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1.
Lancet ; 399(10327): 803-813, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence against women is a global public health problem with many short-term and long-term effects on the physical and mental health of women and their children. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for its elimination in target 5.2. To monitor governments' progress towards SDG target 5.2, this study aimed to provide global, regional, and country baseline estimates of physical or sexual, or both, violence against women by male intimate partners. METHODS: This study developed global, regional, and country estimates, based on data from the WHO Global Database on Prevalence of Violence Against Women. These data were identified through a systematic literature review searching MEDLINE, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science, and comprehensive searches of national statistics and other websites. A country consultation process identified additional studies. Included studies were conducted between 2000 and 2018, representative at the national or sub-national level, included women aged 15 years or older, and used act-based measures of physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence. Non-population-based data, including administrative data, studies not generalisable to the whole population, studies with outcomes that only provided the combined prevalence of physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence with other forms of violence, and studies with insufficient data to allow extrapolation or imputation were excluded. We developed a Bayesian multilevel model to jointly estimate lifetime and past year intimate partner violence by age, year, and country. This framework adjusted for heterogeneous age groups and differences in outcome definition, and weighted surveys depending on whether they were nationally or sub-nationally representative. This study is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42017054100). FINDINGS: The database comprises 366 eligible studies, capturing the responses of 2 million women. Data were obtained from 161 countries and areas, covering 90% of the global population of women and girls (15 years or older). Globally, 27% (uncertainty interval [UI] 23-31%) of ever-partnered women aged 15-49 years are estimated to have experienced physical or sexual, or both, intimate partner violence in their lifetime, with 13% (10-16%) experiencing it in the past year before they were surveyed. This violence starts early, affecting adolescent girls and young women, with 24% (UI 21-28%) of women aged 15-19 years and 26% (23-30%) of women aged 19-24 years having already experienced this violence at least once since the age of 15 years. Regional variations exist, with low-income countries reporting higher lifetime and, even more pronouncedly, higher past year prevalence compared with high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: These findings show that intimate partner violence against women was already highly prevalent across the globe before the COVID-19 pandemic. Governments are not on track to meet the SDG targets on the elimination of violence against women and girls, despite robust evidence that intimate partner violence can be prevented. There is an urgent need to invest in effective multisectoral interventions, strengthen the public health response to intimate partner violence, and ensure it is addressed in post-COVID-19 reconstruction efforts. FUNDING: UK Department for International Development through the UN Women-WHO Joint Programme on Strengthening Violence against Women Data, and UNDP-UN Population Fund-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, a cosponsored programme executed by WHO.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Intimate Partner Violence , Public Health , Sexual Partners , Sustainable Development/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Partners/psychology , World Health Organization , Young Adult
2.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455065211068980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence is one of the most common psychological, physical, and sexual assaults toward women which suit the entire life of women, and nowadays, the magnitude accelerates due to coronavirus pandemic. Hence, this study was aimed to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and predictors during coronavirus among childbearing-age residents in Debre Berhan. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was employed from 1 May to 1 July 2020. Eight items of women abuse screening tool were used to estimate intimate partner violence. Trained data collectors directly interview randomly selected participants. The data were entered using Epi-info V. 7 and analyzed using SPSS V. 23. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and the frequency distribution of other variables. During bivariate analysis, predictor variables with a p-value less than 0.25 were nominated to further analysis. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 700 participants were included with a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the past single year was 19% with 95% confidence interval = 16.1-21.9. Besides, the prevalence of emotional (19.9%, 95% confidence interval = 16.9-22.8), sexual (10.9%, 95% confidence interval = 8.6-13.2) and physical (9.4%, 95% confidence interval = 7.3-11.6) violence was reported. Women with depressive symptoms, overweight, suicidal ideation, and body image disturbance were significantly associated with intimate partner violence, but not educational status, employment, income, stressful life events, lifetime alcohol use, suicidal attempt, and abortion. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Nearly one out of five interviewed participants had intimate partner violence. Being overweight, having poor body image, and having depression increase intimate partner violence. Special preventive measures and treatment, and other legal services should be taken to alleviate the predictor variables and intimate partner violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners/psychology
3.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 439-443, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334163

