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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 405-407, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708980

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To report findings from qualitative research that describe sources of hesitancy and barriers to vaccine uptake among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) populations. Methods. In March 2021, we conducted focus groups with members of the Los Angeles, California LGBTQIA community to identify barriers to becoming vaccinated. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 32 individuals in 5 focus groups. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results. Historical and ongoing medical trauma, including misgendering, and perceived emotional violence emerged as significant barriers to LGBTQIA individuals becoming vaccinated. Fear of violence was found to be a major barrier among transgender individuals, whereas fear of an unwelcoming vaccination site was a barrier for seniors. Finally, surviving was a higher priority than becoming vaccinated. Conclusions. Participants reported vaccine hesitancy and barriers that are unique to the life experiences of LGBTQIA individuals; these include medical trauma, violence, stigma, and discrimination. Our findings highlight the need to include LGBTQIA leaders and trusted individuals in the development of vaccination education and the delivery of vaccination services. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):405-407. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306599).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , /psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prejudice/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Violence/psychology , Young Adult
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1610-1619, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666846

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe disparities in depression, anxiety, and problem drinking by sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Data were collected May 21 to July 15, 2020, from 3245 adults living in 5 major US metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; and Los Angeles, California). Participants were characterized as cisgender straight or LGBTQ+ (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, and men who have sex with men, and women who have sex with women not identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender). Results. Cisgender straight participants had the lowest levels of depression, anxiety, and problem drinking compared with all other sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity groups, and, in general, LGBTQ+ participants were more likely to report that these health problems were "more than usual" during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions. LGBTQ+ communities experienced worse mental health and problem drinking than their cisgender straight counterparts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should assess the impact of the pandemic on health inequities. Policymakers should consider resources to support LGBTQ+ mental health and substance use prevention in COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some of community mitigation efforts on COVID-19 created challenges to ongoing public health programs, including HIV care and prevention services among men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of the current study was to explore sociodemographic factors and the impact of COVID-19 on HIV testing among Chinese MSM during state-enforced quarantine. METHODS: We conducted a community based survey between May 1st to June 30th, 2020 on COVID-19 related impacts on HIV testing among 436 China MSM during the COVID-19 state-enforced quarantine. RESULTS: One-third (33.7%) of MSM received HIV testing during the quarantine period. Few participants reported difficulty accessing facility-based testing (n = 13, 3.0%) or obtaining HIV self-test kit online (n = 22, 5.0%). However, 12.1% of participants reported being afraid of getting facility-based HIV test due to concerns about the risk of COVID-19. In the multivariate logistic regression model, participants who were married (aOR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.19-3.01), reported increased quality of sleep (aOR: 2.07, 95%CI: 1.11-3.86), and increased difficulty in accessing health care (aOR: 2.34, 95%CI: 1.37-3.99) were more likely to get an HIV test during the state-enforced quarantine. CONCLUSION: The mitigation measures of COVID-19 have created various barriers to access HIV related prevention services in China, including HIV testing. To mitigate these impacts on HIV prevention and care services, future programs need to address barriers to HIV-related services, such as providing high-quality HIV self-testing. Meanwhile, psychological services or other social services are needed to those experiencing mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(5): 1061-1067, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568217

ABSTRACT

The papers in this Journal of Traumatic Stress special issue on disproportionate adversity cover the gamut of discrimination traumas and stressors, including microaggressions, a more insidious forms of discrimination, and their often-devastating and wide-ranging mental health sequelae, in disproportionately affected disenfranchised groups. Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation commonly confers cumulative and chronic effects. In the field of traumatic stress studies, several types of identity-linked traumatic events have been identified and empirically investigated as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-producing experiences. Collectively, the 13 papers included in this special issue raise questions about the definition, conceptualization, and categorization of various forms of explicit and implicit identity-linked trauma. These papers highlight the need for acceptance of a shared nomenclature and better differentiation of both causal and correlational associations with acute and chronic PTSD, depression, suicide risk, alcohol misuse, and other mental health outcomes. In this commentary, the discussion is extended to COVID-19, a disease that has been globally devastating for many. On multiple levels (i.e., physical, mental, emotional, economic, and social), COVID-19 has magnified the prepandemic fault lines of race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Applying a syndemic framework to the health impact of COVID-19 and, arguably, the most pervasive identity linked epidemic worldwide-systemic racism-brings perspective to the biological and social forces that are likely to be driving the convergence of COVID-19, systemic racism, and chronic health inequities, and may be informative in guiding evidence-based strategies for managing racial trauma in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Social Discrimination/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology
8.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S201-S203, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496722

