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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 519, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are two very important diseases. However, relevant researches about how COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the epidemiological trend of STDs are limited in China. This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on STDs in China and proposed relevant recommendations to be used in bettering health. METHODS: The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in China from 2008 to 2020 were collected. Grey Model (1,1) were established to predict the incidence of STDs with the incidence data of these three STDs from 2013 to 2018 considering the impact of policies in China, respectively. We then calculated the predictive incidence of each STD in 2019, 2020 and 2021 by the established Model. And we estimated the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiological changes of STDs by analyzing the difference between the absolute percentage error (APE) of the predictive incidence and actual rate in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of HIV infection and syphilis showed a trend of increase from 2008 to 2019 in China, but that for gonorrhea was fluctuant. Of note, the incidence of these three STDs decreased significantly in 2020 compared with that in 2019. The APE of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in 2020 (20.54%, 15.45% and 60.88%) were about 7 times, 4 times and 2 times of that in 2019 (2.94%, 4.07% and 30.41%). The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea would be 5.77/100,000, 39.64/100,000 and 13.19/100,000 in 2021 based on our model. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological trend of STDs in China was significant influenced by COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to balance the control of COVID-19 and timely management of STDs during the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent or reduce the poor outcome among COVID-19 patients with STDs. New management strategies on STDs, such as leveraging social media, online medical care, rapid self-testing, timely diagnosis and treatment guarantee and balance of medical resources for STDs management should be adapted in the context of the long-term effects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862802

ABSTRACT

Background: While a large body of evidence indicates changes in alcohol and other drug use among young people as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a lack of evidence around changes in sexual practices and how the pandemic may be impacting the potential spread of blood-borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections (BBVs/STIs). Most of what we know about sex during COVID-19 lockdowns is largely based on solitary sexual practices, which may not answer the critical question around how the pandemic may be shaping sexual practices among young people. Against this backdrop, this study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic may be shaping BBVs/STIs risk and protective practices among a sample of onshore African and Asian international students in Sydney, Australia. Methods: This phenomenological qualitative study involved semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews with 16 international university students in Sydney, between September 2020-March 2021. Generated data were coded using NVivo and analysis was guided by reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Participants reported elevated mental health distress because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some participants reported engaging in casual sexual hook-ups as a strategy to mitigate the mental health distress they were experiencing. Some of these sexual hook-ups were condomless partly because COVID-related disruptions impacted condom accessibility. Additionally, the preventive practices of some participants who were sexually active during the lockdowns were focused on preventing COVID-19, while the risk of BBVs/STIs were downplayed. Conclusions: This study indicates a need for a comprehensive public health response to the evolving and near-endemic COVID-19 situation. Such a comprehensive approach should focus on empowering young people to prevent both SARS-CoV-2 and BBVs/STIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , Blood-Borne Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Students
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e30070, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created disruptions in HIV prevention and sexual health services for men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: This study compared HIV testing utilization in 3 different reference periods (period 1: before the COVID-19 outbreak, November 2019-January 2020; period 2: after the outbreak, February-April 2020; and period 3: after the pandemic was under initial control, May-July 2020). Factors associated with HIV testing utilization after the COVID-19 outbreak (combined periods 2 and 3) were also investigated. METHODS: Participants were MSM aged ≥18 years living in Shenzhen, China. Those self-reporting as HIV positive were excluded. A total of 595 participants recruited through multiple sources completed a self-administered online survey during August-September 2020. HIV testing utilization after the COVID-19 outbreak was the dependent variable, and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS: HIV testing utilization was significantly lower in period 2 than in period 1 (n=262 vs 363, 44.0% vs 61.0%, P<.001). However, HIV testing utilization was not significantly higher in period 3 than in period 2 (n=277 vs 262, 46.6% vs 44.0%, P=.21). The prevalence of HIV testing utilization after the COVID-19 outbreak was seen in 331 (55.6%) participants. