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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099525

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in the human population. In light of the reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of the world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect SARS-CoV-2 among species of veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (dogs n= 195, cattle n = 64, horses n = 42, goats n = 41, buffaloes n = 39, sheep n = 19, cats n = 6, camels n = 6, and a monkey n = 1) were collected from different places in the Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to RT-qPCR-based quantification of the target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S), and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79%) animals were found positive, comprised of n = 67 (34.35%) dogs, n= 15 (23.43%) cattle, and n = 13 (33.33%) buffaloes. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done from one sample (ID-A4N, from a dog), where 32 mutations, including 29 single-nucleotide variations (SNV) and 2 deletions, were detected. Among them, nine mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in the amino acid sequence revealed T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, and P681R mutations in the S protein and D63G, R203M, and D377Y in the N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-2 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from human to animals and suggests being watchful for zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Horses , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Buffaloes , Pandemics , Mutation
2.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 96(6): 1072-1077, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Upper GI endoscopy is speculated to be an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Robust evidence exists for aerosol transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The quality of data available confirming aerosol generation during GI endoscopy is limited. We aimed to objectively demonstrate that GI endoscopy is an AGP and illustrate the mechanism by which the greatest risk for aerosolization of droplets during endoscopy may occur. METHODS: Aerosolized droplets generated during insertion and withdrawal of an endoscope and with passage of various tools through the endoscopic working channel using 2 experimental apparatuses modeling an upper GI tract (ie, a fluid-filled tube and a lamb esophagus) were qualitatively assessed by laser light scattering. RESULTS: Insertion and withdrawal of the upper endoscope into the upper GI tract models generated numerous aerosolized particles. A large number of brightly scattering particles were observed at the site of insertion and withdrawal of the endoscope. Passage of a cytology brush, biopsy forceps, and hemostatic clip through the working endoscope channel also generated aerosolized particles but in fewer numbers. There was no significant variation in quantity or brightness of droplets generated on testing different biopsy valve cap models or when suctioning fluid with an open versus closed biopsy valve cap. These results were reproducible over several trials. CONCLUSIONS: We illustrate in an objective manner that upper GI endoscopy is an AGP. These findings may have implications for transmission of infectious airborne pathogens outside of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and can help to inform guidance on appropriate personal protective equipment use and other measures for transmission risk mitigation during GI endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Aerosolized Particles and Droplets , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Animals , Aerosolized Particles and Droplets/analysis , Lasers , Light , Sheep
3.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071834

