship. Differences in patient-physician communication practices and quality were also frequently discussed. Overall, studies highlighted the need for increased culturally congruent care among providers. CONCLUSION: Results from this review suggest marginalized cancer patients face significant barriers in establishing culturally and linguistically congruent patient-physician relationships. Future studies should focus on the intersectionality of multiple marginalized identities and optimization of the patient-physician relationship.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Physicians , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Physician-Patient Relations , Sexual Behavior
15.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 304(3): 791-805, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on sexual quality of life (SQoL) is a well-established survivorship issue for gynaecological cancer survivors (GCS), yet little is known on how to intervene. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify the factors explaining the variability in SQoL for GCS. METHODS: We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework and the software Covidence. Electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, PUBMED and CINAHL were searched for original research on GCS published between 2002 and 2018. We performed a two-stage screening process against selection criteria and quality assessment of individual studies. The Salutogenic Theory and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model were used as theoretical frameworks to identify and categorise factors. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 3,505 articles resulting in a total of 46 studies used to examine the association between factors of SQoL and gynaecological cancers. Our findings suggested that SQoL varies across subgroups based on age, menopausal status, relationship status, and treatment modality. Protective factors included clinicians' knowledge and confidence, preventive medical approach, risk and needs assessment, patient-clinician communication, relationship quality, psychosocial support, symptom management, accessibility of psychosexual care, and self-efficacy in the rediscovery of sexuality. CONCLUSION: Despite the high incidence and long-term impact of sexual health issues on quality of life, supportive care needs are not being met. A better understanding of the evidence base around the factors of SQoL can help health professionals take steps to protect and improve SQoL in GCS.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors/psychology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology , Australia , Female , Humans , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/etiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/etiology
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1780, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may profoundly impact young people's relationships. This study compared adolescent and young adults' romantic relationships and sexual activity before and after social distancing policies were enacted. METHODS: In June 2020, 351 youth participating in an ongoing intervention study in Fresno County, California completed an online survey about their experiences related to COVID-19. The survey included open and closed-ended questions about their romantic relationships, sexual activity, and online romantic or sexual interactions before and during social distancing restrictions. We used the chi-square test of independence to compare adolescent (ages 13-17) and young adults' (ages 18-21) responses. Results were also compared to responses in the intervention study's baseline survey. RESULTS: One-third (37%) of youth were dating or in a romantic relationship and 28% spent time in person with a partner early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those dating or in a relationship, 34% physically distanced from their partner due to parental restrictions related to COVID-19. Youth also spent less time in person with their partners during the pandemic than before. Although most youth (69%) were not sexually active before or during the pandemic, 22% had sex during the social distancing period. Young adults were more likely to spend time with their partners and have sex during the restrictions than adolescents. Most youth were not involved in sexting or online dating, before or during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and young adults have continued to engage in sexual and romantic relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic, although many reported physical distancing from their partners. Results suggest that youth continue to need access to sexual health education and services during emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Young Adult
17.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1610-1619, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435675

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe disparities in depression, anxiety, and problem drinking by sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Data were collected May 21 to July 15, 2020, from 3245 adults living in 5 major US metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; and Los Angeles, California). Participants were characterized as cisgender straight or LGBTQ+ (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, and men who have sex with men, and women who have sex with women not identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender). Results. Cisgender straight participants had the lowest levels of depression, anxiety, and problem drinking compared with all other sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity groups, and, in general, LGBTQ+ participants were more likely to report that these health problems were "more than usual" during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions. LGBTQ+ communities experienced worse mental health and problem drinking than their cisgender straight counterparts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should assess the impact of the pandemic on health inequities. Policymakers should consider resources to support LGBTQ+ mental health and substance use prevention in COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409533

ABSTRACT

The practice of sex with casual partners without the use of adequate prevention in the period of social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) can expose them to the risk of infection by the HIV virus. To assess this, we conducted an online survey in April and May 2020 in the entire national territory of Brazil and Portugal. We used the snowball technique for sampling, associated with circulation in social networks, totaling 2934 participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to produce the adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR). Eight-hundred-and-forty-two (28.7%) MSM presented at-risk sexual exposure in this period. In general, the types of sexual practices that most increased the chances of sexual exposure were having multiple partners (aOR:14.045); having practiced chemsex (aOR:2.246) and group sex (aOR:2.431), as well as presenting a history of at-risk sexual exposure (aOR:5.136). When we consider each country separately, the chances are increased in Brazil since the probability of the outcome was increased in those who practiced group sex (aOR:5.928), had multiple partners (aOR:19.132), and reported a sexual history of at-risk exposure (aOR:8.861). Our findings indicate that practices that are classically associated with greater chances of engaging in risky sexual exposure to HIV infection were the factors that most increased the chances of acquiring the virus in the pandemic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388916

ABSTRACT

An alternative strategy for men who have sex with men (MSM) experiencing challenges with daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) includes 2-1-1 dosing. Understanding 2-1-1 PrEP facilitators and barriers, especially during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, may guide researchers and healthcare providers in future studies and clinical preparedness. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of MSM in the US who had taken 2-1-1 PrEP to examine facilitators and barriers of this on-demand PrEP dosing option. With the shelter-in-place orders in March 2020, this study was adapted to include questions on how the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected participants' PrEP use. A total of 140 individuals participated in the survey, 106 of which completed questions pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The most common reasons for switching from once-daily to 2-1-1 PrEP included having sex less frequently (63.6%) and wanting to take fewer pills (46.4%). Participants reported high medication adherence based on each component of 2-1-1 PrEP dosing (>84%). The most common barriers with 2-1-1 PrEP dosing included unplanned sexual encounters resulting in missing the double-dose pre-sex (43.6%) and trouble remembering doses post-sex (29.3%). Facilitators of the 2-1-1 PrEP dosing strategy included reductions in sexual encounters (63.6%), preference to take fewer pills (46.4%), need to reduce cost (22.1%), and desire to reduce side effects (19.3%). Challenges to receiving PrEP services during the pandemic included obtaining laboratory testing (25.5%) and PrEP refills (either receipt of a refill authorization from a healthcare provider or processing of a refill from the pharmacy) (18.9%). 2-1-1 PrEP is an effective HIV prevention method; therefore, understanding facilitators and barriers of this dosing strategy can result in continuous provision of HIV prevention efforts, particularly during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities
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