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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(12): 4431-4439, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess sexual activity, partner relationships among males who had been infected with COVID-19, to study the impact of COVID-19 infection on partner relationship and to find out the association between partner and sexual relationship during lockdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia through social media platforms via online questionnaire between December 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021 among 871 participants after a pilot study among 20 participants of which 497 were included in the study. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Inc., Armonk, NY, USA). Responses were presented as frequencies and percentages and the association was studied using Chi squared test/Fisher's exact test. The value of p ≤ .05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Out of the total study participants, nearly 85% of them belonged to the age range of 18 to 39 years, more than half of the participants were married. In the six months prior to the study being conducted, 268 respondents (53.9%) did not have sexual relationships. Respondents with positive COVID-19 infection reported that their partner lived with them in the same house during home isolation and was also found to be significantly associated with having intact sexual relationships in the last six months of the lockdown period (p-value < .001). Moreover, respondents who reported having good relationships with their partners during the pandemic were found to be significantly associated with having intact sexual relationships during the pandemic lockdown (p-value < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among the COVID-19-positive respondents, sexual activity and partner relationships were largely found to be intact during the pandemic lockdown period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Partners , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Sexual Behavior , Young Adult
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(6): e25950, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) increases HIV testing uptake among men; however, the linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIVST users is low. Innovative strategies for ART initiation are needed, yet little is known about the unique barriers to care experienced by male HIVST users, and what ART-related interventions men desire. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with cisgender men (≥15 years) in Malawi who tested HIV positive using HIVST between 2018 and 2020, as well as interviews with their female partners (≥15 years) who distributed the HIVST kits. Medical records from seven facilities were used to identify respondents. We included men who received HIVST from a health facility (primary distribution) and from sexual partners (secondary distribution). Interview guides focused on unique barriers to ART initiation following HIVST and desired interventions to improve linkage and initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, translated and transcribed to English, and analysed using constant comparison methods in Atlas.ti v.8.4. Themes were compared by HIVST distribution strategy. Data were collected between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-seven respondents were interviewed: eight male/female dyads (16 respondents), eight men without a female partner and three women who represented men who did not participate in the study. Among the 19 men represented (16 men interviewed in person, three represented by secondary report from female partners), seven received HIVST through primary distribution, 12 through secondary distribution. Six men never initiated ART (all secondary HIVST distribution). Barriers to ART initiation centred on the absence of healthcare workers at the time of diagnosis and included lack of external motivation for linkage to care (men had to motivate themselves) and lack of counselling before and after testing (leaving ART-related fears and misconceptions unaddressed)--the latter was especially true for secondary HIVST distribution. Desired interventions were similar across distribution strategies and included ongoing peer mentorship for normalizing treatment adherence, counselling messages tailored to men, outside-facility services for convenience and privacy, and facility navigation to help men understand how to navigate ART clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Male HIVST users face unique challenges to ART initiation, especially those receiving HIVST through secondary distribution. Male-tailored interventions are desired by men and may help overcome barriers to care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Testing , Humans , Malawi , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Self-Testing , Sexual Partners
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884167

