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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e451-e462, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973741

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an economically important viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently spread into South and East Asia. LSD emerged in India in August 2019, first in Odisha State and spread to other areas, but there is scanty data on source and molecular epidemiology of LSDV involved in the initial outbreaks. Here we report genetic relationships and molecular features of LSDV, causing outbreaks in cattle spanning seven districts in Odisha and West Bengal States during August-December, 2019. Twelve LSDV isolates obtained using lamb testis cells were sequenced and analysed in four complete genes, GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Indian LSDV isolates from 2019 outbreaks are very closely related (99.7%-100%) to the historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains. Importantly, our results demonstrated that LSDV strains involved in 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh are very similar in GPCR (99.7%), RPO30 (100%) and partial EEV (100%) sequences, indicating a common exotic source of LSDV introduction. Additionally, a 12-nucleotide insertion was found in GPCR gene of LSDV strains from 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. The findings of this study highlight the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of LSDV strains. These data should be useful while developing diagnostic and control strategies against LSD in India.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(9): 692-706, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434350

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis is an extensively contagious zoonotic waterborne disease caused by the genus Cryptosporidium and poses to be a danger to public health. Sheep and goats are an intermediate host of Cryptosporidium. Consequently, a first systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the Cryptosporidium in sheep and goat flocks in China. Five databases were searched for relevant literature in accordance with the inclusion criteria until January 30, 2020. At last, a total of 33 qualified documents were included. We calculate the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium (4.9%) in sheep and goats in China with the random-effects model. The prevalence after 2014 (4.6%) was higher than that before or in 2014 (2.8%). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Northern China (12.3%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other regions. The infection rate of modified acid-fast staining (14.3%) was the highest among the detection methods. In age subgroups, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats in 3 months or before was the highest (20.8%). Goats had a higher infection rate (5.9%) in species. The prevalence of large-scale farms (2.8%) was lower than free-ranging farms (4.4%). The medium quality level (6.4%) was the highest. Besides, geographical factors (such as latitude, longitude, height, precipitation, humidity, mean temperature, etc.) were further analyzed as potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats. This meta-analysis indicates that the Cryptosporidium infection of Chinese sheep and goat flocks is general. Thus, it is necessary to further monitor the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and the reasonable preventive strategy should be formulated on the basis of the geographical factors of different regions and the differences in sheep and goats' growth stages to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Goat Diseases , Sheep Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Feces , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 73: 101567, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885228

ABSTRACT

The etiology of neonatal diarrhea is multifactorial and remains one of the greatest health problems in sheep livestock farming. Faecal samples from 559 neonatal lambs aged less than 30 days from 30 sheepfolds located in the north-center region of Algeria were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Of the 559 lambs, 312 (58.81 %), 155 (27.72 %), 72 (12.88 %) and 20 (3.57 %) were positives for C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus antigens, respectively. The prevalence of C. parvum was the highest (p < 0.0001). C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus were observed in 23 (76.66 %), 17 (56.66 %), 9 (30 %) and 3 (10 %) sheepfolds, respectively. Compared to age, the prevalence of C. parvum was highest during the second and third week of age (p < 0.001). In contrast, other pathogens were found to be more frequent in lambs aged ≤7 days (p < 0.001). The number of lambs with diarrhea was 280 (50.09 %) of which 280 (100 %), 127 (45.35 %), 52 (18.57 %) and 10 (3.57 %) were found to be infected with C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus, respectively (p < 0.0001). In various combinations, mixed infections were detected only with C. parvum. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤30-days old neonatal lambs in Algeria. Special attention should be given to the first colostrum feeding, hygiene of the farm, prevention and control measures for a better prevention of neonatal diarrhea in lambs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/classification , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Algeria/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/virology
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108544, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823170

ABSTRACT

Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana. The whole sampling and testing was organized and conducted by a veterinary school in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. Among sampled sheep (n = 102), goats (n = 66), and cattle (n = 1495), the seroprevalence rates were 25.8 %, 43.1 % and 55.8 %. For cattle, seroprevalence was significantly higher on larger farms (82.2 % vs 17.8 %, comparing farms with >50 or <50 animals; p = 0.027). Highest prevalence was seen in the Northern province with dry climate, but no significant trend following the north-south gradient of sampling sites was detected. Our study identifies a considerable seroprevalence for BCoV in Ghana and provides further support for the spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/immunology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/immunology , Goat Diseases/transmission , Goat Diseases/virology , Goats , Lactation , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Distribution , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/transmission , Sheep Diseases/virology
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