ABSTRACT

The hyperperception model was used to derive hypotheses concerning the processes by which people experience romantic jealousy because of their observation of their romantic partners on social network sites. The main focus was on the receiver component of the model that specifies that when observation of others' interactions is constrained to social media, those interactions appear more intimate than when the dyad is also observable offline. A survey (N = 322) was conducted to test this component of the model and determine if the model can predict additional phenomena such as possession signals and staying home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were generally consistent with the hypotheses and the utility of the hyperperception model for understanding the effects of observing romantic partners' interactions on social media. The data also reveal the importance of interpersonal processes in obeying social distancing guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Jealousy , Physical Distancing , Sexual Partners/psychology , Adult , Friends/psychology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Sexual Behavior , Social Media
5.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310879

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Jealousy , Marriage/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Uncertainty , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Social Interaction , Social Media
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291583

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19 , Financial Stress/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Sexual Partners/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Parenting/psychology , Young Adult
7.
Psychol Assess ; 33(4): 338-355, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217670

ABSTRACT

Perceived partner responsiveness (PPR; Reis & Shaver, Handbook of personal relationships, 1988, Wiley)-the belief that one's partner will attend to core concerns-is a construct in basic relationship research that can help evaluate intimacy in couple therapy. However, research into PPR is hampered by a lack of standardized measurement. Three studies were undertaken to develop and evaluate an optimized self-report PPR measure. In Study 1, n = 2,334 respondents completed 246 candidate items derived from 19 PPR measures. Exploratory factor analyses identified two underlying dimensions, Responsiveness and Insensitivity. Item response theory was used to develop two 8-item subscales for the Perceived Responsiveness and Insensitivity scale (PRI), both of which showed incremental prediction over global satisfaction. In Study 2, n = 173 respondents completed the brief PRI along with measures of global relationship evaluations and concrete relationship behaviors every other week for 8 weeks. Random intercept cross-lagged panel models found the PRI subscales were more sensitive than global evaluations to fluctuations in support and conflict. In Study 3, n = 161 heterosexual couples completed the brief PRI along with self-reports of responsive and insensitive behaviors. Actor-partner interdependence models demonstrated the PRI subscales were associated with partners' self-reported behaviors even after controlling for own behaviors. Thus, the PRI offers a PPR measure that demonstrates desirable properties for treatment research including (a) incremental validity over global satisfaction, (b) ability to detect meaningful change over time, and (c) sensitivity to partners' behaviors in the relationship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Interpersonal Relations , Sexual Partners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Couples Therapy , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Heterosexuality/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045427, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV), and to assess the association with food insecurity, sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviours in Uganda in the year preceding COVID-19-associated lockdowns. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional household survey. SETTING: Urban, semiurban and rural communities of the Wakiso and Hoima districts in Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: A total of N=2014 males aged 13-80 years participated in the survey. The current study included males who reported having ever been in a sexual union and responded to the IPV questions (N=1314). MEASURES: Data were collected face-to-face from May 2018 to July 2019 using an interviewer-mediated questionnaire. Lifetime IPV perpetration was measured as 'no physical and/or sexual IPV', 'physical' versus 'sexual violence only', and 'physical and sexual violence'. Past-year food insecurity was measured through the Food Insecurity Experience Scale and categorised into 'none', 'low' and 'high'. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRRs) of IPV perpetration in relation to self-reported food insecurity, adjusting for sociodemographic and health risk behaviours. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime IPV perpetration was 14.6% for physical and 6.5% for sexual violence, while 5.3% reported to have perpetrated both physical and sexual IPV. Most (75.7%) males reported no food insecurity, followed by low (20.7%) and high (3.6%) food insecurity. In adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with increased risk of having perpetrated both physical and sexual violence (aRRR=2.57, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.32). IPV perpetration was also independently associated with having had more than one lifetime sexual partner and drinking alcohol, but not with education level or religion. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that food insecurity is associated with male IPV perpetration, and more efforts are needed to prevent and mitigate the expected worsening of this situation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Self Report , Suburban Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda/epidemiology , Urban Population , Young Adult
9.
J Sex Res ; 58(8): 951-957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117170