ABSTRACT

This mixed-methods study aimed to explore mental well-being, circumstances and strategies around managing sexual intimacy and risk during the first UK COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020) among men and gender diverse people who have sex with men (MGDPSM), commencing while lockdown was in progress. n = 1429 MGDPSM completed the survey and 14 undertook an in-depth interview. Low mental well-being was reported by 49.6% of the survey participants. Low mental well-being was not predicted by relationship and living circumstance, sexual networking app use, or by casual sexual partners. Low mental well-being was associated with more frequent COVID-19 anxiety (OR = 5.08 CI: 3.74, 6.88 p < 0.001) and with younger age (18-24 years OR = 2.23 CI:1.41-3.53 p = 0.001, 25-34 years OR = 1.45 CI:1.04-2.02 p = 0.029, 35-44 years OR = 1.41 CI:1.00-1.99 p = 0.052). The interview participants understood their lockdown experiences as being relative to normalcy, and those experiencing more dramatic changes faced greater challenges. Living with partners was felt to protect well-being. Many participants reported intimacy interruption challenges. The findings indicate that mental well-being is predicted by age and COVID-19 impact, highlighting opportunities for targeting MGDPSM who are most vulnerable to poor mental health. Services that support MGDPSM during COVID-19 recovery efforts must provide non-judgemental and affirming support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Sexual Partners , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Sex Health ; 19(3): 192-201, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in lockdowns worldwide, with reports suggesting a concomitant increase in the incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study was part of the International Sexual and Reproductive Health (I-SHARE) Consortium, examining IPV and its correlates before and during lockdown in April 2020. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study, conducted online during August-September 2020, recruited 259 participants from Singapore who reported having a steady partner. Alongside socio-demographic data before and during COVID-19 lockdown, the respondents self-reported their encounters with partner violence. Partner violence was measured using an adapted six-item version of the WHO IPV scale. RESULTS: Data revealed an incidence of 17.2%, 25.0%, 16.7%, 17.6%, 17.5% and 18.5% of restriction of contact with others, verbal abuse, restriction of access to finances, physical violence, pressured sex and forced sex, respectively, before COVID-19 lockdown. During lockdown, incidences of these forms of violence were 17.4%, 19.8%, 14.7%, 13.5%, 14.7% and 15.2%, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that being younger, being non-heterosexual, and having more children and adolescents at home were significantly associated with partner violence both before and during lockdown. Analyses also revealed that being of Chinese ethnicity and having a monthly income above SGD3000 were not significantly correlated to partner violence before lockdown but emerged as significant during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Some sociodemographic factors were associated with violence regardless of lockdown, while other factors were exacerbated by lockdown. Interventions should consider these key correlates of partner-based violence, ensuring adequate and appropriate support for vulnerable populations both within and outside of lockdown contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Partners , Singapore/epidemiology
5.
Violence Against Women ; 28(9): 2186-2203, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817041

ABSTRACT

This study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) evolution during the lockdown with a sample of 238 women (44% cohabitating and 56% not cohabitating with the perpetrator), attending five antiviolence centers in Italy (June-September 2020). Questions included 12 items on IPV and, for each item, a question about whether violence increased/stayed the same/decreased during lockdown; an indicator of IPV modifications was constructed. Two distinct patterns, confirmed after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, emerged: IPV increased for 28% of cohabitating and decreased for 56% of non-cohabitating women. Such results suggest the efficacy of physical distancing-strictly controlled by the State-in the prevention of IPV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Partners , Violence
6.
J Inj Violence Res ; 14(1): 21-31, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the co-occurrence of adult and child abuse based on the reports collected from the Polish police and social welfare institutions. METHODS: The study involved data concerning 468 households in Szczecin (Poland) inhabited by children where acts of violence between adults took place. The presented data refer to the years 2012-2103. The data came from so called Blue Card files, i.e. documents issued by the police and social workers in cases of domestic abuse, providing information about its forms, perpetrators, and victims. RESULTS: Domestic violence usually occurs between spouses and cohabitees (78%). The perpetrator was usually a man (88%). Violence usually lasted from 1 up to 3 years (30.0%). The most common forms of physical abuse against adults and children included pushing (79.5% of adults, 22.4% of children) and hitting (64.7% of adults, 16.6% of children), and psychologically abusive behaviors were mostly insults (91.9% of adults, 27.5% of children) and criticism (79.1% of adults, 21.5% of children). This work has shown that the longer the psychological abuse between adults lasts, the greater probability is that it will also be used against children. Child abuse is also associated with putting up resistance to the police by perpetrators. CONCLUSIONS: Summing up, in households where violence between adults is observed, actions should be taken to prevent violence against children.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Domestic Violence , Adult , Aggression/psychology , Child , Domestic Violence/psychology , Humans , Male , Police , Sexual Partners
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264511, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793514