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, cycle threshold (Ct) values from qRT-PCRs semi-quantitatively estimate a patient's viral load. However, relevant analytical differences between qRT-PCR assays are often neglected. This study was designed (i) to identify such differences between five commonly used assays and (ii) to demonstrate a straightforward strategy to harmonize them. QRT-PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 were carried out in 85 oropharyngeal swab samples using three fully automated (Alinity m, cobas®6800 and GeneXpert) and two semi-automated (genesig® and RIDA®GENE) assays. Qualitative results (positive/negative) showed excellent comparability between the fully automated assays, but not between the Alinity m and semi-automated methods. Ct values significantly varied between all the methods, with the median values ranging from 22.76 (Alinity m) to 30.89 (RIDA®GENE) and 31.50 (genesig®), indicating the lowest sensitivity for semi-automated methods. Passing-Bablok analysis further revealed systemic biases. Assay-specific viral load concentration calculations-based on generated individual standard curves-resulted in much better comparability between the assays. Applying these calculations, significant differences were no longer detectable. This study highlights relevant analytical differences between SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR assays, leading to divergent decisions about the mandatory isolation of infected individuals. Secondly, we propose a strategy to harmonize qRT-PCR assays to achieve better comparability. Our findings are of particular interest for laboratories utilizing different assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scrapie , Sheep , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 69(9): 544-555, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) pandemic pressure on healthcare systems can exhaust ventilator resources, especially where resources are restricted. Our objective was a rapid preclinical evaluation of a newly developed turbine-based ventilator, named the ACUTE-19, for invasive ventilation. METHODS: Validation consisted of (a) testing tidal volume (VT) delivery in 11 simulated models, with various resistances and compliances; (b) comparison with a commercial ventilator (VIVO-50) adapting the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency-recommendations for rapidly manufactured ventilators; and (c) in vivo testing in a sheep before and after inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by saline lavage. RESULTS: Differences in VT in the simulated models were marginally different (largest difference 33ml [95%-confidence interval (CI) 31-36]; P<.001ml). Plateau pressure (Pplat) was not different (-0.3cmH2O [95%-CI -0.9 to 0.3]; P=.409), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was marginally different (0.3 cmH2O [95%-CI 0.2 to 0.3]; P<.001) between the ACUTE-19 and the commercial ventilator. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement (mean bias, -0.29, [limits of agreement, 0.82 to -1.42], and mean bias 0.56 [limits of agreement, 1.94 to -0.81], at a Pplat of 15 and 30cmH2O, respectively). The ACUTE-19 achieved optimal oxygenation and ventilation before and after ARDS induction. CONCLUSIONS: The ACUTE-19 performed accurately in simulated and animal models yielding a comparable performance with a VIVO-50 commercial device. The acute 19 can provide the basis for the development of a future affordable commercial ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sheep , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical , Tidal Volume , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114022, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, during the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, the hotspot of COVID-19 overlapped with the country's main livestock area, while in subsequent phases this distinct spatial pattern disappeared. Previous studies show that living near livestock farms influence human respiratory health and immunological responses. This study aimed to explore whether proximity to livestock was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study population was the population of the Netherlands excluding the very strongly urbanised areas and border areas, on January 1, 2019 (12, 628, 244 individuals). The cases are the individuals reported with a laboratory-confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 test with onset before January 1, 2022 (2, 223, 692 individuals). For each individual, we calculated distance to nearest livestock farm (cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry, horse, rabbit, mink). The associations between residential (6-digit postal-code) distance to the nearest livestock farm and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was studied with multilevel logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for individuals' age categories, the social status of the postal code area, particulate matter (PM10)- and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-concentrations. We analysed data for the entire period and population as well as separately for eight time periods (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec in 2020 and 2021), four geographic areas of the Netherlands (north, east, west and south), and for five age categories (0-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64 and > 65 years). RESULTS: Over the period 2020-2021, individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was associated with living closer to livestock farms. This association increased from an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.02) for patients living at a distance of 751-1000 m to a farm to an OR of 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.04), 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.10-1.12) for patients living in the more proximate 501-750 m, 251-500m and 0-250 m zones around farms, all relative to patients living further than 1000 m around farms. This association was observed in three out of four quarters of the year in both 2020 and 2021, and in all studied geographic areas and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study with individual SARS-CoV-2 notification data and high-resolution spatial data associations were found between living near livestock farms and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status in the Netherlands. Verification of the results in other countries is warranted, as well as investigations into possible underlying exposures and mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Farms , Horses , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Swine
6.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(4): 374-380, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985170

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies have recently explored the effects of intravenous vitamin C in sepsis. We aimed to summarize their findings to provide perspectives for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Sepsis trials examined 6 g/day of intravenous vitamin C with or without the thiamine and/or hydrocortisone compared with placebo or hydrocortisone. Network meta-analysis reported that intravenous vitamin C, thiamine, hydrocortisone, or combinations of these drugs was not proven to reduce long-term mortality. However, the component network meta-analysis suggested an association of high-dose (>6 g/day) and very-high dose vitamin C (>12 g/day) and decreased mortality but with low certainty. The preclinical investigations have, however, advanced to much higher doses of intravenous vitamin C therapy since a scoping review on harm reported that mega-doses of intravenous vitamin C (50-100 g/day) had been administered without any conclusive adverse effects. In a Gram-negative sheep model, renal tissue hypoperfusion was reversed, followed by improvements in kidney function when a mega-dose of vitamin C (150 g/day equivalent) was administered. SUMMARY: The effect of intravenous vitamin C in critically ill patients has yet to be determined and might be dose-dependent. Clinical studies of very high or mega doses of vitamin C are justified by preclinical data.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Sepsis , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sheep , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 33: 100753, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984223