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 led to substantial changes in individuals' lives due to preventive measures, including social distancing and "stay at home" orders. One type of social interaction likely impacted is intimacy and sexual relationships. Sexual minority men have long navigated the impact of another pandemic, HIV, on their sexual lives. This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on Latinx sexual minority men's (LSMM) sexual behaviors in South Florida, an HIV and COVID-19 epicenter. A rapid qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with LSMM (N = 20) revealed five themes: (1) increased sex with a primary partner, (2) fewer sexual partners, (3) continued pre-COVID-19 sexual activity, often following "quarantine fatigue," (4) opportunities and challenges related to navigating COVID-19 prevention and sex, and (5) using sexual networking apps in new ways. The findings suggest LSMM's resilience and their ongoing health needs during COVID-19, with implications for interventions to promote LSMM's safe and satisfying sex.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Florida/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Safe Sex , Unsafe Sex , Young Adult
10.
Am Psychol ; 76(3): 438-450, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065806

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly altered people's daily lives and created multiple societal challenges. One important challenge of this unique stressor is maintaining well-functioning intimate relationships, which are inextricably tied to emotional and physical health. Yet research on romantic relationships shows that external stressors such as economic hardship, demanding jobs, and disasters can threaten the quality and stability of couples' relationships. Research within relationship science investigating how external stressors and existing vulnerabilities shape couple functioning can inform predictions about how the current pandemic will impact couples' relationships and which couples in which contexts may be most at risk for adverse relationship consequences. Drawing on theory and research from relationship science, the presented conceptual framework, adapted from the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model (Karney & Bradbury, 1995), suggests that facing COVID-19-related external stress is likely to increase harmful dyadic processes (e.g., hostility, withdrawal, less responsive support), which will undermine couples' relationship quality. These harmful effects are likely to be exacerbated by the broader preexisting context in which couples' relationships are situated (e.g., social class, minority status, age), and their individual vulnerabilities (e.g., attachment insecurity, depression). The framework presented identifies the essential factors that need to be addressed in order to mitigate the potential adverse effects of the current crisis on relationships, and offers key directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interpersonal Relations , Sexual Partners/psychology , Spouses/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Psychological Theory
11.
Int J Impot Res ; 33(1): 131-136, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010035

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the Italian Government introduced measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection. Between 8th April and 2nd May 2020 we investigated levels and correlates of sexual activity and depression during COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of hospital workers and their acquaintances by an online survey on SurveyMonkey. Socio-demographic data, International Index of Erectile Function, Female Sexual Function Index, and Beck Depression Inventory were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MLRA) was used to test predictors of depressive symptoms and low sexual desire and satisfaction. A statistically significant difference in age, change in working habit, sexual satisfaction, sexual desire, and depressive symptoms was found between males and females. A statistically significant higher proportion of health care workers had low sexual desire (65.3% vs 56.8%, p = 0.042). At MLRA, age, being female, being a health care worker, having children at home, living with the partner, and having low sexual satisfaction were predictors of low level of sexual desire. To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies using validated questionnaires for both males and females to assess sexual well-being and psychometric alterations during COVID quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexuality/physiology , Sexuality/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
12.
Int J Impot Res ; 33(1): 102-109, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970938

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, which is effective worldwide, the psychological conditions of healthcare professionals deteriorate. The aim of this study was to examine health professionals' changes in their sexual lives due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Istanbul, Turkey. This online survey was conducted between 2 and 26 May 2020 with 232 healthcare professionals working in a pandemic hospital. After obtaining informed consent, a questionnaire was sent online from the hospital database and health institutions social media accounts (Twitter®, Facebook®, Instagram®, WhatsApp® etc.) and e-mail addresses. The first section of the four-part questionnaire included demographic data, the second and third sections of pre-and post-COVID-19 attitudes, and the last section to assess sexual functions (International Index of Erecile Function for male and Female Sexual Function Index for female), anxiety and depression. Dependent sample t-test, Mc Nemar test, and multivariate analysis were used.The study was completed with 185 participants in total. Healthcare workers' sexual desire (3.49 ± 1.12 vs. 3.22 ± 1.17; p = 0.003), weekly sexual intercourse/masturbation number (2.53 ± 1.12 vs. 1.32 ± 1.27; p < 0.001), foreplay time (16.38 ± 12.35 vs. 12.02 ± 12.14; p < 0.001), sexual intercourse time (24.65 ± 19.58 vs. 19.38 ± 18.85; p < 0.001) decreased compared to the Pre-COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, participants prefer less foreplay (p < 0.001), less oral sex (p < 0.001) and anal sex (p = 0.007) during COVID-19 and more non-face to face sexual intercourse positions (p < 0.001). When factors affecting sexual dysfunction were analyzed as univariate and multivariate, sexual dysfunction was shown to be significantly more common in males (OR = 0.053) and alcohol users (OR = 2.925). During the COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare workers' sexual desires decreased, the number of sexual intercourses decreased, their foreplay times decreased, and their sexual intercourse positions changed to less face to face.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Psychol Sci ; 31(12): 1479-1487, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972146