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with regular male sex partners (RPs; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.15, 95% CI 1.29-3.57) and sexualized drug use (SDU; AOR 2.94, 95% CI 1.41-6.06) both before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, CAI with RPs (AOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.06-4.07) and nonregular male sex partners (NRPs; AOR 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43-8.89) only after the COVID-19 outbreak was positively associated with the dependent variable. Regarding HIV prevention service utilization, HIV testing utilization before the COVID-19 outbreak (AOR 10.75, 95% CI 7.22-16.02) and the use of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (AOR 7.02, 95% CI 4.10-12.02), other HIV/STI prevention (AOR 3.15, 95% CI 2.16-4.60), and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP; AOR 3.58, 95% CI 1.54-8.34) after the COVID-19 outbreak were associated with higher HIV testing utilization. The current perceived risk of HIV infection was higher than that before the COVID-19 outbreak (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.30), and perceived COVID-19 preventive measures taken by HIV testing service providers to be effective (AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.29-1.78) and perceived higher behavioral control to undergo HIV testing (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40) were positively associated with HIV testing utilization. Concerns about COVID-19 infection during HIV testing (AOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.89), avoiding crowded places (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98), and HIV testing service providers reducing their working hours (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.98) were negatively associated with the dependent variable. CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing utilization among Chinese MSM declined after the COVID-19 outbreak and did not increase after the pandemic was under initial control. Removing structural barriers to accessing HIV testing caused by COVID-19, modifying perceptions related to HIV testing, and making use of HIV self-testing (HIVST) might be useful strategies to improve HIV testing among MSM during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
6.
AIDS ; 36(6): 829-838, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics on the prevention and care for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections at a major reference centre providing preventive and clinical services in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN: We retrospectively compared anonymized clinical and laboratory data from March to December 2020 vs. 2019. METHODS: Monthly clinical data on HIV preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis users and on adults with HIV infection were retrieved from the administrative hospital database. Monthly tests for HIV, hepatitis B and C, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae,and Chlamydia trachomatis, and plasma lipids and glucose were recovered from the laboratory database. RESULTS: There were less (↓28%, P  = 0.003) but more advanced (mean CD4+ cells/µl 305 vs. 370, P  < 0.001) HIV infections and more gonorrhoea (↑39%, P  < 0.001) and chlamydia (↑37%, P  < 0.001) infections in 2020 vs. 2019. In people with HIV, rates of HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml remained stable (11 vs. 11%, P  = 0.147) despite less scheduled visits (↓25%, P  < 0.001). However, they had less antiretroviral prescription changes (↓10%, P  = 0.018), worse plasma lipids [mean total cholesterol 190 vs. 185 mg/dl, P  < 0.001;mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 114 vs. 110 mg/dl, P  < 0.001; mean triglycerides 136 vs. 125 mg/dl, P  < 0.001; mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 47 vs. 48 mg/dl, P  = 006], and an excess of mortality (↑264%, P  = 0.006) due in great part not only to COVID-19 but also to other causes. CONCLUSION: In our setting, COVID-19 epidemics was associated with an increase in some prevalent sexually transmitted infections, with less but more advanced HIV infections, and with worse nonvirologic healthcare outcomes and higher mortality in people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Epidemics , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Lipids , Retrospective Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(7): 490-496, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions were anticipated in the US health care system for routine preventive and other nonemergency care, including sexually transmitted infection care. METHODS: Using a large national laboratory data set, we assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the weekly numbers and percent positivity of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests ordered from the 5th week of 2019 to the 52nd week of 2020 in the United States. We compared weekly 2020 values for test volume, percent positive, and number of positives with the same week in 2019. We also examined the potential impact of stay-at-home orders for the month of April 2020. RESULTS: Immediately after the declaration of a national emergency for COVID-19 (week 11, 2020), the weekly number of gonorrhea and chlamydia tests steeply decreased. Tests then rebounded toward the 2019 pre-COVID-19 level beginning the 15th week of 2020. The weekly percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea remained consistently higher in 2020. In April 2020, the overall number of chlamydia tests was reduced by 53.0% (54.1% in states with stay-at-home orders vs. 45.5% in states without stay-at-home orders), whereas the percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests increased by 23.5% and 79.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To limit the impact of the pandemic on control of chlamydia and gonorrhea, public health officials and health care providers can assess measures put in place during the pandemic and develop new interventions to enable care for sexually transmitted infections to be delivered under pandemic and other emergency conditions. The assessment like this study is continuously needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