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose an increased health and productivity risk to livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Information regarding TBPs infecting small ruminants in Kano metropolis is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens of economic importance from sheep and goats in Kano, Nigeria using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 346 blood DNA samples were collected from small ruminants and analyzed for TBPs using PCR and sequencing. Risk of infection was determined for age, sex, breed and animal species. Our results indicate the absence of piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria) and Rickettsia spp. infections. The overall prevalence for Anaplasma spp. was 9.25% (32/346) with a higher prevalence in goats 13.59% (25/184) compared with sheep 4.32% (7/162). With respect to age of animals, goats >4 years had the highest prevalence of 32.45% (11/37) which differs significantly (P = 0.0059) compared with other age categories. Cross breed goats had a prevalence of 15.63% (5/32) compared with Kano brown breed 14.08 (20/142). Sex significant difference (P = 0.029) was observed in the goats with females having the highest prevalence 20.89% (14/67) compared with males 9.40% (11/117). Furthermore, with regards to sheep, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with respect to age and breed. Finally, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. due to Body condition score (BCS) in both sheep and goats. Conclusively, the occurrence of TBPs in small ruminants is low. Continuous efforts in tick control must be sustained to ensure high productive yield and reduced disease burden associated with TBPs of sheep and goats in Kano metropolis.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Rickettsia Infections , Theileria , Ticks , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals , Female , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats/microbiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Risk Factors , Ruminants , Sheep , Theileria/genetics , Ticks/microbiology
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e451-e462, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973741

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an economically important viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently spread into South and East Asia. LSD emerged in India in August 2019, first in Odisha State and spread to other areas, but there is scanty data on source and molecular epidemiology of LSDV involved in the initial outbreaks. Here we report genetic relationships and molecular features of LSDV, causing outbreaks in cattle spanning seven districts in Odisha and West Bengal States during August-December, 2019. Twelve LSDV isolates obtained using lamb testis cells were sequenced and analysed in four complete genes, GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Indian LSDV isolates from 2019 outbreaks are very closely related (99.7%-100%) to the historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains. Importantly, our results demonstrated that LSDV strains involved in 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh are very similar in GPCR (99.7%), RPO30 (100%) and partial EEV (100%) sequences, indicating a common exotic source of LSDV introduction. Additionally, a 12-nucleotide insertion was found in GPCR gene of LSDV strains from 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. The findings of this study highlight the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of LSDV strains. These data should be useful while developing diagnostic and control strategies against LSD in India.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
9.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 133-168, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937673

ABSTRACT

Animal models provide a valuable tool and resource for biomedical researchers as they investigate biological processes, disease pathogenesis, novel therapies, and toxicologic studies. Interpretation of animal model data requires knowledge not only of the processes/diseases being studied but also awareness of spontaneous conditions and background lesions in the model that can influence or even confound the study results. Species, breed/stock, sex, age, anatomy, physiology, diseases (noninfectious and infectious), and neoplastic processes are model features that can impact the results as well as study interpretation. Here, we review these features in several common laboratory animal species, including ferret, dog (beagle), pig, sheep, and goats.


Subject(s)
Goats , Swine Diseases , Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Ferrets , Sheep , Swine
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3289-e3296, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854183

ABSTRACT

Wildlife animals may be susceptible to multiple infectious agents of public health or veterinary relevance, thereby potentially forming a reservoir that bears the constant risk of re-introduction into the human or livestock population. Here, we serologically investigated 493 wild ruminant samples collected in the 2021/2022 hunting season in Germany for the presence of antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four viruses pathogenic to domestic ruminants, namely, the orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV), the reovirus bluetongue virus (BTV) and ruminant pestiviruses like bovine viral diarrhoea virus or border disease virus. The animal species comprised fallow deer, red deer, roe deer, mouflon and wisent. For coronavirus serology, additional 307 fallow, roe and red deer samples collected between 2017 and 2020 at three military training areas were included. While antibodies against SBV could be detected in about 13.6% of the samples collected in 2021/2022, only one fallow deer of unknown age tested positive for anti-BTV antibodies, and all samples reacted negative for antibodies against ruminant pestiviruses. In an ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, 25 out of 493 (5.1%) samples collected in autumn and winter 2021/2022 scored positive. This sero-reactivity could not be confirmed by the highly specific virus neutralisation test, occurred also in 2017, 2018 and 2019, that is, prior to the human SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and was likewise observed against the RBD of the related SARS-CoV-1. Therefore, the SARS-CoV-2 sero-reactivity was most likely induced by another hitherto unknown deer virus belonging to the subgenus Sarbecovirus of betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Bison , Bluetongue virus , Bluetongue , COVID-19 , Deer , Pestivirus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Animals, Wild , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Ruminants , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sheep , Sheep, Domestic
11.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105332, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821130