ABSTRACT

Structural racism is a root cause of poor health in the United States and underlies COVID-19-related disparities for Black and Latinx populations. We describe how one community-based organization responded to structural racism and COVID-19 in Florida. Informed by the literature on how public health practice changed from emphasizing prevention (Public Health 1.0) to collaboration between governmental and public health agencies (Public Health 2.0) and examining social determinants of health (Public Health 3.0), we call for a politically engaged Public Health 4.0. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S201-S203. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306408).


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Public Health , Racism/ethnology , Florida , Humans , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health , United States
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(8): e29029, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread fear surrounding COVID-19, coupled with physical and social distancing orders, has caused severe adverse mental health outcomes. Little is known, however, about how the COVID-19 crisis has impacted LGBTQ+ youth, who disproportionately experienced a high rate of adverse mental health outcomes before the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to address this knowledge gap by harnessing natural language processing methodologies to investigate the evolution of conversation topics in the most popular subreddit for LGBTQ+ youth. METHODS: We generated a data set of all r/LGBTeens subreddit posts (n=39,389) between January 1, 2020 and February 1, 2021 and analyzed meaningful trends in anxiety, anger, and sadness in the posts. Because the distribution of anxiety before widespread social distancing orders was meaningfully different from the distribution after (P<.001), we employed latent Dirichlet allocation to examine topics that provoked this shift in anxiety. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in LGBTQ+ youth anger and sadness before and after government-mandated social distancing; however, anxiety increased significantly (P<.001). Further analysis revealed a list of 10 anxiety-provoking topics discussed during the pandemic: attraction to a friend, coming out, coming out to family, discrimination, education, exploring sexuality, gender pronouns, love and relationship advice, starting a new relationship, and struggling with mental health. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, LGBTQ+ teens increased their reliance on anonymous discussion forums when discussing anxiety-provoking topics. LGBTQ+ teens likely perceived anonymous forums as safe spaces for discussing lifestyle stressors during COVID-19 disruptions (eg, school closures). The list of prevalent anxiety-provoking topics in LGBTQ+ teens' anonymous discussions can inform future mental health interventions in LGBTQ+ youth.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data
11.
Fertil Steril ; 116(4): 1128-1138, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore early disparate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility preferences DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Online survey questionnaire PATIENT(S): A total of 440 female participants who were trying to conceive (TTC) in the past year or currently are TTC. INTERVENTION(S): No interventions administered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Change in fertility preference RESULT(S): Approximately 1 in 3 participants reported changing their fertility preferences because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of those that reported changing their fertility preferences, 23.9% reported TTC earlier and 61.6% reported TTC later. Preliminary findings show the odds of changing fertility preferences in black or African American women were 5.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-19.90) times that of white women and in nonheterosexual women were 2.76 (95% CI, 1.41-5.42) times that of heterosexual women. Furthermore, every 1 unit increase in state anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with a 26% (95% CI, 3%-54%) or 17% (95% CI, 5%-31%) increase in odds of pushing back TTC, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): This exploratory study highlights how the fertility preferences of racial and ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and those experiencing mental health issues may be disparately influenced by the pandemic. Research is needed to examine further the disparate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility preferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Fertility/physiology , Infertility, Female/ethnology , Infertility, Female/therapy , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , United States/ethnology
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 598921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282419

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health among HIV high-risk populations is not known. We assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and explore the association with characteristics related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an online survey among 881 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) assessing the presence of DS using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10); results were compared with previously self-reported DS and national data. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes of participants with similar COVID-19 related characteristics. The overall prevalence of significant DS was 53.3%. By LCA posterior probabilities we identified three classes: (1) minimal impact of COVID-19 (54.1%), (2) objective risk for COVID-19 (41.5%), and (3) anxiety and economic stress caused by COVID-19 (4.4%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that compared with those in class one, the odds to have significant DS were almost five times higher for those in class three. Our findings suggest high levels of depression among MSM and TGW in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the need for the provision of targeted psychological interventions to minimize the impacts of COVID-19 on the mental health.