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on various aspects of life, but questions about its effects on close relationships remain largely unanswered. In the present study, we examined perceived changes in relationship satisfaction at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic by using an international sample of 3,243 individuals from 67 different countries, mostly from Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. In April and May 2020, participants responded to an online survey that included questions about relationship satisfaction, their satisfaction before the pandemic, other relationship aspects (e.g., shared time), special circumstances (e.g., mobility restrictions), and enduring dispositions (e.g., insecure attachment). A decline in time shared with one's partner was most strongly associated with perceived decreases in relationship satisfaction, resulting in a different pattern of findings for cohabiting and non-cohabiting individuals. Among the most influential moderators were anxious and avoidant attachment. The findings offer insights into both aggravating and protecting factors in couples' responses to pandemic-related stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interpersonal Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personality/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sexual Partners , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 396, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions stopped people freely engaging in sexual behaviour. We explored sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) using mixed methods during the multiple lockdowns in Wales. METHODS: An online survey was advertised on social media platforms (focusing on Welsh LGBT groups), from June 2020 to July 2020. MSM over 16 years were invited to take part if they were resident in Wales. Qualitative interviews were undertaken as part of a study examining knowledge and awareness of sexual health. Interviews were conducted between September 2020 and February 2021 via Zoom©. Interview data was analysed thematically and integrated with survey data. RESULTS: The survey received 70 responses, 60% (n = 42) reported not having sexual activity during lockdown. Restrictions altered the number of new sexual partners per week with over 80% (n = 56) not having any new sexual partners for the 12 weeks of the first lockdown. However, as the weeks progressed following the first lockdown there was an increase in the number of new sexual partners. Interview data indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic had a large impact on reducing sexual behaviour with other MSM in Wales. 'Lockdown fatigue' was viewed to result in different levels of adherence to the lockdown rules depending on the lockdown being discussed. Of those engaging in sex outside the rules, 'shame' was commonly reported. The restrictions were believed to have a positive impact on reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions had a significant impact on sexual behaviours among MSM in Wales, with the majority fully adhering to the lockdown rules. Although the population were largely compliant with the lockdown restrictions, lockdown fatigue may suggest that any future lockdowns might not have the same effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Wales/epidemiology
9.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(4): e57-e60, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We examined partner seeking and sexual behaviors among a representative sample of US adults (n = 1161) during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 10% of survey respondents sought a new partner, with age and sexual identity being associated with partner seeking behavior. Approximately 7% of respondents had sex with a new partner, which marks a decrease as compared with a prepandemic estimate from 2015 to 2016 in which 16% of US adults reported having sex with a new partner during the past year. Among respondents who had in-person sex with a new partner during the first year of the pandemic, public health guidelines for in-person sexual activity were infrequently followed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
10.
Lancet ; 399(10327): 803-813, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence against women is a global public health problem with many short-term and long-term effects on the physical and mental health of women and their children. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for its elimination in target 5.2. To monitor governments' progress towards SDG target 5.2, this study aimed to provide global, regional, and country baseline estimates of physical or sexual, or both, violence against women by male intimate partners. METHODS: This study developed global, regional, and country estimates, based on data from the WHO Global Database on Prevalence of Violence Against Women. These data were identified through a systematic literature review searching MEDLINE, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science, and comprehensive searches of national statistics and other websites. A country consultation process identified additional studies. Included studies were conducted between 2000 and 2018, representative at the national or sub-national level, included women aged 15 years or older, and used act-based measures of physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence. Non-population-based data, including administrative data, studies not generalisable to the whole population, studies with outcomes that only provided the combined prevalence of physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence with other forms of violence, and studies with insufficient data to allow extrapolation or imputation were excluded. We developed a Bayesian multilevel model to jointly estimate lifetime and past year intimate partner violence by age, year, and country. This framework adjusted for heterogeneous age groups and differences in outcome definition, and weighted surveys depending on whether they were nationally or sub-nationally representative. This study is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42017054100). FINDINGS: The database comprises 366 eligible studies, capturing the responses of 2 million women. Data were obtained from 161 countries and areas, covering 90% of the global population of women and girls (15 years or older). Globally, 27% (uncertainty interval [UI] 23-31%) of ever-partnered women aged 15-49 years are estimated to have experienced physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence in their lifetime, with 13% (10-16%) experiencing it in the past year before they were surveyed. This violence starts early, affecting adolescent girls and young women, with 24% (UI 21-28%) of women aged 15-19 years and 26% (23-30%) of women aged 19-24 years having already experienced this violence at least once since the age of 15 years. Regional variations exist, with low-income countries reporting higher lifetime and, even more pronouncedly, higher past year prevalence compared with high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: These findings show that intimate partner violence against women was already highly prevalent across the globe before the COVID-19 pandemic. Governments are not on track to meet the SDG targets on the elimination of violence against women and girls, despite robust evidence that intimate partner violence can be prevented. There is an urgent need to invest in effective multisectoral interventions, strengthen the public health response to intimate partner violence, and ensure it is addressed in post-COVID-19 reconstruction efforts. