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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2220577, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235192

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the ability to infect a wide range of animal species. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection in livestock species in Oman and provided serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and dromedary camel using the surrogate virus neutralization and plaque reduction neutralization tests. To better understand the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and associated risks, "One Health" epidemiological investigations targeting animals exposed to COVID-19 human cases should be implemented with integrated data analysis of the epidemiologically linked human and animal cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Humans , Animals , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Oman/epidemiology , Camelus , SARS-CoV-2 , Data Analysis , Goats
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1077938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311566

ABSTRACT

Contagious ecthyma (Orf), an acute and highly contagious zoonosis, is prevalent worldwide. Orf is caused by Orf virus (ORFV), which mainly infects sheep/goats and humans. Therefore, effective and safe vaccination strategies for Orf prevention are needed. Although immunization with single-type Orf vaccines has been tested, heterologous prime-boost strategies still need to be studied. In the present study, ORFV B2L and F1L were selected as immunogens, based on which DNA, subunit and adenovirus vaccine candidates were generated. Of note, heterologous immunization strategies using DNA prime-protein boost and DNA prime-adenovirus boost in mice were performed, with single-type vaccines as controls. We have found that the DNA prime-protein boost strategy induces stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategy in mice, which was confirmed by the changes in specific antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine expression. Importantly, this observation was also confirmed when these heterologous immunization strategies were performed in sheep. In summary, by comparing the two immune strategies, we found that DNA prime-protein boost strategy can induce a better immune response, which provides a new attempt for exploring Orf immunization strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , Orf virus , Humans , Animals , Mice , Sheep , Orf virus/genetics , Immunization , Vaccination , Adenoviridae/genetics
3.
Arch Razi Inst ; 78(1): 25-29, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302195

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to determine the causes associated with ocular infection in cats received at Baghdad veterinary hospital from March 2020 to April 2021. Forty cats (22 females and 18 males) were examined at a small animal clinic in Baghdad veterinary hospital from March 2020 to April 2021. The cats suffered from severe eyes infection (inflammation, lacrimation, redness and other ocular signs). On the other hand, ten healthy cats were examined and prepared for bacterial isolation as a control group. For bacterial isolation, sterile cotton swabs with transport medium were taken gently from the corneal and conjunctiva area of infected eyes. The swabs were placed in an ice box within 24 hours for laboratory culture. Sterile swabs with transport media were used in our study; swabs passed directly on the inferior conjunctival sac of the compromised eye avoiding contact with eyelashes and skin of eyelids. All swabs were inoculated on the following media (5% Sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar and Nutrient agar) at 37ºC for 24 to 48 h.ImmunoChromatoGraphy assay (ICG) of FCV on samples. The results showed that 50%of Mixed bacterial and FCV were the significant cause of isolates; also, it showed that S. aureus was the most bacterial cause of eye infection; young females were mostly infected in February. In conclusion, the wide distribution of ocular infections in cats is due to different causes, especially with bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp. and virus (FCV). The seasonal variation between months plays a significant factor in the spreading of eye infections in the feline.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Eye Infections , Infertility , Sheep Diseases , Female , Male , Sheep , Cats , Animals , Agar , Staphylococcus aureus , Eye Infections/veterinary , Culture Media , Infertility/veterinary
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30102, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263904