ABSTRACT

How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected intimate relationships? The existing literature is mixed on the effect of major external stressors on couple relationships, and little is known about the early experience of crises. The current study used 654 individuals involved in a relationship who provided data immediately before the onset of the pandemic (December, 2019) and twice during the early stages of the pandemic (March and April, 2020). Results indicate that relationship satisfaction and causal attributions did not change over time, but responsibility attributions decreased on average. Changes in relationship outcomes were not moderated by demographic characteristics or negative repercussions of the pandemic. There were small moderation effects of relationship coping and conflict during the pandemic, revealing that satisfaction increased and maladaptive attributions decreased in couples with more positive functioning, and satisfaction decreased and maladaptive attributions increased in couples with lower functioning.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Conflict, Psychological , Interpersonal Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Sexual Partners/psychology , Spouses/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 756-762, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic and physical distancing measures have impacted the well-being and sexual health among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM) during the initial phase of physical distancing mandates in the U.S. METHODS: From March 27, 2020, to May 8, 2020, U.S. ASMM (N = 151; aged 14-17 years) completed the online baseline survey of a sexual health intervention trial. COVID-19-related closed- and open-ended questions were included. A mixed-methods approach assessed COVID-19-related changes in well-being and sexual health by outness with an accepting guardian. RESULTS: The majority (57%) of participants reported being worried about COVID-19. Almost all (91%) were physically distancing. Participants noted that COVID-19 changed school, home, work, and family life. Participants highlighted that COVID-19 reduced their ability to socialize and had a deleterious effect on their mental health. In the past 3 months, participants reported seeing sexual partners in person less often, masturbating and viewing pornography more often, and sexting and messaging on men-seeking-men websites/phone applications about the same amount. Many described being physically distanced from sexual partners, and some noted an increase in their use of virtual ways to connect with partners (e.g., video chatting). There were no differences by outness with an accepting guardian in quantitative or qualitative responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a snapshot of the initial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among a convenience sample of U.S. ASMM and underscore the need to provide access to resources sensitive to their social, developmental, and sexual health needs during this crisis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , COVID-19 , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Humans , Internet , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
15.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 152, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global pandemic of corona virus (COVID-19) spreads across continents and communities, people are forced to respond with strict preventive measures such as staying at home and keeping social distance. In relation with these measures, particularly with the staying at home, increasing rates of domestic violence are beginning to surface. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intimate partner violence against reproductive age women in northern Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The data were collected during the period of April to May, 2020 using interviews and a self-administered standard questionnaire. The data were entered into the Epi-data manager version 4.2 and exported to SPSS 22 for analysis. The descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and measures of central tendency were used. This was followed by binary and multiple logistic regression analysis to infer the association between the outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 682 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of intimate partner violence against women was found to stood at 24.6% with psychological violence being the most prevalent (13.3%), followed by physical (8.3%) and sexual violence (5.3%). Women were more likely to suffer from violence if they were housewives (AOR, 95% CI (18.062 (10.088, 32.342))), age less than 30 (AOR, 95% CI (23.045 (5.627, 94.377))), women with arrange marriage (AOR, 95% CI (2.535 (1.572, 4.087))) and women with husband's age being "between" 31-40 (AOR, CI 95% (2.212 (1.024, 4.777))). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of a relatively high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Thus, public reporting of any cases or concerns of abuse is critical and vital to mitigate the problem.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Based Participatory Research , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sex Offenses/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Reproduction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1239-1242, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811361