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development through the UN Women-WHO Joint Programme on Strengthening Violence against Women Data, and UNDP-UN Population Fund-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, a cosponsored programme executed by WHO.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Intimate Partner Violence , Public Health , Sexual Partners , Sustainable Development/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Partners/psychology , World Health Organization , Young Adult
11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 154-159, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measures to reduce coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission may impact sexual health. We aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19 on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and to characterize individuals who were at high STI risk. METHODS: Dutch heterosexual males and females who participated in a cohort study in 2016 to 2018 were invited to fill out 2 questionnaires again in 2020 (age, 21-28 years). We used behavioral and psychological data from: prelockdown (September 2019 to February 2020), lockdown (March to May 2020), and postlockdown (June to August 2020). Behavior change was compared between subgroups identified with latent class analysis. RESULTS: Four latent classes were identified (n = 238). Individuals in class 1 (48% of study population) and class 2 (36%) were at low STI risk and reported mostly steady partnerships. Individuals in class 3 (9%) and class 4 (7%) reported multiple casual partners prelockdown. Class 4 was characterized by lower condom use and health goals, negative infection prevention attitudes, and higher impulsiveness compared with class 3. Furthermore, same/increased partner numbers during lockdown (class 3, 18%; class 4, 56%) and postlockdown (class 3, 36%; class 4, 42%) compared with prelockdown was often reported. Of individuals who wanted an STI test during the pandemic, 62% in class 3 and 56% in class 4 did not get tested, mainly because they were unable to get an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: A subgroup of individuals, characterized by low health goals, negative infection prevention attitudes, and high impulsiveness, engaged in high-risk behavior during the pandemic. Identifying these individuals may help provide appropriate health care during strict lockdowns and after relaxation of measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055284, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Physical distancing as a non-pharmaceutical intervention aims to reduce interactions between people to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Intimate physical contact outside the household (IPCOH) may expand transmission networks by connecting households. We aimed to explore whether intimacy needs impacted adherence to physical distancing following lockdown in Britain in March 2020. METHODS: The Natsal-COVID web-panel survey (July-August 2020) used quota-sampling and weighting to achieve a quasi-representative population sample. We estimate reporting of IPCOH with a romantic/sexual partner in the 4 weeks prior to interview, describe the type of contact, identify demographic and behavioural factors associated with IPCOH and present age-adjusted ORs (aORs). Qualitative interviews (n=18) were conducted to understand the context, reasons and decision making around IPCOH. RESULTS: Of 6654 participants aged 18-59 years, 9.9% (95% CI 9.1% to 10.6%) reported IPCOH. IPCOH was highest in those aged 18-24 (17.7%), identifying as gay or lesbian (19.5%), and in steady non-cohabiting relationships (56.3%). IPCOH was associated with reporting risk behaviours (eg, condomless sex, higher alcohol consumption). IPCOH was less likely among those reporting bad/very bad health (aOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.93) but more likely among those with COVID-19 symptoms and/or diagnosis (aOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.65). Two-thirds (64.4%) of IPCOH was reported as being within a support bubble. Qualitative interviews found that people reporting IPCOH deliberated over, and made efforts to mitigate, the risks. CONCLUSIONS: Given 90% of people did not report IPCOH, this contact may not be a large additional contributor to SARS-CoV-2 transmission, although heterogeneity exists within the population. Public health messages need to recognise how single people and partners living apart balance sexual intimacy and relationship needs with adherence to control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners , Young Adult
13.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(3): 347-354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to conduct a pilot program for self-testing for HIV during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The target population was the partners of newly diagnosed HIV persons. The premise of the program was to offer such partners a test that they could perform in the conditions, at the time, and with the assistance of persons they themselves selected. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The self-test kits were sent to an outpatient clinic providing care for people living with HIV, where, after taking a preliminary history, the physician who treats the newly diagnosed HIV patients handed them over for use by the partner of the patient. Only the persons who reported having relations with their sexual partner were included in the study. Information on whether the partner accepted the test kit and the self-test result were obtained at the subsequent visit. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Between June 2020 and March 2021, the total number of handed out test kits was 48 kits intended for 24 persons, included 11 women, average age of participants: 35, sexual orientation: 20 persons reported heterosexual orientation, two persons reported homosexual orientation, two failed to provide information on their sexual orientation. All persons tested negative. The pilot program found that self-testing kits are a method for HIV screening in partners of newly diagnosed HIV persons that is simple to apply and easy to accept.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Sexual Partners
14.
AIDS Behav ; 26(8): 2692-2702, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669845