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic species of the Chlamydiaceae family should be considered as rare pathogenic agents of severe atypical pneumonia. A fatal case of a severe pneumonia due to Chlamydia psittaci was traced back to pet birds, and pneumonia in a pregnant woman was attributed to abortions in a sheep and goat flock, being the source of Chlamydia abortus. The two SARS­CoV­2-negative pneumonia cases presented here were investigated in an inter-disciplinary approach involving physicians and veterinarians. State-of-art molecular methods allowed the identification and genotyping of zoonotic Chlamydiae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydophila psittaci , Animals , Birds , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydophila psittaci/genetics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114022, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, during the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, the hotspot of COVID-19 overlapped with the country's main livestock area, while in subsequent phases this distinct spatial pattern disappeared. Previous studies show that living near livestock farms influence human respiratory health and immunological responses. This study aimed to explore whether proximity to livestock was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study population was the population of the Netherlands excluding the very strongly urbanised areas and border areas, on January 1, 2019 (12, 628, 244 individuals). The cases are the individuals reported with a laboratory-confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 test with onset before January 1, 2022 (2, 223, 692 individuals). For each individual, we calculated distance to nearest livestock farm (cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry, horse, rabbit, mink). The associations between residential (6-digit postal-code) distance to the nearest livestock farm and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was studied with multilevel logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for individuals' age categories, the social status of the postal code area, particulate matter (PM10)- and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-concentrations. We analysed data for the entire period and population as well as separately for eight time periods (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec in 2020 and 2021), four geographic areas of the Netherlands (north, east, west and south), and for five age categories (0-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64 and > 65 years). RESULTS: Over the period 2020-2021, individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was associated with living closer to livestock farms. This association increased from an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.02) for patients living at a distance of 751-1000 m to a farm to an OR of 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.04), 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.10-1.12) for patients living in the more proximate 501-750 m, 251-500m and 0-250 m zones around farms, all relative to patients living further than 1000 m around farms. This association was observed in three out of four quarters of the year in both 2020 and 2021, and in all studied geographic areas and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study with individual SARS-CoV-2 notification data and high-resolution spatial data associations were found between living near livestock farms and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status in the Netherlands. Verification of the results in other countries is warranted, as well as investigations into possible underlying exposures and mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Farms , Horses , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Swine
6.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282611, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252871

ABSTRACT

This study examines the volatility of beef and lamb prices in Türkiye, as food price inflation compromises the food security of low- and middle-income households. The inflation is the result of a rise in energy (gasoline) prices leading to an increase in production costs, together with a disruption of the supply chain by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study is the first to comprehensively explore the effects of multiple price series on meat prices in Türkiye. Using price records from April 2006 through February 2022, the study applies rigorous testing and selects the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK bivariate GARCH model for empirical analysis. The beef and lamb returns were affected by periods of livestock imports, energy prices, and the COVID-19 pandemic, but those factors influenced the short- and long-term uncertainties differently. Uncertainty was increased by the COVID-19 pandemic, but livestock imports offset some of the negative effects on meat prices. To improve price stability and assure access to beef and lamb, it is recommended that livestock farmers be supported through tax exemptions to control production costs, government assistance through the introduction of highly productive livestock breeds, and improving processing flexibility. Additionally, conducting livestock sales through the livestock exchange will create a price information source allowing stakeholders to follow price movements in a digital format and their decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Animals , Cattle , Sheep , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Meat , Commerce
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5623, 2023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262548

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the cause of an outbreak of an acute respiratory disease syndrome followed by episodes of diarrhea in a dairy cattle herd from Southern Brazil. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from asymptomatic calves, calves with pulmonary discomfort, and diarrheic calves after episodes of respiratory distress were used in molecular assays designed to detect the principal pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Fecal samples were used for the molecular detection of bovine enteric disease agents. Pulmonary tissues from three calves and a cow that died were evaluated by molecular assays to identify 11 agents associated with the development of BRD. The intestinal and pulmonary fragments of one calf and the cow revealed atrophic enteritis and interstitial pneumonia by histopathology, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified intralesional antigens of a malignant catarrhal fever virus, genus Macavirus, within epithelial cells of the lungs and intestines. Molecular assays amplified ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2) from most of the DNS, and the pulmonary and intestinal fragments from the animals that died, confirming that the Macavirus identified by IHC was OvGHV2. Concomitant pulmonary infections of OvGHV2 with bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 and bovine coronavirus were identified. Additionally, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b and Aichivirus B were detected in the fecal samples. These findings demonstrated that OvGHV2, a Macavirus, was the disease agent most frequently (81.2%; 13/16) associated with singular pulmonary infections during this outbreak of BRD, suggesting that this virus may be another potential agent of respiratory disease of cattle.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Gammaherpesvirinae , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Female , Sheep , Cattle , Animals , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Gammaherpesvirinae/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
8.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267700