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are important to generate protective immunity, with convalescent plasma one of the first therapies approved. An alternative source of polyclonal antibodies suitable for upscaling would be more amendable to regulatory approval and widespread use. In this study, sheep were immunised with SARS-CoV-2 whole spike protein or one of the subunit proteins: S1 and S2. Once substantial antibody titres were generated, plasma was collected and samples pooled for each antigen. Non-specific antibodies were removed via affinity-purification to yield candidate products for testing in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to whole spike, S1 and S2 proteins were evaluated for in vitro for neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-like virus (Australia/VIC01/2020) and a recent variant of concern, B.1.1.529 BA.1 (Omicron), antibody-binding, complement fixation and phagocytosis assays were also performed. All antibody preparations demonstrated an effect against SARS-CoV-2 disease in the hamster model of challenge, with those raised against the S2 subunit providing the most promise. A rapid, cost-effective therapy for COVID-19 was developed which provides a source of highly active immunoglobulin specific to SARS-CoV-2 with multi-functional activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775934

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial infectious diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis globally, and is recognized as a significant zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance amongst Campylobacter isolates is a significant global concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify and characterize Campylobacter species in humans, animals and water sources in livestock owning households of peri-urban Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and to characterize antimicrobial resistance. A total of 519 fecal samples from humans (n = 99), livestock (n = 179), poultry (n = 69), and water (n = 172) were collected. Samples were cultured for viable Campylobacter spp. and multiplex PCR utilized for the identification and confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 67/519 (13.0%) of the total tested samples, and the household level prevalence of Campylobacter was 42.4%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was: humans (10.1%), cattle (18.5%), poultry (13.0%), sheep (13.3%), goats (7.1%), and water (10.5%). Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus were the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. coli. The majority of isolates obtained from human samples had co-occurrence with isolates from cattle, poultry or water samples from the same household. The use of stored water, the practice of indoor and outdoor manure collecting, and animal species Campylobacter positivity were significantly associated with greater odds of human Campylobacter spp. positivity. All Campylobacter isolates from humans, poultry, sheep, goats and water, and 96.0% of isolates from cattle were resistant to at least one or more of the tested antimicrobials, with 95.5% of isolates resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A One Health approach is recommended to further investigate Campylobacter species infections, and other zoonotic infectious diseases, in the livestock owning populations in Ethiopia, where there is close interaction between humans, animals and the environment.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter , One Health , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Livestock , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sheep , Water
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760648

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, which causes diseases in humans and livestock. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that were reported to interact with diverse viruses and contribute to antiviral immune responses but may also act as attachment factors or entry receptors in diverse species. Human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are known to interact with RVFV and to facilitate viral host cell entry, but the roles of further host and vector CLRs are still unknown. In this study, we present a CLR-Fc fusion protein library to screen RVFV-CLR interaction in a cross-species approach and identified novel murine, ovine, and Aedes aegypti RVFV candidate receptors. Furthermore, cross-species CLR binding studies enabled observations of the differences and similarities in binding preferences of RVFV between mammalian CLR homologues, as well as more distant vector/host CLRs.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Rift Valley Fever , Rift Valley fever virus , Animals , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Mammals , Mice , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Sheep
14.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(2): 189-200, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714524

ABSTRACT

Extreme weather events (EWEs) affected health in every world region during 2021, placing the planet in "uncharted territory." Portraying the human impacts of EWEs is part of a health frame that suggests public knowledge of these risks will spur support for needed policy change. The health frame has gained traction since the Paris COP21 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) and arguably helped to achieve modest progress at the Glasgow COP26. However, reporting rarely covers the full picture of health impacts from EWEs, instead focusing on cost of damages, mortality, and displacement. This review summarizes data for 30 major EWEs of 2021 and, based on the epidemiological literature, discusses morbidity-related exposures for four hazards that marked the year: wildfire smoke; extreme cold and power outages; extreme, precipitation-related flooding; and drought. A very large likely burden of morbidity was found, with particularly widespread exposure to risk of respiratory outcomes (including interactions with COVID-19) and mental illnesses. There is need for a well-disseminated global annual report on EWE morbidity, including affected population estimates and evolving science. In this way, the public health frame may be harnessed to bolster evidence for the broader and promising frame of "urgency and agency" for climate change action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extreme Weather , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Female , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Weather
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 152, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701655