ABSTRACT

Successful use of biomedical forms of HIV risk-reduction may have predisposed many gay and bisexual men (GBM) to vaccination against COVID-19, which may, in turn, affect their sexual behavior. A total of 622 Australian GBM provided weekly data on COVID-19 vaccination history and sexual behaviour between 17 January 2021 and 22 June 2021. We identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination, and compare sexual behavior before and since vaccination. Mean age was 47.3 years (SD 14.0). At least one-dose vaccination coverage had reached 57.2%, and 61.3% reported that the majority of their friends intended to be vaccinated. Vaccinated men reported a mean of 1.11 (SD 2.10) weekly non-relationship sex partners before vaccination and 1.62 (SD 3.42) partners following vaccination. GBM demonstrated high confidence in COVID-19 vaccines. Their sexual activity increased following vaccination suggesting that greater sexual freedom may be a specific motivation for vaccine uptake among some men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Australia/epidemiology , Bisexuality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
15.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455065211068980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence is one of the most common psychological, physical, and sexual assaults toward women which suit the entire life of women, and nowadays, the magnitude accelerates due to coronavirus pandemic. Hence, this study was aimed to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and predictors during coronavirus among childbearing-age residents in Debre Berhan. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was employed from 1 May to 1 July 2020. Eight items of women abuse screening tool were used to estimate intimate partner violence. Trained data collectors directly interview randomly selected participants. The data were entered using Epi-info V. 7 and analyzed using SPSS V. 23. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and the frequency distribution of other variables. During bivariate analysis, predictor variables with a p-value less than 0.25 were nominated to further analysis. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 700 participants were included with a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the past single year was 19% with 95% confidence interval = 16.1-21.9. Besides, the prevalence of emotional (19.9%, 95% confidence interval = 16.9-22.8), sexual (10.9%, 95% confidence interval = 8.6-13.2) and physical (9.4%, 95% confidence interval = 7.3-11.6) violence was reported. Women with depressive symptoms, overweight, suicidal ideation, and body image disturbance were significantly associated with intimate partner violence, but not educational status, employment, income, stressful life events, lifetime alcohol use, suicidal attempt, and abortion. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Nearly one out of five interviewed participants had intimate partner violence. Being overweight, having poor body image, and having depression increase intimate partner violence. Special preventive measures and treatment, and other legal services should be taken to alleviate the predictor variables and intimate partner violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners/psychology
16.
AIDS Behav ; 26(8): 2531-2538, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661704