ABSTRACT

Since its first emergence in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued to evolve genetically, jump species barriers, and expand its host range. There is growing evidence of interspecies transmission including infection of domestic animals and widespread circulation in wildlife. However, knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 stability in animal biological fluids and their role in transmission is still limited as previous studies focused on human biological fluids. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the SARS-CoV-2 stability in biological fluids from three animal species, cats, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD). Saliva, feces, 10% fecal suspensions, and urine of cats, sheep, and WTD were mixed with a known concentration of virus and incubated under indoor and three different climatic conditions. Our results show that the virus was stable for up to 1 day in the saliva of cats, sheep, and WTD regardless of the environmental conditions. The virus remained infectious for up to 6 days in feces and 15 days in fecal suspension of WTD, whereas the virus was rather unstable in cat and sheep feces and fecal suspensions. We found the longest survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the urine of cats, sheep, and WTD. Furthermore, side-by-side comparison with different SARS-CoV-2 strains showed that the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern were less stable than the ancestral Wuhan-like strain in WTD fecal suspension. The results of our study provide valuable information for assessing the potential role of various animal biological fluids in SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Humans , Animals , Cats , Sheep , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Suspensions , Feces
9.
Braz J Microbiol ; 54(2): 1169-1179, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230874

ABSTRACT

This report investigated the cause of cattle mortality in two farms in Southern Brazil. The tissues of one animal from each farm (animals #1 and #2) respectively were used in pathological and molecular investigations to determine the possible cause of death. The principal pathological findings observed in animal #1 were pulmonary, myocardial, and encephalitic hemorrhages with vasculitis, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia with proliferative vascular lesions (PVL). The main pathological findings observed in animal #2 were purulent bronchopneumonia, hemorrhagic myocarditis, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia with PVL. An immunohistochemical assay detected intralesional antigens of a malignant catarrhal fever virus (MCFV) from multiple tissues of animal #2 while PCR confirmed that the MCFV amplified was ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2), genus Macavirus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae; OvGHV2 was also amplified from multiple tissues of animal #1. Furthermore, PCR assays amplified Histophilus somni DNA from multiple fragments of both animals. However, the nucleic acids of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine alphaherpesvirus virus 1 and 5, bovine coronavirus, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were not amplified from any of the tissues analyzed, suggesting that these pathogens did not participate in the development of the lesions herein described. These findings demonstrated that both animals were concomitantly infected by H. somni and OvGHV2 and developed the septicemic and encephalitic manifestations of H. somni. Furthermore, the interstitial pneumonia observed in cow #2 was more likely associated with infection by OvGHV2.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Gammaherpesvirinae , Mannheimia haemolytica , Animals , Female , Sheep , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Gammaherpesvirinae/genetics
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099525

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in the human population. In light of the reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of the world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect SARS-CoV-2 among species of veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (dogs n= 195, cattle n = 64, horses n = 42, goats n = 41, buffaloes n = 39, sheep n = 19, cats n = 6, camels n = 6, and a monkey n = 1) were collected from different places in the Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to RT-qPCR-based quantification of the target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S), and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79%) animals were found positive, comprised of n = 67 (34.35%) dogs, n= 15 (23.43%) cattle, and n = 13 (33.33%) buffaloes. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done from one sample (ID-A4N, from a dog), where 32 mutations, including 29 single-nucleotide variations (SNV) and 2 deletions, were detected. Among them, nine mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in the amino acid sequence revealed T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, and P681R mutations in the S protein and D63G, R203M, and D377Y in the N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-2 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from human to animals and suggests being watchful for zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Horses , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Buffaloes , Pandemics , Mutation
11.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 96(6): 1072-1077, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Upper GI endoscopy is speculated to be an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Robust evidence exists for aerosol transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The quality of data available confirming aerosol generation during GI endoscopy is limited. We aimed to objectively demonstrate that GI endoscopy is an AGP and illustrate the mechanism by which the greatest risk for aerosolization of droplets during endoscopy may occur. METHODS: Aerosolized droplets generated during insertion and withdrawal of an endoscope and with passage of various tools through the endoscopic working channel using 2 experimental apparatuses modeling an upper GI tract (ie, a fluid-filled tube and a lamb esophagus) were qualitatively assessed by laser light scattering. RESULTS: Insertion and withdrawal of the upper endoscope into the upper GI tract models generated numerous aerosolized particles. A large number of brightly scattering particles were observed at the site of insertion and withdrawal of the endoscope. Passage of a cytology brush, biopsy forceps, and hemostatic clip through the working endoscope channel also generated aerosolized particles but in fewer numbers. There was no significant variation in quantity or brightness of droplets generated on testing different biopsy valve cap models or when suctioning fluid with an open versus closed biopsy valve cap. These results were reproducible over several trials. CONCLUSIONS: We illustrate in an objective manner that upper GI endoscopy is an AGP. These findings may have implications for transmission of infectious airborne pathogens outside of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and can help to inform guidance on appropriate personal protective equipment use and other measures for transmission risk mitigation during GI endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Aerosolized Particles and Droplets , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Animals , Aerosolized Particles and Droplets/analysis , Lasers , Light , Sheep
12.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071834