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence (IPV)-defined as physical, psychological, sexual, and/or economic violence typically experienced by women at home and perpetrated by their partners or expartners-is a pervasive form of violence that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem, with important negative consequences on physical and psychological health. Many reports from several countries have underlined a remarkable increase in the cases of IPV during the COVID-19 emergency. In this opinion article, we discussed the hypothesis that such an increase may be related to the restrictive measures enacted to contain the pandemic, including women's forced cohabitation with the abusive partner, as well as the exacerbation of partners' pre-existing psychological disorders during the lockdown. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed some data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral center for sexual and domestic violence (Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence [SVSeD]). These data interestingly revealed an opposite trend, that is, a decrease in the number of women who sought assistance since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Such a reduction should be interpreted as a negative consequence of the pandemic-related restrictive measures. Although necessary, these measures reduced women's possibilities of seeking help from antiviolence centers and/or emergency services. Owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, there is an urgent need for developing and implementing alternative treatment options for IPV victims (such as online and phone counseling and telemedicine), as well as training programs for health care professionals, especially those employed in emergency departments, to facilitate early detection of IPV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distance , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Sex Offenses/psychology , Sex Offenses/trends , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/trends
17.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 1060-1079, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653144

ABSTRACT

During the recent COVID-19 outbreak in Spain, we explored the individual and relational well-being of people confined together with their partners and/or children during the first 3 weeks of state-regulated lockdown. Adults 18 years or older (N = 407) completed an online survey that included demographic, household, and employment information along with standardized measures of psychological distress (State-Trait Anxiety and Beck Depression) and relationship functioning-either the Dyadic Adjustment Scale if there were no children in the household or a Basic Family Relations Evaluation Questionnaire (CERFB) measuring conjugal, parental, and coparental functions. Qualitative analyses of responses to an open-ended question about perceived changes in couple or family dynamics during lockdown revealed nine specific themes comprising two overarching categories: relational improvement and deterioration. The overall prevalence of improvement themes (61.7%) exceeded deterioration themes (41.0%), with increased (re)connection and conflict atmosphere cited most often. Quantitative analyses found elevated levels of state anxiety but not trait anxiety or depression during lockdown. Consistent with the qualitative results, couples having no children at home reported high levels of dyadic adjustment, but with children present CERFB parental functioning exceeded conjugal functioning, a pattern sometimes associated with child triangulation into adult conflicts. Although correlates of psychological distress (e.g., unemployment, perceived economic risk) were relatively stable across subgroups, predictors of relationship functioning varied substantially with household/parental status (e.g., telecommuting and employment facilitated conjugal functioning only for couples with children).


Durante el reciente brote de la COVID-19 en España, analizamos el bienestar individual y relacional de las personas confinadas con sus parejas o hijos durante las primeras tres semanas de confinamiento regulado por el estado. Un grupo de adultos mayores de 18 años (N=407) completó una encuesta con datos demográficos, información sobre la vivienda y el empleo, evaluaciones estandarizadas de distrés psicológico (ansiedad-rasgo y ansiedad-estado, depresión de Beck) y funcionamiento familiar (la Escala de ajuste diádico si no había niños en la vivienda o un Cuestionario básico de evaluación de las relaciones familiares (CERFB) que miden las funciones conyugales, parentales y coparentales. Los análisis cualitativos de las respuestas a una pregunta abierta acerca de los cambios percibidos en la dinámica de pareja o familiar durante el confinamiento revelaron nueve temas específicos que comprenden dos categorías dominantes: la mejora y el deterioro relacional. La prevalencia general de los temas de mejora (61.7 %) excedió los temas de deterioro (41.0 %), y se mencionó con más frecuencia una mayor (re)conexión y un ambiente de conflicto. Los análisis cuantitativos indicaron niveles elevados de ansiedad-estado pero no de ansiedad-rasgo ni de depresión durante el confinamiento. De acuerdo con los resultados cualitativos, las parejas que no tienen hijos en la casa informaron niveles altos de ajuste diádico, pero con los niños presentes, el funcionamiento parental del CERFB excedió el funcionamiento conyugal, un patrón asociado a veces con la triangulación de los niños en los conflictos de los adultos. Aunque las relaciones de distrés psicológico (p. ej.: desempleo, riesgo económico percibido) fueron relativamente estables entre los subgrupos, los predictores del funcionamiento relacional variaron considerablemente con la situación habitacional/parental (p. ej: el teletrabajo y el empleo facilitaron el funcionamiento conyugal solo en el caso de las parejas con niños).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Parents/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parenting/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
18.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 46(8): 747-762, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744440