ABSTRACT

The complement system constitutes the innate defense against pathogens. Its dysregulation leads to diseases and is a critical determinant in many viral infections, e.g., COVID-19. Factor H (FH) is the main regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation and could be a therapy to restore homeostasis. However, recombinant FH is not available. Engineered FH versions may be alternative therapeutics. Here, we designed a synthetic protein, MFHR13, as a multitarget complement regulator. It combines the dimerization and C5-regulatory domains of human FH-related protein 1 (FHR1) with the C3-regulatory and cell surface recognition domains of human FH, including SCR 13. In summary, the fusion protein MFHR13 comprises SCRs FHR11-2:FH1-4:FH13:FH19-20. It protects sheep erythrocytes from complement attack exhibiting 26 and 4-fold the regulatory activity of eculizumab and human FH, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MFHR13 and FHR1 bind to all proteins forming the membrane attack complex, which contributes to the mechanistic understanding of FHR1. We consider MFHR13 a promising candidate as therapeutic for complement-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement Factor H/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bryopsida/genetics , Bryopsida/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sheep
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 662-675, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665836

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a global pandemic that has had significant impacts on human health and economies worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 in humans. A wide range of animal species have also been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 by experimental and/or natural infections. Sheep are a commonly farmed domestic ruminant that have not been thoroughly investigated for their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies which consisted of infection of ruminant-derived cells and experimental challenge of sheep to investigate their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Our results showed that sheep-derived kidney cells support SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, the experimental challenge of sheep demonstrated limited infection with viral RNA shed in nasal and oral swabs at 1 and 3-days post challenge (DPC); viral RNA was also detected in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues at 4 and 8 DPC. Sero-reactivity was observed in some of the principal infected sheep but not the contact sentinels, indicating that transmission to co-mingled naïve sheep was not highly efficient; however, viral RNA was detected in respiratory tract tissues of sentinel animals at 21 DPC. Furthermore, we used a challenge inoculum consisting of a mixture of two SARS-CoV-2 isolates, representatives of the ancestral lineage A and the B.1.1.7-like alpha variant of concern, to study competition of the two virus strains. Our results indicate that sheep show low susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and that the alpha variant outcompeted the lineage A strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Sheep/virology , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30102, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622736

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic species of the Chlamydiaceae family should be considered as rare pathogenic agents of severe atypical pneumonia. A fatal case of a severe pneumonia due to Chlamydia psittaci was traced back to pet birds, and pneumonia in a pregnant woman was attributed to abortions in a sheep and goat flock, being the source of Chlamydia abortus. The two SARS­CoV­2-negative pneumonia cases presented here were investigated in an inter-disciplinary approach involving physicians and veterinarians. State-of-art molecular methods allowed the identification and genotyping of zoonotic Chlamydiae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydophila psittaci , Animals , Birds , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydophila psittaci/genetics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep
18.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 68(10): 592-596, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599008

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a ventilator deficit in the global health system for this scenario. For this reason, several national and international projects have been developed to get done prototypes of ventilators which could be easy and fast to manufacture. One of the requirements of the AEMPS for conducting clinical studies with new prototypes is through the validation of these new prototypes in an animal model. Therefore, it is important to achieve an animal model which allows us to easily reproduce different clinical scenarios. In this article, we describe the use of a sheep as a research model to assess a prototype ventilator. The animal was anesthetized for 10 h in which the prototype was tested in up to 6 different scenarios. This model is effective and easy to reproduce, making it an excellent choice for this kind of research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488706

ABSTRACT

The speed and accuracy of phenotype detection from medical images are some of the most important qualities needed for any informed and timely response such as early detection of cancer or detection of desirable phenotypes for animal breeding. To improve both these qualities, the world is leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning against this challenge. Most recently, deep learning has successfully been applied to the medical field to improve detection accuracies and speed for conditions including cancer and COVID-19. In this study, we applied deep neural networks, in the form of a generative adversarial network (GAN), to perform image-to-image processing steps needed for ovine phenotype analysis from CT scans of sheep. Key phenotypes such as gigot geometry and tissue distribution were determined using a computer vision (CV) pipeline. The results of the image processing using a trained GAN are strikingly similar (a similarity index of 98%) when used on unseen test images. The combined GAN-CV pipeline was able to process and determine the phenotypes at a speed of 0.11 s per medical image compared to approximately 30 min for manual processing. We hope this pipeline represents the first step towards automated phenotype extraction for ovine genetic breeding programmes.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Animals , Computers , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep
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