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, cycle threshold (Ct) values from qRT-PCRs semi-quantitatively estimate a patient's viral load. However, relevant analytical differences between qRT-PCR assays are often neglected. This study was designed (i) to identify such differences between five commonly used assays and (ii) to demonstrate a straightforward strategy to harmonize them. QRT-PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 were carried out in 85 oropharyngeal swab samples using three fully automated (Alinity m, cobas®6800 and GeneXpert) and two semi-automated (genesig® and RIDA®GENE) assays. Qualitative results (positive/negative) showed excellent comparability between the fully automated assays, but not between the Alinity m and semi-automated methods. Ct values significantly varied between all the methods, with the median values ranging from 22.76 (Alinity m) to 30.89 (RIDA®GENE) and 31.50 (genesig®), indicating the lowest sensitivity for semi-automated methods. Passing-Bablok analysis further revealed systemic biases. Assay-specific viral load concentration calculations-based on generated individual standard curves-resulted in much better comparability between the assays. Applying these calculations, significant differences were no longer detectable. This study highlights relevant analytical differences between SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR assays, leading to divergent decisions about the mandatory isolation of infected individuals. Secondly, we propose a strategy to harmonize qRT-PCR assays to achieve better comparability. Our findings are of particular interest for laboratories utilizing different assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scrapie , Sheep , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 69(9): 544-555, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) pandemic pressure on healthcare systems can exhaust ventilator resources, especially where resources are restricted. Our objective was a rapid preclinical evaluation of a newly developed turbine-based ventilator, named the ACUTE-19, for invasive ventilation. METHODS: Validation consisted of (a) testing tidal volume (VT) delivery in 11 simulated models, with various resistances and compliances; (b) comparison with a commercial ventilator (VIVO-50) adapting the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency-recommendations for rapidly manufactured ventilators; and (c) in vivo testing in a sheep before and after inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by saline lavage. RESULTS: Differences in VT in the simulated models were marginally different (largest difference 33ml [95%-confidence interval (CI) 31-36]; P<.001ml). Plateau pressure (Pplat) was not different (-0.3cmH2O [95%-CI -0.9 to 0.3]; P=.409), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was marginally different (0.3 cmH2O [95%-CI 0.2 to 0.3]; P<.001) between the ACUTE-19 and the commercial ventilator. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement (mean bias, -0.29, [limits of agreement, 0.82 to -1.42], and mean bias 0.56 [limits of agreement, 1.94 to -0.81], at a Pplat of 15 and 30cmH2O, respectively). The ACUTE-19 achieved optimal oxygenation and ventilation before and after ARDS induction. CONCLUSIONS: The ACUTE-19 performed accurately in simulated and animal models yielding a comparable performance with a VIVO-50 commercial device. The acute 19 can provide the basis for the development of a future affordable commercial ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sheep , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical , Tidal Volume , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(4): 374-380, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985170