9.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(4): e61-e63, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Of 59 US-funded STD programs, 91% reported a great deal to moderate impact from staff reassignment in April 2020, with 28% of respondents reporting permanent reassignment of disease intervention specialist staff. Telemedicine was implemented in 47%. Decreases in STD case reports were reported by most jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 154-159, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measures to reduce coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission may impact sexual health. We aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19 on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and to characterize individuals who were at high STI risk. METHODS: Dutch heterosexual males and females who participated in a cohort study in 2016 to 2018 were invited to fill out 2 questionnaires again in 2020 (age, 21-28 years). We used behavioral and psychological data from: prelockdown (September 2019 to February 2020), lockdown (March to May 2020), and postlockdown (June to August 2020). Behavior change was compared between subgroups identified with latent class analysis. RESULTS: Four latent classes were identified (n = 238). Individuals in class 1 (48% of study population) and class 2 (36%) were at low STI risk and reported mostly steady partnerships. Individuals in class 3 (9%) and class 4 (7%) reported multiple casual partners prelockdown. Class 4 was characterized by lower condom use and health goals, negative infection prevention attitudes, and higher impulsiveness compared with class 3. Furthermore, same/increased partner numbers during lockdown (class 3, 18%; class 4, 56%) and postlockdown (class 3, 36%; class 4, 42%) compared with prelockdown was often reported. Of individuals who wanted an STI test during the pandemic, 62% in class 3 and 56% in class 4 did not get tested, mainly because they were unable to get an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: A subgroup of individuals, characterized by low health goals, negative infection prevention attitudes, and high impulsiveness, engaged in high-risk behavior during the pandemic. Identifying these individuals may help provide appropriate health care during strict lockdowns and after relaxation of measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 739-742, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703458

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease pandemic response began in March 2020, tests, vaccinations, diagnoses, and treatment initiations for sexual health, HIV, and viral hepatitis in England have declined. The shift towards online and outreach services happened rapidly during 2020 and highlights the need to evaluate the effects of these strategies on health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , England/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(3): e259-e273, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is used for multiple infectious diseases, most recently for COVID-19, but data regarding its effectiveness in disease control are scarce. To address this knowledge gap and inform public health decision making for COVID-19, we systematically reviewed the existing literature to determine the effectiveness of contact tracing in the control of communicable illness. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from database inception up to Nov 22, 2021, for published studies evaluating associations between provider-initiated contact tracing for transmissible infectious diseases and one of three outcomes of interest: case detection rates among contacts or at the community level, overall forward transmission, or overall disease incidence. Clinical trials and observational studies were eligible, with no language or date restrictions. Reference lists of reviews were searched for additional studies. We excluded studies without a control group, using only mathematical modelling, not reporting a primary outcome of interest, or solely examining patient-initiated contact tracing. One reviewer applied eligibility criteria to each screened abstract and full-text article, and two reviewers independently extracted summary effect estimates and additional data from eligible studies. Only data reported in published manuscripts or supplemental material was extracted. Risk of bias for each included study was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool (randomised studies) or the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (non-randomised studies). FINDINGS: We identified 9050 unique citations, of which 47 studies met the inclusion criteria: six were focused on COVID-19, 20 on tuberculosis, eight on HIV, 12 on curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and one on measles. More than 2 million index patients were included across a variety of settings (both urban and rural areas and low-resource and high-resource settings). Of the 47 studies, 29 (61·7%) used observational designs, including all studies on COVID-19, and 18 (38·3%) were randomised controlled trials. 40 studies compared provider-initiated contact tracing with other interventions or evaluated expansions of provider-initiated contact tracing, and seven compared programmatic adaptations within provider-initiated contact tracing. 29 (72·5%) of the 40 studies evaluating the effect of provider-initiated contact tracing, including four (66·7%) of six COVID-19 studies, found contact tracing interventions were associated with improvements in at least one outcome of interest. 23 (48·9%) studies had low risk of bias, 22 (46·8%) studies had some risk of bias, and two (4·3%) studies (both randomised controlled trials on curable STIs) had high risk of bias. INTERPRETATION: Provider-initiated contact tracing can be an effective public health tool. However, the ability of authorities to make informed choices about its deployment might be limited by heterogenous approaches to contact tracing in studies, a scarcity of quantitative evidence on its effectiveness, and absence of specificity of tracing parameters most important for disease control. FUNDING: The Sullivan Family Foundation, Massachusetts General Hospital Executive Committee on Research, and US National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
18.