ABSTRACT

Minority groups may face additional barriers to vaccination. In April-June 2021, we assessed the level of COVID-19 vaccination and willingness to be vaccinated in a national, online survey of 1280 gay and bisexual men in Australia. Over a quarter of the sample (28.0%) had been partially or fully vaccinated, and 80.0% of the unvaccinated were willing to be vaccinated. Vaccination was independently associated with older age, being university educated, and HIV status (with HIV-positive participants being more likely and untested participants less likely to be vaccinated). Willingness to be vaccinated was independently associated with living in a capital city and being university educated. Those who had lost income or their job due to COVID-19 were less willing to be vaccinated. Our results suggest encouraging COVID-19 vaccination among those with lower levels of health literacy and supporting those who have experienced financial stress because of the pandemic.


RESUMEN: Los grupos minoritarios pueden enfrentar barreras adicionales accediendo a una vacuna. En abril-junio de 2021, evaluamos el nivel de vacunación contra el COVID-19 y la disposición a la vacuna utilizando datos de una encuesta nacional en línea de 1280 hombres gays y bisexuales en Australia. El 28% de los participantes habían sido vacunados parcial o totalmente, y el 80% de los no vacunados estaban dispuestos a vacunarse. La vacunación se asoció de forma independiente con participantes de mayor edad, con educación universitaria y su estado de VIH (los participantes VIH positivos tenían más probabilidades que los participantes sin prueba del VIH de ser vacunados). La disposición a favor de ser vacunados se asoció de manera independiente con vivir en una ciudad capital y tener estudios universitarios. Aquellos que habían perdido ingresos o su trabajo debido al COVID-19 estaban menos dispuestos a vacunarse. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que es importante promover la vacunación contra el COVID-19 entre personas que tienen menos información en temas de salud y apoyar a quienes han sufrido estrés financiero debido a la pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Partners , Vaccination
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 273-285, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653559

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the mitigation measures put in place have resulted in universal disruption in the usual ways of life for individuals. The current study sought to investigate how aspects of sexual health (well-being and functioning) and relationship satisfaction changed or remained stable during the pandemic. During two separate time points (Time 1 including Time 1 and a retrospective baseline, Time 2), participants completed online measures of sexual well-being (sexual pleasure, partnered and solitary orgasm frequency, sexual distress), sexual functioning, and relationship satisfaction. Participants reported slight declines in sexual pleasure, frequency of orgasms with a partner, and frequency of solitary orgasms from pre-COVID-19 (retrospective baseline) to Time 1, with no significant differences in sexual distress and relationship satisfaction. For individuals with vulvas, sexual functioning improved from Time 1 to Time 2, whereas no significant differences in sexual functioning were observed for individuals with penises. Aspects of sexual health and relational satisfaction did not sufficiently change across time points to be considered meaningful health outcome changes. Given that minimal disruptions were noted in pre-COVID-19 to COVID-19 sexuality, these results highlight the potential resiliency of individuals' sexuality when facing sudden changes in their daily lives. Implications of COVID-19's effects on sexual well-being and relationship satisfaction research are broadly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Orgasm , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 247-271, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653558