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies have recently explored the effects of intravenous vitamin C in sepsis. We aimed to summarize their findings to provide perspectives for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Sepsis trials examined 6 g/day of intravenous vitamin C with or without the thiamine and/or hydrocortisone compared with placebo or hydrocortisone. Network meta-analysis reported that intravenous vitamin C, thiamine, hydrocortisone, or combinations of these drugs was not proven to reduce long-term mortality. However, the component network meta-analysis suggested an association of high-dose (>6 g/day) and very-high dose vitamin C (>12 g/day) and decreased mortality but with low certainty. The preclinical investigations have, however, advanced to much higher doses of intravenous vitamin C therapy since a scoping review on harm reported that mega-doses of intravenous vitamin C (50-100 g/day) had been administered without any conclusive adverse effects. In a Gram-negative sheep model, renal tissue hypoperfusion was reversed, followed by improvements in kidney function when a mega-dose of vitamin C (150 g/day equivalent) was administered. SUMMARY: The effect of intravenous vitamin C in critically ill patients has yet to be determined and might be dose-dependent. Clinical studies of very high or mega doses of vitamin C are justified by preclinical data.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Sepsis , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sheep , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 33: 100753, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984223

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose an increased health and productivity risk to livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Information regarding TBPs infecting small ruminants in Kano metropolis is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens of economic importance from sheep and goats in Kano, Nigeria using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 346 blood DNA samples were collected from small ruminants and analyzed for TBPs using PCR and sequencing. Risk of infection was determined for age, sex, breed and animal species. Our results indicate the absence of piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria) and Rickettsia spp. infections. The overall prevalence for Anaplasma spp. was 9.25% (32/346) with a higher prevalence in goats 13.59% (25/184) compared with sheep 4.32% (7/162). With respect to age of animals, goats >4 years had the highest prevalence of 32.45% (11/37) which differs significantly (P = 0.0059) compared with other age categories. Cross breed goats had a prevalence of 15.63% (5/32) compared with Kano brown breed 14.08 (20/142). Sex significant difference (P = 0.029) was observed in the goats with females having the highest prevalence 20.89% (14/67) compared with males 9.40% (11/117). Furthermore, with regards to sheep, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with respect to age and breed. Finally, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. due to Body condition score (BCS) in both sheep and goats. Conclusively, the occurrence of TBPs in small ruminants is low. Continuous efforts in tick control must be sustained to ensure high productive yield and reduced disease burden associated with TBPs of sheep and goats in Kano metropolis.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Rickettsia Infections , Theileria , Ticks , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals , Female , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats/microbiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Risk Factors , Ruminants , Sheep , Theileria/genetics , Ticks/microbiology
16.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 133-168, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937673

ABSTRACT

Animal models provide a valuable tool and resource for biomedical researchers as they investigate biological processes, disease pathogenesis, novel therapies, and toxicologic studies. Interpretation of animal model data requires knowledge not only of the processes/diseases being studied but also awareness of spontaneous conditions and background lesions in the model that can influence or even confound the study results. Species, breed/stock, sex, age, anatomy, physiology, diseases (noninfectious and infectious), and neoplastic processes are model features that can impact the results as well as study interpretation. Here, we review these features in several common laboratory animal species, including ferret, dog (beagle), pig, sheep, and goats.


Subject(s)
Goats , Swine Diseases , Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Ferrets , Sheep , Swine
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3289-e3296, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854183