Subject(s)
Depression , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(3): 15579883211022180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259149

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the impact of the coronavirus pandemic and control measures on gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) couples. The goal of this study was to investigate individual-level relationship satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of 209 coupled GBMSM in the United States. We analyzed reported happiness and feelings about a relationship's future and assessed the odds of changing relationship happiness and investment associated with pandemic-related life changes (pandemic-related employment change; COVID-19 illness; high-risk of severe illness), using logistic and multinomial logit models. Fifty-five percent of participants (N = 114) reported that their relationship happiness had not changed during the pandemic, but 30% (N = 62) reported increased relationship happiness. 25% (N = 53) reported they had become more invested in their relationship's future during the pandemic, and only one participant reported decreased investment. The odds of increased relationship investment was significantly associated with pandemic-related employment change (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.19 [1.04, 4.61]) and increased sex during the pandemic (aOR: 4.38 [1.55, 12.41]). Those with a pandemic-related employment change also had significantly higher odds of increased relationship happiness than those without a change (aOR: 2.10 [1.01, 4.35]). COVID-19 cases that reported being at higher risk of serious COVID-19 disease had higher odds of decreased relationship happiness than high-risk non-cases (aOR: 6.58 [1.10, 39.39]). Additional research in this area is warranted to minimize the long-term impacts of the pandemic on coupled GBMSM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Personal Satisfaction , Physical Distancing , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , Happiness , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sexual Behavior/psychology , United States
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114042, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253497

ABSTRACT

We assessed the effects of the COVID19 lockdown on the mental health of transgender and gender non-conforming (TGN) youth (n = 18) vs cisgender youth (29 males; 29 females). Coronavirus Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used in an online study. No group differences were found in demographic variables and exposure to COVID19. Negative emotions/feeling increased for all groups. Cisgender youth reported using more adaptive emotion regulation strategies than TGN youth. While the lockdown similarly affected TGN and cisgender youth, the former showed elevated levels of symptomatology and fewer adaptive emotional regulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Transgender Persons/psychology , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data
15.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1586-1591, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent national events, including the COVID-19 pandemic and protests of racial inequities, have drawn attention to the role of physicians in advocating for improvements in the social, economic, and political factors that affect health. Characterizing the current state of advocacy training in U.S. medical schools may help set expectations for physician advocacy and predict future curricular needs. METHOD: Using the member school directory provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors compiled a list of 154 MD-granting medical schools in the United States in 2019-2020. They used multiple search strategies to identify online course catalogues and advocacy-related curricula using variations of the terms "advocacy," "policy," "equity," and "social determinants of health." They used an iterative process to generate a preliminary coding schema and to code all course descriptions, conducting content analysis to describe the structure of courses and topics covered. RESULTS: Of 134 medical schools with any online course catalogue available, 103 (76.9%) offered at least 1 advocacy course. Required courses were typically survey courses focused on general content in health policy, population health, or public health/epidemiology, whereas elective courses were more likely to focus specifically on advocacy skills building and to feature field experiences. Of 352 advocacy-specific courses, 93 (26.4%) concentrated on a specific population (e.g., children or persons with low socioeconomic status). Few courses (n = 8) focused on racial/ethnic minorities and racial inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that while most U.S. medical schools offer at least 1 advocacy course, the majority are elective rather than required, and the structure and content of advocacy-related courses vary substantially. Given the urgency to address social, economic, and political factors affecting health and health equity, this study provides an important and timely overview of the prevalence and content of advocacy curricula at U.S. medical schools.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/standards , Patient Advocacy/education , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , American Medical Association/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Physician's Role , Politics , Prevalence , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114034, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244805

ABSTRACT

Given concerns of increased suicide risk among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined rates of lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation (SI) among university students in Fall 2020 (vs. two earlier semesters), overall and across gender, racial/ethnic background, and sexual identity. Participants included 1700 university students enrolled in a general education psychology course in Fall 2020, Fall 2014, or Fall 2013. Rates of SI were not significantly higher in Fall 2020 versus the earlier semesters and did not differ across racial/ethnic background. However, rates of SI in Fall 2020 were significantly higher among sexual minority than heterosexual students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(6): 1053-1058, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188695