ABSTRACT

The current study used Family Systems Theory as a framework to clarify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual, romantic, and individual functioning. Specifically, sexual and romantic functioning were modeled as key mechanisms linking COVID-19 related stressors (as predictors) to aspects of individual functioning over time (as outcomes). A sample of 1,241 sexually active adults in relationships (47% married/engaged) was recruited from March 5 to May 5, 2020: 82% White, 66% women, M = 34 years old, 58% heterosexual. All participants completed a baseline survey and 642 participants completed at least one of the six, monthly, follow-up surveys. Multilevel SEM models evaluated the model both at the level of stable between-person differences (i.e., level 2) and at the level of within-person change across time (i.e., level 1). The findings suggested that COVID-19 related stress was predictive of lower sexual, romantic, and individual functioning in both levels of the model. Significant indirect paths supported the proposed mediation at the level of within-person change across time: elevations in COVID-19 stress within specific months predicted corresponding drops in sexual functioning, which in turn predicted corresponding drops in romantic functioning, which in turn predicted corresponding drops in individual well-being (highlighting points of intervention). In contrast, at the level of between-person differences, stable levels of sexual and relationship satisfaction across the 6 months of the study were not associated with stable levels of COVID-19 stressors (representing sources of resilience that promoted well-being) and stable levels of stress from social isolation predicted stably higher amounts of communicating affection to one's loved ones (suggesting a need for affiliation in the face of chronic stress) whereas stable difficulties with orgasms were linked to stable irritability toward partners and depressive symptoms. Multigroup analyses suggested that the findings generalized across gender, age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, relationship stage, and cohabitation groups. Spillover effects within a Family Systems Theory framework clarify how upheaval of the COVID-19 pandemic could have impacted sexual, romantic, and individual functioning in a process-oriented framework, highlighting sources of resilience (sexual satisfaction, communicating affection) and risk (orgasm difficulties).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Love , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(3)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643420

ABSTRACT

Partner notification (PN) is an essential element of sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. It enables identification, treatment and advice for sexual contacts who may benefit from additional preventive interventions such as HIV pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. PN is most effective in reducing STI transmission when it reaches individuals who are most likely to have an STI and to engage in sexual behaviour that facilitates STI transmission, including having multiple and/or new sex partners. Outcomes of PN practice need to be measurable in order to inform standards. They need to address all five stages in the cascade of care: elicitation of partners, establishing contactable partners, notification, testing and treatment. In the United Kingdom, established outcome measures cover only the first three stages and do not take into account the type of sexual partnership. We report an evidence-based process to develop new PN outcomes and inform standards of care. We undertook a systematic literature review, evaluation of published information on types of sexual partnership and a modified Delphi process to reach consensus. We propose six new PN outcome measures at five stages of the cascade, including stratification by sex partnership type. Our framework for PN outcome measurement has potential to contribute in other domains, including Covid-19 contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Consensus , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 547-564, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611427

ABSTRACT

Although some evidence exists to suggest that single (i.e., unpartnered) individuals are less sexually satisfied on average than are partnered individuals, it is unclear whether the variables correlating with each group's sexual satisfaction are similar or different. This research sought to examine how desire for and actual engagement in solitary and partnered sexual activities are associated with both groups' sexual satisfaction. We first conducted a preliminary study (n = 572) to test and refine existing measures of sexual satisfaction for applicability across relationship status. In two follow-up studies (N = 1,238), measurement invariance (across relationship status and gender) of the resulting 4-item sexual satisfaction scale was established. Further, results across the studies showed that for singles dyadic sexual desire was negatively related to sexual satisfaction, whereas no significant link was found with solitary desire. For individuals in romantic relationships, having higher sexual desire involving a partner and lower solitary desire were both associated with greater sexual satisfaction. When analyzing participants' responses on the desired and actual frequency of engaging in specific sexual acts, we found that for both single and partnered individuals, frequent engagement in partnered acts was associated with greater sexual satisfaction. Wanting frequent engagement in partnered acts was associated with lower sexual satisfaction for both groups, but only if the current frequency of engaging in these acts was low. These findings suggest that at least during the COVID-19 pandemic, meeting desires for partnered sex plays an important role in maintaining a sexually satisfying life, regardless of one's relationship status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orgasm , Humans , Libido/physiology , Orgasm/physiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
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