Euro Surveill ; 27(3)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643420

ABSTRACT

Partner notification (PN) is an essential element of sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. It enables identification, treatment and advice for sexual contacts who may benefit from additional preventive interventions such as HIV pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. PN is most effective in reducing STI transmission when it reaches individuals who are most likely to have an STI and to engage in sexual behaviour that facilitates STI transmission, including having multiple and/or new sex partners. Outcomes of PN practice need to be measurable in order to inform standards. They need to address all five stages in the cascade of care: elicitation of partners, establishing contactable partners, notification, testing and treatment. In the United Kingdom, established outcome measures cover only the first three stages and do not take into account the type of sexual partnership. We report an evidence-based process to develop new PN outcomes and inform standards of care. We undertook a systematic literature review, evaluation of published information on types of sexual partnership and a modified Delphi process to reach consensus. We propose six new PN outcome measures at five stages of the cascade, including stratification by sex partnership type. Our framework for PN outcome measurement has potential to contribute in other domains, including Covid-19 contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Consensus , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 252, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite gendered dimensions of COVID-19 becoming increasingly apparent, the impact of COVID-19 and other respiratory epidemics on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) have yet to be synthesized. This review uses a reproductive justice framework to systematically review empirical evidence of the indirect impacts of respiratory epidemics on SRH. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for original, peer-reviewed articles related to respiratory epidemics and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021. Studies focusing on various SRH outcomes were included, however those exclusively examining pregnancy, perinatal-related outcomes, and gender-based violence were excluded due to previously published systematic reviews on these topics. The review consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies met all eligibility criteria. These studies emphasized that COVID-19 resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite quarantine and distancing policies. Research gaps include understanding how COVID-19 disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities notwithstanding an epidemic. More robust research is also needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


The impact of respiratory epidemics, like COVID-19 on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is not yet known. This review applies a reproductive justice framework, to systematically review the impact of respiratory epidemics on SRH, in order to examine the impact of COVID-19 on equitable, sustained access to quality SRH services for all populations. This framework highlights the right to reproductive autonomy, including the right to have an abortion, conceive, bear and raise children; and is inclusive of the intersectionality of race, class and gender. This review includes original, peer-reviewed research related to COVID-19 and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021, and consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. Overall, twenty-four studies met eligibility criteria. Results emphasize that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. These findings highlight the urgent need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite pandemic response policies. This review also highlights opportunities to better understand how COVID-19 related disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. More research is needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Social Justice
20.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 145-153, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the disruption in care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the social distancing measures have led to reductions in STI testing and sexual behavior. We assessed the impact of these COVID-19-related changes on transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in The Netherlands. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model for CT and NG transmission among MSM, accounting for COVID-19-related changes in sexual behavior and testing in 2020 to 2021. Changes in 2020 were estimated from data from the Dutch COVID-19, Sex, and Intimacy Survey among MSM and the National Database of STI Clinics. Because of the lack of data for 2021, we examined several scenarios covering a range of changes. RESULTS: A reduction of 10% and 40% in STI testing of symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively, individuals with a 10% to 20% reduction in numbers of casual partners (according to partner status and activity level) during the second lockdown, resulted in a 2.4% increase in CT prevalence, but a 2.8% decline in NG prevalence in 2021. A 5% and 30% reduction in STI testing of symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively, individuals with the same reduction in casual partners resulted in a 0.6% increase in CT prevalence and a 4.9% decrease in NG prevalence in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The disruption in STI care due to COVID-19 might have resulted in a small increase in CT prevalence, but a decrease in NG prevalence. Scaling up STI care is imperative to prevent increases in STI transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
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