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in major life disruptions for sexual minority adolescents (SMAs), who already face and cope with pervasive and disproportionate rates of social, behavioral, and mental health challenges. Current research suggests that SMAs are struggling with COVID-19-related shelter in place orders navigating family proximity and dynamics and experiencing isolation from SMA-specific supports. Given identified challenges that may exacerbate known mental health disparities in SMAs, this work explores self-care practices among SMAs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present study uses data from open-ended questions to understand SMA experiences of self-care within a nationwide sample of SMAs (N = 770; M = 17.48 years, SD = 1.00) who are part of an ongoing prospective study. Data were collected via online questionnaire between May 13 and 31, 2020. Thematic analysis guided data exploration. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed five self-care practices among SMAs: (1) relationships, (2) routines, (3) body and mind, (4) rest and reset, and (5) tuning out. SMAs engaged in many positive coping strategies (i.e., exercise, establishing routine) and often linked these activities to positive well-being. Other SMAs engaged in activities to distract or disengage from stressors (i.e., excessive TV and alcohol and drug use). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the resiliency of SMAs during the current pandemic, opportunities for providers to emphasize adaptive coping skills with youths, and the need for more research on adolescent self-care practices.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
18.
J Agromedicine ; 25(4): 370-373, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174761

ABSTRACT

The limited data on LGBTQ+ farmers demonstrate that this population lacks adequate healthcare access and faces stigma in agricultural communities. Given that COVID-19 disproportionately impacts LGBTQ+ populations, we investigate how working conditions and healthcare bias may expose LGBTQ+ farmers - essential employees - to high risk of transmitting the virus. During COVID-19, LGBTQ+ farmers may experience worse mental health outcomes as they face occupational and identity-based stressors. Conversely, LGBTQ+ farmers may also demonstrate mental health resilience during COVID-19 due to pre-existing socially distant networks they created in light of agricultural heterosexism. What is unique about COVID-19 is that healthcare inequities of a relatively small percentage of the agriculture workforce has amplifying implications for the entire agrifood system. We call for research on LGBTQ+ farmers to understand how sexuality impacts agricultural health, to uncover health risks and protective factors that may increase the health of farming communities, and to support essential food production during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Farmers/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045258, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and its control measures have impacted health and healthcare provision in various levels. Physical distancing measures, for instance, may affect sexual health, impacting access to HIV prevention supplies and changing sexual behaviour, as well as mental health, increasing feelings of unsafety and weakening community support ties. These effects can be worsened among socially marginalised groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Brazil is among the countries most affected by COVID-19 in the world, where control measures have been inconsistently implemented. We aim to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sexual and mental health of adolescent and adult MSM and TGW in Brazil. METHODS: Convergent mixed-method prospective cohort study, nested in two ongoing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohorts in Brazil, named PrEP1519 and Combina. Participants will be invited to answer, at baseline and after 6 months, a questionnaire about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual behaviour, HIV prevention and mental health. Data on HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STI) will be collected as part of routine follow-up from the cohorts. Main outcome measures (HIV infection, STI and depression symptoms) will be observed within 12 months after baseline. Sample size is estimated at 426 participants. Complementarily, 50 participants will be invited to in-depth interviews through video calls or interactive voice response, and 20 will be invited to chronicle their lives during the pandemic through digital diaries. Triangulation will be done across qualitative methods and with the quantitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by Research Ethics Committees from the Brazilian Universities coordinating the study. Findings will be published in scientific journals and presented at meetings. Informative flyers will be elaborated to communicate study findings to participants and key stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 299: 113855, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131763

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented isolation and mental health effects; few studies have characterized this in sexual and gender (SGM) minority young people, a particularly vulnerable population. This cross-sectional study sought to analyze the mental health outcomes of SGM young people (18-30 years) during the early stages of the pandemic in the United States (April 13-June 18, 2020) and to explore how factors related to SGM identity impact mental health, such as lifetime discrimination, family support, and pre-existing mental health conditions. An online survey collected socio-demographic information and assessed for both mental health (depression (PHQ-8), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PCL-C)) and COVID-19-related outcomes (COVID-19-related worries and COVID-19-related grief). Out of 981 participants, 320 (32.6%) identified as SGM. SGM had significantly higher levels of depression and PTSD symptoms as well as COVID-19-related worries and grief than non-SGM, even after controlling for family support, lifetime discrimination, and pre-existing mental health diagnoses. These findings suggest that not only has the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately impacted SGM mental health, but that minority stress factors cannot fully explain this impact. Thus, clinicians and societal stakeholders (schools, employers, policymakers) must think beyond traditional minority stress factors (family support, discrimination) and pre-pandemic disparities to support this vulnerable population as the pandemic progresses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Global Burden of Disease , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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