ABSTRACT

Wildlife animals may be susceptible to multiple infectious agents of public health or veterinary relevance, thereby potentially forming a reservoir that bears the constant risk of re-introduction into the human or livestock population. Here, we serologically investigated 493 wild ruminant samples collected in the 2021/2022 hunting season in Germany for the presence of antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four viruses pathogenic to domestic ruminants, namely, the orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV), the reovirus bluetongue virus (BTV) and ruminant pestiviruses like bovine viral diarrhoea virus or border disease virus. The animal species comprised fallow deer, red deer, roe deer, mouflon and wisent. For coronavirus serology, additional 307 fallow, roe and red deer samples collected between 2017 and 2020 at three military training areas were included. While antibodies against SBV could be detected in about 13.6% of the samples collected in 2021/2022, only one fallow deer of unknown age tested positive for anti-BTV antibodies, and all samples reacted negative for antibodies against ruminant pestiviruses. In an ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, 25 out of 493 (5.1%) samples collected in autumn and winter 2021/2022 scored positive. This sero-reactivity could not be confirmed by the highly specific virus neutralisation test, occurred also in 2017, 2018 and 2019, that is, prior to the human SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and was likewise observed against the RBD of the related SARS-CoV-1. Therefore, the SARS-CoV-2 sero-reactivity was most likely induced by another hitherto unknown deer virus belonging to the subgenus Sarbecovirus of betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Bison , Bluetongue virus , Bluetongue , COVID-19 , Deer , Pestivirus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Animals, Wild , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Ruminants , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sheep , Sheep, Domestic
18.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105332, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821130

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are important to generate protective immunity, with convalescent plasma one of the first therapies approved. An alternative source of polyclonal antibodies suitable for upscaling would be more amendable to regulatory approval and widespread use. In this study, sheep were immunised with SARS-CoV-2 whole spike protein or one of the subunit proteins: S1 and S2. Once substantial antibody titres were generated, plasma was collected and samples pooled for each antigen. Non-specific antibodies were removed via affinity-purification to yield candidate products for testing in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to whole spike, S1 and S2 proteins were evaluated for in vitro for neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-like virus (Australia/VIC01/2020) and a recent variant of concern, B.1.1.529 BA.1 (Omicron), antibody-binding, complement fixation and phagocytosis assays were also performed. All antibody preparations demonstrated an effect against SARS-CoV-2 disease in the hamster model of challenge, with those raised against the S2 subunit providing the most promise. A rapid, cost-effective therapy for COVID-19 was developed which provides a source of highly active immunoglobulin specific to SARS-CoV-2 with multi-functional activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19 Serotherapy
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775934

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial infectious diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis globally, and is recognized as a significant zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance amongst Campylobacter isolates is a significant global concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify and characterize Campylobacter species in humans, animals and water sources in livestock owning households of peri-urban Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and to characterize antimicrobial resistance. A total of 519 fecal samples from humans (n = 99), livestock (n = 179), poultry (n = 69), and water (n = 172) were collected. Samples were cultured for viable Campylobacter spp. and multiplex PCR utilized for the identification and confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 67/519 (13.0%) of the total tested samples, and the household level prevalence of Campylobacter was 42.4%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was: humans (10.1%), cattle (18.5%), poultry (13.0%), sheep (13.3%), goats (7.1%), and water (10.5%). Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus were the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. coli. The majority of isolates obtained from human samples had co-occurrence with isolates from cattle, poultry or water samples from the same household. The use of stored water, the practice of indoor and outdoor manure collecting, and animal species Campylobacter positivity were significantly associated with greater odds of human Campylobacter spp. positivity. All Campylobacter isolates from humans, poultry, sheep, goats and water, and 96.0% of isolates from cattle were resistant to at least one or more of the tested antimicrobials, with 95.5% of isolates resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A One Health approach is recommended to further investigate Campylobacter species infections, and other zoonotic infectious diseases, in the livestock owning populations in Ethiopia, where there is close interaction between humans, animals and the environment.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter , One Health , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Livestock , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sheep , Water
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760648

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, which causes diseases in humans and livestock. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that were reported to interact with diverse viruses and contribute to antiviral immune responses but may also act as attachment factors or entry receptors in diverse species. Human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are known to interact with RVFV and to facilitate viral host cell entry, but the roles of further host and vector CLRs are still unknown. In this study, we present a CLR-Fc fusion protein library to screen RVFV-CLR interaction in a cross-species approach and identified novel murine, ovine, and Aedes aegypti RVFV candidate receptors. Furthermore, cross-species CLR binding studies enabled observations of the differences and similarities in binding preferences of RVFV between mammalian CLR homologues, as well as more distant vector/host CLRs.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Rift Valley Fever , Rift Valley fever virus , Animals , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Mammals , Mice , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Sheep
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