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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7325, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585854

ABSTRACT

Single-domain Variable New Antigen Receptors (VNARs) from the immune system of sharks are the smallest naturally occurring binding domains found in nature. Possessing flexible paratopes that can recognize protein motifs inaccessible to classical antibodies, VNARs have yet to be exploited for the development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Here, we detail the identification of a series of VNARs from a VNAR phage display library screened against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). The ability of the VNARs to neutralize pseudotype and authentic live SARS-CoV-2 virus rivalled or exceeded that of full-length immunoglobulins and other single-domain antibodies. Crystallographic analysis of two VNARs found that they recognized separate epitopes on the RBD and had distinctly different mechanisms of virus neutralization unique to VNARs. Structural and biochemical data suggest that VNARs would be effective therapeutic agents against emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutants, including the Delta variant, and coronaviruses across multiple phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the utility of VNARs as effective therapeutics against coronaviruses and may serve as a critical milestone for nearing a paradigm shift of the greater biologic landscape.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Receptors, Antigen/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen/immunology , Sharks/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Epitopes , Mutation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Single-Domain Antibodies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21970, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462503

ABSTRACT

Single domain shark variable domain of new antigen receptor (VNAR) antibodies can offer a viable alternative to conventional Ig-based monoclonal antibodies in treating COVID-19 disease during the current pandemic. Here we report the identification of neutralizing single domain VNAR antibodies selected against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein derived from the Wuhan variant using phage display. We identified 56 unique binding clones that exhibited high affinity and specificity to the spike protein. Of those, 10 showed an ability to block both the spike protein receptor binding domain from the Wuhan variant and the N501Y mutant from interacting with recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in vitro. In addition, three antibody clones retained in vitro blocking activity when the E484K spike protein mutant was used. The inhibitory property of the VNAR antibodies was further confirmed for all 10 antibody clones using ACE2 expressing cells with spike protein from the Wuhan variant. The viral neutralizing potential of the VNAR clones was also confirmed for the 10 antibodies tested using live Wuhan variant virus in in vitro cell infectivity assays. Single domain VNAR antibodies, due to their low complexity, small size, unique epitope recognition, and formatting flexibility, should be a useful adjunct to existing antibody approaches to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Protein Binding , Sharks/immunology , Vero Cells
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