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) spread across the United States and mitigation measures drastically affected the daily lives of Americans. In this study, we assessed the association between COVID-related relationship conflict and changes in intimate and sexual behaviors and experiences. Using data from an online nationally representative probability survey of 1,010 American adults in April 2020, we estimated the impact of coronavirus-related relationship conflict on changes in intimate and sexual behaviors among those in any type of romantic or sexual relationship (Nweighted=742). Further, we assessed the association between conflict and experience of orgasm and feeling emotionally close to partner. Among individuals in relationships, 34% reported some degree of conflict with their romantic partners due to the spread of COVID-19 and its related restrictions. Those experiencing frequent coronavirus-related conflict with their partner were significantly more likely to report decreased frequency of several solo and partnered intimate and sexual behaviors compared to those not experiencing any such conflict, exhibiting a dose-response trend among partnered sexual behaviors. Since the spread of coronavirus and associated social distancing measures in the United States, Americans have experienced escalations in conflict in their romantic partnerships, which was associated with changes to their intimate and sexual lives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(3): 399-406, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility intensions among couples in Shanghai under the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic against the backdrop of persistently low fertility. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using data from studies conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected regarding sociodemographic characteristics, history of reproduction and gynecology, fertility intention before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, female psychological state, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily life. RESULTS: Under the influence of COVID-19, 296/447 (66.2%) participants did not change their original fertility intention to have children, while 151/447 (33.8%) of participants were affected by the outbreak. Participants who believed in government and hospital control policies were less likely to change their intention to become pregnant (P < 10-3 , P < 10-3 ). In contrast, concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on female and fetal health led participants to cancel their original pregnancy plans (P < 10-3 ). CONCLUSION: Three in ten couples of childbearing age, who originally expressed their intention of becoming pregnant, canceled their pregnancy plans after the COVID-19 outbreak. The COVID-19 outbreak has brought new challenges to people's physical and mental health. Effective policies and measures can help to improve people's fertility intentions with respect to having children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Family Planning Services , Fertility , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners/psychology , Young Adult
20.
J Sex Med ; 17(10): 1827-1834, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM). In early March 2020, Israel imposed travel restrictions and limited social contacts to household members only. The effects of these restrictions on the sexual behavior and mental health of MSM are unknown. AIM: To assess sexual behaviors and mental health of Israeli MSM during social distancing and to compare sexual behaviors before and during social distancing, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected through anonymous web-based questionnaires in a popular geospatial application used by MSM between March and April 2020 during the social-distancing period. OUTCOMES: The dependent variable was casual sex, in violation of social-distancing regulations. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors before and during social-distancing restrictions, and mental health. RESULTS: Of the 2,562 participants, 1,012 (39.5%) continued to meet new casual sex partners during this period. Being of a younger age, single, and with higher levels of mental distress predicted engagement in casual sex during the social-distancing period. MSM reduced their sexual risk and limited sexual repertoire-in particular, kissing with their sexual partners. Participants also spent more time in dating applications than in the pre-social-distancing period and increased their use of sex phone, webcams, and porn consumption. They perceived the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to be greater than that of HIV: only 3.2% could imagine themselves having sex with a partner who is infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with 30.1% in case of HIV, P < .01. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: MSM reduced their risk behaviors during social distancing because of the threat of COVID-19. Casual sex during social distancing was associated with negative feelings of mental distress. Future public health response in the future waves of COVID-19 morbidity should strike a balance between containment measures and the need for social distancing with its possible mental and social burdens. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study in Israel and one of the few in the world to examine sexual behaviors among MSM during the COVID-19 social distancing period. It involved a relatively large sample, through convenience sampling, which limits causality. Findings should be interpreted cautiously, specifically because COVID-19-related behaviors and circumstances may change rapidly. CONCLUSION: The negative feelings of distress due to social distancing should be considered as a potential barrier to adherence among vulnerable populations, such as MSM. Future public health response should strike a balance between containment measures and its possible mental, social, and financial burdens. Shilo G, Mor Z. COVID-19 and the Changes in the Sexual Behavior of Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results of an Online Survey. J Sex Med 2020;17:1827-1834.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , Sexual Partners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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